SIMPLE TEMPLATE CREATION

Document Sample
SIMPLE TEMPLATE CREATION Powered By Docstoc
					USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                                                                                   2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                                                                                          1/8


                                                                      EB STEM 2AC UPDATES
EB STEM 2AC Updates ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Congress Key ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Politics – Bipartisan ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Sci Dip Solvency ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Cyber War – China has Capabilities .......................................................................................................................................................... 6
Cyber War – Cyber Defense Solves .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
Cyber War – Impact Extension .................................................................................................................................................................. 8




                                        For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                       2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                              2/8


                                                      CONGRESS KEY

And, no matter how high the quota is – Congressional action in removing the caps is key to reverse inevitable offshoring
Hahm 2K [Jung S., JD from Cornell Law – MA in Physics, September 2000, Cornell Law Review AMERICAN
COMPETITIVENESS AND WORKFORCE IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1998: BALANCING ECONOMIC AND LABOR
INTERESTS UNDER THE NEW H-1B VISA PROGRAM, lexis]
Despite its proven usefulness, the current H-1B visa program under the ACWIA still unduly restricts American business from
optimally utilizing the program in pursuit of economic competitiveness. n137 For example, even the U.S. Commission on Immigration
Reform, which generally favors more restrictive immigration law, "recognizes that [the annual visa cap or numerical] limitations
might reduce the flexibility of businesses in adapting to economic changes." n138 The ACWIA's temporary increase of annual visa
quotas for a limited three-year period does not provide enough flexibility for American businesses in the face of the fast-changing
world economy; capping annual H-1B admissions at an arbitrary number does not accord with the unpredictable, fast-paced, and
fiercely competitive global high-tech labor markets of the twenty-first century. n139 As the continuing H-1B visa cap crisis
demonstrates, n140 visa caps arbitrarily determined by the legislature fail to accurately predict the needs of industry. No matter how
high Congress sets the visa cap, industry will continue to be uncertain about whether it will have a sufficient number of skilled
workers in the following year. n141 This uncertainty and confusion will inevitably result in high-tech firms moving overseas, closer to
the ready source of skilled human capital. n142




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                         2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                                3/8


                                                POLITICS – BIPARTISAN

Plan is bipart
Greenfield 07 Staff Writer for Technology Daily
(Heather, High-tech visa debate comes to Congress via 'blue cards', http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/1207/120307tdpm1.htm)
Broad immigration legislation stalled in the Senate earlier this year, but there is fairly widespread support on Capitol Hill among
Democrats and Republicans for a visa fix for highly skilled workers. Republicans in the high-tech caucus sent a letter to House
Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., advocating a list of competitiveness provisions they want to help pass this year. Green cards for
highly skilled workers and H-1Bs are on the list.
Hoffman said there is growing recognition that human capital is a major driver of the economy, and that idea is being cited by
presidential candidates like Democrat Barack Obama and Republican Mitt Romney. Even former Federal Reserve Board chief Alan
Greenspan mentioned the issue in the opening chapter of his recent biography.
With immigration a controversial issue on Capitol Hill, there are lawmakers who would like to separate H-1B visas and green cards
for highly skilled workers. The problem is that is only one of several short-term fixes like visas for agriculture workers that are being
discussed.




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                         2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                                4/8


                                                    SCI DIP SOLVENCY

The plans critical to scientific leadership?giving green cards to diplomas is a key incentive to attracting and retaining foreign
students for science cooperation
Pearson and Yang, 08 (Jon Pearson, director of the Bechtel International Center at Stanford University, testifying on behalf of my
professional association, NAFSA, the Association of International Educators. NAFSA is the world's largest professional association
dedicated to the promotion and advancement of international education and exchange, Dr. Yongjie Yang, a Ph.D. degree in genetics
and neuroscience, his lab is one of the best leading labs in the research of this disease in the world. Federal News Service, Capitol Hill
Hearing, June 12, 2008 Thursday, Of The Subcommittee On Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security And International
Law Of The House Committee On The Judiciary; Subject: The Need For Green Cards For Highly Skilled Workers) My remarks today
will focus on the broad challenges the United States now faces in attracting and retaining international students. Specific interest, of
course, is the current law capping the number of green cards issued annually, even to those who graduate from U.S. colleges and
universities with higher degrees. The United States is in a global competition for international students and scholars. That may seem
like an unremarkable statement, but often, U.S. law and policy do not always reflect an understanding of this reality. Though the U.S.
is renowned and still renowned for being home to the majority of the top colleges and universities in the world, the international
student market is being transformed in this century. There are many new players in the game acting much more purposefully and
strategically than ever before. Competitor countries have implemented strategies for capturing a greater share of this market. Their
governments are acting to create more streamlined visa and entry processes and more welcoming environments and are setting goals
for international student recruitment. Our neighbor Canada recently changed its employment policy to allow international graduates to
work for up to three years after graduation, and in fact Canada does recruit our international students on our own campuses, including
my own. They have visited Stanford three times in the last few years to talk to students about opportunities in Canada. At Stanford, we
have been recently dealing with the Homeland Security extension on practical training for STEM students. A broader context is that
France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Canada have all made similar changes to the possibilities for international students
remaining in those countries and working after graduation. New competitors will also enter the market for international students.
Primary among them is the European higher education area, which comprises the signatories to the Bologna Declaration. This goal is
to create a seamless higher education system in Europe by 2010, with credits entirely transferable among their higher education
institutions and often instruction in English. The European Union is also considering a blue card, similar to our green card, to be more
competitive for non-European talent. Other countries are recognizing the value of educating the next generation of leaders in attracting
the world's scientific, technological and intellectual elite. U.S. immigration law and policy has not yet effectively been adapted to this
era of globalization. My own institution has been witness to this as we also offer services to higher foreign-born faculty and
researchers. But even so, many of the best and the brightest around the world still wish to come here and study. We should welcome
them by creating a clearer path to the green card status for them that is not tied to these low caps on the green cards available annually.
In a global job market, employers look for the talent they need wherever they can find it, and students and highly talented workers
look for the places to study and work that offer them the most opportunity. This means that options for employment after graduation
are integral to attracting bright and talented international students. Employment prospects are often a part of that calculus in deciding
where to study, work and live. Not all students who arrive in the U.S. wish to remain. Some have commitments to their home country,
but others discover their potential in the environment of U.S. higher education and their career and life goals are changed. Google,
Hotmail, Yahoo and Sun are examples in Stanford's own backyard of former students who have remained in the United States. I don't
think it's a secret the U.S. immigration law often makes it difficult for international students to work after graduating, even from the
most prestigious U.S. higher education institutions. The annual H-1B cap lottery is reported internationally, highlighting that the entire
annual allotment is depleted in a day or two. In conclusion, what better way to capture the world's best and brightest who want to
become part of our nation and to make it easier for them to remain to contribute to American economic and scientific leadership after
they graduate from U.S. universities? It's with these comments that I am delighted to support H.R. bill 6039. Thank you very much.
REP. LOFGREN: Thank you very much, Mr. Pearson. Dr. Yang, we'd be delighted to hear from you. MR. YANG: Good afternoon,
Madame Chairwoman and Congressman King and members of committee. I want to first thank our Representative Congresswoman
Zoe Lofgren for giving this opportunity for me to testify here, and I'd like to share my personal experience on permanent residency
application with this panel. And along with other people's testimony, I'd like to draw attention to -- for the Americans' need to change
the laws regarding the highly skilled immigrants. My name's Yongjie Yang. I was born in China and came here in 2000, when I was
admitted to the neuroscience center genetics program in Iowa State University, and there I basically focused on the mechanisms for
environmental toxin-induced nerve cell degeneration, which is highly relevant to the Parkinson's disease research. I was awarded a
Ph.D. degree in genetics and neuroscience in 2005. That same year, my wife also was awarded the master degrees from also Iowa
State University. Currently I'm now a research scientist in the department of neurology at Johns Hopkins University, and my current
work also focuses on the pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Our lab is one of the best leading labs in the research of this disease
in the world. By better understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, we hope to develop effective neuroprotective
strategies to cure or delay the progression of this disease. We hope to find the cure here. On a personal note, I married my wife while
we were both at Iowa State University, and my wife also works at Johns Hopkins University as a specialist in Parkinson's disease
                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                           2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                                     5/8
research. We have a U.S. citizen daughter who is about four years old, and we recently just bought a house in Ellicott City, Maryland.
So we do plan to stay here long. I currently have H-1B status which will expire next year. Also, I have filed my immigrant visa
petition in May 2006 and got approved last year in February, but I haven't received my green card yet because of the severe backlog of
employment-based visa numbers. And I don't know now, because of the situation, how long I have to wait before I can become the
permanent resident and also become the U.S. citizen. I'd like to emphasize the three major obstacles that the immigration status poses
on my situation as well as other people's. The first one is because of the unavailability of the green card, I'm not eligible to apply for
many federal grants from National Institute of Sciences or from National Institute of Health or National Science Foundation and from
other federal agencies, although my research is very promising to identify the drug target to cure or delay the ALS. The second
obstacle is because of the situation, not me but some other people who share a similar background as me cannot work for the federal
agencies such as FDA, NIH or other federal agencies, although they possess specialized skill that is very much needed for these
agencies. The third obstacle obviously is the travel inconvenience. For example, next -- last year, I had an opportunity to go to London
for international conference which is very important in my field, but I couldn't go because if I go, I have to go back to China to reapply
for my H-1B stamp and then come back to Baltimore, which could take months. So opportunity like this got wasted, and for scientific
research it is vital to have discussions to meet with colleagues to talk about the latest research programs, and also that's also a problem
to establish the long-term collaboration with your international colleagues. So as I understand it, the whole point of the employment-
based immigration system is to keep the brightest, the best of the foreign minds people in this land, in this land of opportunities.
However, we cannot become the U.S. citizen before we got the green card, the permanent residence. Because of all these problems,
we cannot travel freely, we cannot apply for some federal grants, we cannot apply jobs for the federal agencies, even though we are
doing very cutting-edge researches and the important -- developing important technologies which might bring -- might create new job
opportunities for the U.S. The Legal Immigrant Association I represent was formed by scientists, engineers and other professionals in
the United States. Most of us received advanced degrees from United States academic institutions and most of us are also from China,
and we are doing the petitioning to let the government know and the Congress know what we need to let our voice be heard. So on
behalf of the LIA, I want to thank the Congress, the subcommittee for giving this opportunity, and I urge you to pass the legislation
that would benefit eventually America by recognizing that putting highly skilled, highly educated people like us directly on the path to
U.S. citizenship, and this will eventually benefit the best interests of the United States.




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                        2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                               6/8


                                 CYBER WAR – CHINA HAS CAPABILITIES

China has the capabilities to conduct a cyber war now – the only question is when
Dean Wilson 2010: US military worried about China's cyberwarfare capabilities. http://www.techeye.net/security/us-military-worried-
about-chinas-cyberwarfare-capabilities
The US military is becoming increasingly concerned about China's cyberwarfare capabilities, with the Department of Defense relasing
a report detailing its fears.
The report states that “China’s cyber attack capabilities are a mystery,” but the US is aware of a number of Chinese projects to build
space and cyber assets, including the launch of intelligence satellites and an electronic spy network.
“In 2009, numerous computer systems around the world, including those owned by the U.S. Government, continued to be the target of
intrusions that appear to have originated within the [People's Republic of China (PRC)],” the report said. “These intrusions focused on
exfiltrating information, some of which could be of strategic or military utility.
“The accesses and skills required for these intrusions are similar to those necessary to conduct computer network attacks. It remains
unclear if these intrusions were conducted by, or with the endorsement of, the PLA or other elements of the PRC government.
“However, developing capabilities for cyberwarfare is consistent with authoritative PLA military writings,” the report added,
revealing US fears of China's focus in this area. The People's Liberation Army has already stated that cyberwarfare will be a primary
focus of its renewed military programme over the next decade, stating that it wants to close the gap with the US, which is seen as the
dominant player in the virtual battleground.
The report also uncovered knowledge of a Chinese digital spying system that affected over a hundred countries: “In March 2009,
Canadian researchers uncovered an electronic spy network, apparently based mainly in China, which had reportedly infiltrated Indian
and other nations’ government offices around the world. More than 1,300 computers in 103 countries were identified.”
The report highlighted PLA investment in electronic countermeasures, defences against electronic attack, and computer network
operations (CNO). It revealed China's efforts to develop electronic and infrared decoys, angle reflectors, and false target generators, as
well computer network attacks, computer network exploitation, and computer network defence.
If that were not enough, the PLA is also apparently working on developing viruses to attack enemy computers and networks, even
devoting entire information warfare units for this single goal.
The report found that China lacked transparency on the goals of its military buildup and transformation, which is causing nearby
countries and global partners significant concern. It said that if it were more forthcoming about its plans it would reassure the world
and prevent misunderstanding and miscalculation.




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                       2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                              7/8


                                CYBER WAR – CYBER DEFENSE SOLVES

Current cyber defense is inadequate – improvements are key
Bill Gertz 2009 (geopolitics editor and a national security and investigative reporter for The Washington Times): China blocks U.S.
from cyber warfare. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/may/12/china-bolsters-for-cyber-arms-race-with-us/?page=1
Several computer security specialists recently sounded public alarm about the growing number of cyberattacks from China and Russia.
China, based on state-approved writings, thinks the United States is "already is carrying out offensive cyberespionage and exploitation
against China," Mr. Coleman said.
In response, China is taking steps to protect its own computer and information networks so that it can "go on the offensive," he said.
Mr. Coleman said one indication of the problem was identified by Solutionary, a computer security company that in March detected
128 "acts of cyberagression" per minute tied to Internet addresses in China.
"These acts should serve as a warning that clearly indicates just how far along China's cyberintelligence collection capabilities are,"
Mr. Coleman said.
A Pentagon spokesman, Air Force Lt. Col. Eric Butterbaugh, would not comment on Chinese cyberattacks directly but said
"cyberspace is a war-fighting domain, critical to military operations: We must protect it."
The Pentagon's Global Information Grid is hit with "millions of scans" - not intrusion attempts - every day, Lt. Butterbaugh said.
"The nature of the threat is large and diverse, and includes recreational hackers, self-styled cybervigilantes, various groups with
nationalistic or ideological agendas, transnational actors, and nation-states," he said. "We have seen attempts by a variety of state and
nonstate sponsored organizations to gain unauthorized access to, or otherwise degrade, DoD information systems."




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells
USF Debate 2010-2011                                                                                                        2AC Updates
Gonzo                                                                                                                               8/8


                                      CYBER WAR – IMPACT EXTENSION

Miscalculation goes nuclear
Coleman 8 (Kevin, Technology Management Consultant, “Department of Cyber Defense An organization who’s time has come!”
November, Technolytics, www.technolytics.com/Dept_of_Cyber_Defense.pdf)
Each and every day there are millions of cyber attacks from hackers around the world that are not part of a terrorist group or nation
state. These attacks are criminal and not acts of war. One major concern is that an attack from hackers that are not politically tied to a
nation or group could be easily mistaken for an act of cyber war. In that case, the nation where the hackers target resided would
retaliate to the attack against the nation where the attack or attacks originated. It is easy to see how this could happen and rise to an
exchange using conventional arm (back to the bombs and bullets). It is also conceivable that a conventional exchange could escalate to
the use of weapons of mass destruction!




                           For every action there is an equal and opposite government program – Bob Wells

				
DOCUMENT INFO