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									IS 32 January 2006
Information sheet

Stem cell research and animal
research in dementia

Introduction .................. 1                  Why are animals used in
Stem cell research ......... 2                     medical research?............ 10
What are stem cells? ......... 2                   Animals in dementia
Types of stem cell ............. 2                 research ......................... 11
Where do human stem cells                            Primates ..................... 11
for research come from? .... 3                       Transgenic mice ........... 11
   Sources of pluripotent                            Other uses of animals in
   cells............................. 3              dementia research ....... 12
   Sources of multipotent                          Regulation of animal
   cells............................. 4            research ......................... 12
Stem cells in dementia                             What are the issues?........ 13
research .......................... 4                Using animals to benefit
Regulation of stem cell                              humans ...................... 13
research .......................... 6                Using methods which do
What are the ethical issues?7                        not involve animals
   The rights of the embryo 7                        instead ....................... 14
   The severity of the illness7                      Accuracy of animal models
   Why not use adult rather                           ................................. 14
   than embryonic stem                               Kinds of animal ............ 15
   cells? ........................... 8            Further information ..... 15
   Why not use the                                 Stem cell research ........... 15
   embryonic stem cell lines                       Animal research .............. 16
   we already have and stop
   making more? ............... 9                  Introduction
   Creating cloned embryos                         Alzheimer's disease and
   especially for research                         other types of dementia are
   purposes ...................... 9               now a key focus for medical
Animal research ........... 10                     research worldwide.
                                                   Researchers are

                                          Page 1
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

investigating how dementia                job: for example, brain cells,
affects the normal                        blood cells, skin cells and
functioning of the brain and              muscle cells. Although they
looking for new ways to treat             all contain the full genetic
it.                                       code, different parts of it are
                                          switched on and off in
Often, dementia research                  different types of cell; so, for
involves the use of animals.              example, liver cells can’t do
There is now also growing                 the job of bone cells. Within
interest in the treatment                 the brain, there are many
potential of stem cells                   kinds of cell which do
derived from human                        specialised jobs.
embryos. Both these types
of research raise ethical                 Stem cells are cells which
questions and are                         have the potential to
controversial.                            produce different types of
                                          specialist cells when they
Some people feel very                     divide, including all the
strongly one way or the                   specialised types of brain
other about stem cell or                  cell.
animal research. Many more
feel they lack the information            Types of stem cell
to come to an informed                    Not all stem cells are the
opinion. This information                 same. Some stem cells can
sheet gives an explanation of             make any kind of cell in the
each type of research, as it              body. These are called
is used in dementia, and                  ‘pluripotent’ stem cells, and
looks at the issues.                      are found in early embryos.
                                          They are the starting point
Stem cell research                        for every kind of cell in the
                                          body. These embryonic
What are stem cells?                      stem cells can be kept for
Living creatures are made up              many years in a laboratory,
of many cells, which form                 because they can keep
the body and all its organs.              dividing, making more stem
Humans have about 300                     cells which are also
different types of cell, each             pluripotent. They are
specialised for a particular

                                 Page 2
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

potentially the most useful                Sources of pluripotent cells
type of stem cell.                         Researchers can get
                                           pluripotent cells in three
Other stem cells can make a                ways.
limited range of types of cell.             Spare embryos: Stem
These are called                             cells can be extracted from
‘multipotent’ stem cells.                    spare embryos donated by
Adults and children have                     couples having fertility
many different kinds of                      treatment. The cells are
multipotent cell in different                extracted about 5-7 days
parts of the body. They                      after fertilisation.
form new cells of different                  Extracting the cells
types as they are needed.                    destroys the embryo
For example, stem cells in                   (which, because it was not
bone marrow make red and                     needed for the fertility
white blood cells, and stem                  treatment, would have
cells in other parts of the                  been destroyed anyway).
body make new cells to                      Foetal material: Stem
replace damaged or dying                     cells can be taken from
cells. Unlike embryonic stem                 certain parts of a foetus
cells, however, they can                     after a pregnancy is
each only make a limited                     terminated between 5 and
number of types of                           9 weeks. These are the
specialised cell, and they will              ‘foetal germ cells’ – the
not keep multiplying                         parts which would have
themselves in the laboratory.                developed into ovaries or
Where do human stem                         Therapeutic cloning
cells for research come                      (also known as ‘cell
from?                                        nuclear replacement’, or
There are three main                         ‘nuclear transplantation’):
sources of human stem cells:                 In therapeutic cloning the
early embryos, aborted                       genetic material (nucleus)
foetuses and adult tissues.                  from a single cell from an
                                             individual is put into an
                                             unfertilised egg donated
                                             by someone else,
                                             replacing its own nucleus.
                                  Page 3
     Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

    The egg is made to divide                                             contain stem cells. Brain
    as if it had been fertilised                                          stem cells from aborted
    by a sperm. This creates                                              foetuses are being studied
    an early embryo which has                                             as a possible treatment for
    the genetic make-up of                                                Parkinson’s disease.
    the individual. Stem cells
    can then be extracted                                               However, sorting out the
    from the embryo, which is                                           stem cells from all the other
    destroyed in the process                                            kinds of cells in the tissue is
    and so could not develop                                            very difficult.
    into a person1. These
    stem cells can be used for                                          Stem cells in dementia
    research and in the future                                          research
    - in theory - for treatment.                                        When someone has
                                                                        dementia, brain cells are
                                                                        damaged and killed, but not
Sources of multipotent cells                                            replaced.
Researchers can get                                                     Some potential aims of stem
multipotent cells from                                                  cell research into dementia
several sources. These are                                              treatment could be:
some examples.
                                                                         to get the stem cells
 Umbilical cord blood,                                                   already naturally present
  taken after the birth of a                                              in the brain to replace the
  baby, is a good source of                                               cells destroyed by
  blood stem cells.                                                       dementia
 Bone marrow stem cells                                                 to put new stem cells into
  from adult donors are                                                   the brain and get them to
  already used for                                                        replace the cells destroyed
  transplants for patients                                                by dementia.
  with leukaemia.
 Other body tissues,                                                   Stem cells could also help
  including the brain,                                                  dementia research in other
                                                                        ways, for example:
1 A human embryo created in this way cannot be allowed
to develop further, as this would be ‘reproductive cloning’,             using therapeutic cloning
which is how Dolly the sheep was produced. Reproductive
cloning of humans is forbidden by law.
                                                                          to make a supply of
                                                                          embryonic stem cells with

                                                               Page 4
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

  the genetic makeup of                        persuaded to become
  diseases such as                             pluripotent, with full
  hereditary forms of                          potential to make every
  dementia, so as to study                     kind of cell
  the genetics and                            how to persuade stem
  biochemistry of the                          cells to make the kind of
  disease                                      new cells that are need
 using stem cells to                         how to persuade new stem
  produce large amounts of                     cells to go to the areas
  cells (for example, brain                    where they are needed –
  cells) which are hard to                     in most kinds of dementia,
  obtain in other ways, in                     the damage in the brain is
  order to test drugs.                         not limited to one area
                                              how to get the new cells to
However, there are many                        work with other brain cells
obstacles which researchers                   how to make sure that
would first have to                            stem cells don’t keep on
overcome. Simply                               making too many cells,
transplanting stem cells into                  causing cancer.
the brain is unlikely to be the
answer. Stem cell research                 There are also potential
is at a very early stage, and              dangers, such as accidentally
there is a lot of vital                    using stem cells which are
information that researchers               infected with a virus or
do not yet know. For                       prion2. If an infected stem
example, more basic                        cell was used to create more
research, most of it involving             stem cells, many patients
animals, is needed to                      could potentially be infected.
understand:                                A new European directive
                                           means that by April 2006,
 how to get a pure sample                 extra safeguards will be in
  of stem cells out of the                 place to try to prevent this
  mixture of cell types in an              possibility.
  organ such as a brain
 whether multipotent stem
  cells, which are limited to
  forming only a few types                 2
                                            Prions are proteins which can cause infectious
  of new cell, can be                      diseases such as Creutzfeld Jacob disease.

                                  Page 5
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

There are some early hopeful              Regulation of stem cell
results. In Parkinson’s                   research
disease, the damage is                    In the UK, stem cell research
mainly limited to one specific            is carefully regulated by
area of the brain, where cells            law.3 Any research involving
that produce a chemical                   stem cells must be licensed
called dopamine die. Some                 by the Human Fertilisation
patients have been treated                and Embryology Authority
with brain implants of foetal             (HFEA). For a study to be
brain cells which produce                 licensed, they must be
dopamine, with mixed                      satisfied that creation and/or
results. However, these are               use of embryos is necessary
not stem cells and do not                 and the work could not be
divide after they are                     carried out in another way.
transplanted. In studies on               The research must be
animals bred to have                      needed for one of a limited
Parkinson-type symptoms,                  list of specified purposes,
stem cells transplanted into              which includes:
the animal’s brain have
moved to different areas and               to increase knowledge
produced a range of cells,                  about serious disease
including ones which make                  to enable any such
dopamine. But there is                      knowledge to be applied in
much more work to be done                   developing treatment for
before this might be a                      serious disease.
treatment suitable for
humans.                                   It is against the law to use
                                          an embryo more than 14
In most forms of dementia                 days after conception. This
the damage in the brain is                limit was chosen because it
more widespread, so it is not             is when the embryo starts to
guaranteed that success with              show the primitive
this method for Parkinson’s               beginnings of a nervous
disease would lead to benefit
for people with dementia.                 3
                                           Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990:
                                          ga_19900037_en_1.htm , Human Reproductive
                                          Cloning Act 2001:

                                 Page 6
    Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

system. It is also illegal to                          as a person. They see using
place a human embryo in an                             an early embryo for research
animal or an animal embryo                             as no different to killing a
in a woman.                                            human being for research,
                                                       and do not feel that it can be
A new EU directive4 means                              justified, whatever the
that from April 2006, there                            potential benefit to others.
will be extra safeguards on                            Other people see early
all use of human tissues and                           embryos as simply a
cells, including stem cells, to                        collection of cells with the
ensure their quality and                               potential eventually to
safety. The new rules cover                            become a person, but which
selection of donors, testing                           can be treated just as we
the starting material for                              might treat any other human
producing quantities of stem                           tissues. In between is the
cells, tracking cells from                             view of the embryo as
donor to recipient, and                                human life to be respected,
reporting of adverse events,                           but not a person with a
for example if someone                                 person’s rights. Some
developed an illness after                             people see using spare
receiving a stem cell                                  embryos in research on
transplant. The source of all                          serious diseases as
material will have to be                               preferable to simply
traceable.                                             destroying them.

What are the ethical                                   The law in the UK gives the
issues?                                                early embryo special status
                                                       but allows its use in certain
The rights of the embryo                               circumstances and with
Some ‘pro-life’ and religious                          regulation and monitoring.
groups see the embryo as
being fully human from the                             The severity of the illness
moment of conception, and                              Balanced against the rights
thus having the same rights                            that the embryo may be
                                                       seen as having is the great
  European Directive on Tissues and Cells:             potential benefit of stem cell                              research for a very large
lex/lex/LexUriServ/            number of people. There is

                                              Page 7
    Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

at present no cure for
dementia, along with many                                  The House of Lords report
other common degenerative                                  concluded that research
diseases. 63,000 people in                                 should continue into both
Scotland have dementia, and                                adult and embryonic stem
current treatments are                                     cells, for maximum medical
limited. A House of Lords                                  benefit. The report said that
report into the issue said,                                adult stem cells could
‘Stem cell treatments, unlike                              potentially be taken from the
most conventional drugs                                    person being treated,
treatments, have the                                       avoiding immune rejection if
potential to become a life-                                transplanted. However, this
long cure.’5                                               is unlikely to be possible for
                                                           some conditions, including
There are many other                                       dementia, where it would
potential research                                         require extracting stem cells
approaches to dementia.                                    from the brain. Also, it is
Only with hindsight will we                                difficult to isolate stem cells
know which approaches lead                                 from other types of cell, and
to successful treatments.                                  it is not clear how they
                                                           produce other types of cell,
Why not use adult rather                                   how good they are at doing
than embryonic stem cells?                                 this when transplanted, how
Most of the ethical issues                                 long they might continue to
relate to stem cell research                               divide in order to replace
using embryonic or foetal                                  diseased cells, and how
stem cells. Stem cell                                      effectively and safely they
research using adult stem                                  can be made to produce
cells is fairly uncontroversial.                           particular cell types.
For this reason, some people
believe that research should                               The report said that more
focus only on adult stem                                   research is needed on
cells.                                                     embryonic stem cells,
5                                                          because they are pluripotent
  House of Lords, 2002. Report from the Select
Committee Stem Cell Research. London: The                  and easier to isolate and
Stationery Office Books. www.parliament.the-               keep, in order to understand
stationery-                                                how stem cells produce other
1.htm                                                      types of cells and how this

                                                  Page 8
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

can be controlled. Although              way they are grown in the
much of this work would be               laboratory. This means it
on animal embryonic stem                 may not be possible to use
cells, it will also be                   them for future treatments.
necessary to compare what
happens in human                         Creating cloned embryos
embryonic stem cells. The                especially for research
report said that at some                 purposes
point in the future, if it               Most embryos used for stem
becomes possible to make                 cell research are donated by
adult stem cells pluripotent,            couples having fertility
embryonic stem cells might               treatment because they are
no longer be needed, but                 not needed for the
that is not yet the case.                treatment. The main use for
                                         cloned embryos is likely to
Why not use the embryonic                be for research, for example
stem cell lines we already               to create a supply of cells
have and stop making more?               with a particular disease. In
Because embryonic stem                   future they could,
cells keep dividing under                theoretically, be used for a
laboratory conditions, they              transplant back into an
can be kept as ‘stem cell                individual without risk of
lines’, a kind of library of             rejection, because they are a
different kinds of stem cells            genetic match. However,
which researchers can use.               such treatments may be
Some people believe that                 impractical on a large scale,
this means that existing                 because so many donated
stem cell lines could be used            eggs would be needed.
for research, without the
need for collecting more                 Some people oppose using
from embryos. In the US,                 therapeutic cloning to create
state funding for stem cell              embryos especially for
research is restricted to                research. In 2000, the
existing stem cell lines.                European Group on Ethics in
However, recent research                 Science and Technology,
has shown that these have                which advises the European
become contaminated or                   Commission, said that it was
unhealthy because of the                 premature to allow cloning of

                                Page 9
    Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

embryos, as research could                             volunteers, for example to
be done using spare IVF                                test treatments.
embryos. The House of
Lords Select Committee                                 Most researchers say that
recommended that embryos                               there is some research which
should not be created                                  cannot be carried out
specifically for research                              without using animals.
purposes unless there is a                             Using animals helps
demonstrable and                                       researchers understand how
exceptional need which                                 the whole living body works,
cannot be met by the use of                            how it goes wrong and how
surplus embryos. A Church                              it is affected by treatments
of Scotland report6 points                             such as drugs or vaccines.
out that although cloning a                            Animals are used for work
person is illegal in the UK,                           which could not be carried
developing technology for                              out in the test tube and
cloning embryos could make                             could not be done on
it easier to do so elsewhere.                          humans. About 10% of
                                                       medical research involves
Animal research                                        animals.

Why are animals used in                                In the past, animals were
medical research?                                      used in research more widely
There are many medical                                 and with less regulation.
research techniques which                              Many of the treatments and
do not use animals. Some                               techniques we now take for
laboratory research uses                               granted were developed
cells and tissues taken from                           using animals. However,
humans, animals, plants or                             there is now greater concern
other organisms. Other                                 about the ethics of using
research looks at humans,                              them and about the welfare
either individually or in                              of the animals involved. As
groups, to understand how                              a consequence, animal
diseases affect them. Some                             research is now carefully
research uses human                                    regulated in the UK and
                                                       elsewhere, and worldwide
                                                       there is much research going
 Society, Religion and Technology Project,
2004. Ethical problems with cloned embryo
research. Edinburgh: Church of Scotland                on into developing more

                                             Page 10
    Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

techniques to minimise the                                 similar symptoms, such as
use of animals.                                            memory loss and
                                                           behavioural changes, for
Animals in dementia                                        example in order to test
research                                                   potential new drug
Only a very small percentage                               Monkeys have also been
of animal research uses                                    used to gain understanding
monkeys. Using other                                       which could not be gained
primates such as                                           from brain scans or from
chimpanzees, orang-utans                                   human brains after death.
and gorillas is not permitted.                             By implanting tiny
Although other animals are                                 electrodes, under
also used to help researchers                              anaesthetic, researchers can
understand how the brain is                                find out about how the brain
organised, monkeys are used                                works and how its systems
because of the relative                                    interconnect at a microscopic
similarity of monkey and                                   level. The roles of different
human brains. Other                                        parts of the brain can be
animals do not have the                                    studied by damaging very
same level of development                                  specific brain areas. The
of brain functions such as                                 monkeys are tested using
memory and cognition.                                      puzzles and computer
Clearly monkey and human                                   screens, usually with food as
brains are different in many                               a reward. This type of
ways, but there are also                                   information may help in
many things they have in                                   understanding what goes
common.                                                    wrong in brain diseases such
                                                           as dementia.
Although monkeys do not
appear to get Alzheimer's                                  Transgenic mice
disease naturally, it is                                    studying how the genes
possible to give them some                                   work in hereditary early
                                                             onset Alzheimer's disease
 For a more comprehensive description of the                studying the causes and
uses of animals in dementia research, see                    mechanisms of the, which is the source for               development of plaques
much of the information given in this section.

                                                 Page 11
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

  and tangles in the brain,               human brain, but they work
  and how this might be                   in a similar way.
  slowed down or blocked
 investigation of techniques             Animals are used to test
  for earlier diagnosis                   potential new drugs before
 developing potential                    they are tried out on
  vaccines for Alzheimer’s                humans. This is to test basic
  disease.                                safety; for example to make
                                          sure that the drug does not
Other uses of animals in                  cause cancer or damage
dementia research                         foetuses, and to understand
Many advances in research                 how the body deals with it.
have only been possible
because of animal research.               Much stem cell research uses
For example, some current                 animals, in order to develop
drug treatments for                       a fuller understanding of how
Alzheimer's disease aim to                stem cells work and how to
increase the brain chemical               manipulate them in order to
acetylcholine. Its                        develop potential
importance was discovered                 treatments.
using human brain tissue,
but this was only possible                Regulation of animal
because of earlier animal                 research
work which showed how                     The use of animals in
acetylcholine was involved                research is strictly controlled
with memory.                              in the UK8. The law protects
                                          all living vertebrates
Smaller animals, such as                  (animals with a backbone)
nematode worms and fruit                  and one species of octopus;
flies, are used to understand             but not invertebrates such as
the development and                       fruit flies or worms.
working of the nervous
system, because their                     The law covers any scientific
nervous systems are                       procedure which might cause
simpler. For example,                     an animal pain, suffering,
nematodes have only about
300 nerve cells, compared                 8
                                           Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986:
with many billions in the                 www.archive.official-

                                Page 12
    Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

distress or lasting harm. A
procedure is only permitted                                Replacement of animals
when its likely benefits outweigh any pain or               by non-animal methods
distress to the animals, and                                wherever possible
where there are no                                         Refinement of all
alternatives. Three separate                                procedures to minimise
levels of licence must be in                                adverse effects, stress or
place before any animal                                     suffering to the animals
research can be carried out:                               Reduction of numbers to
                                                            the minimum necessary to
 the laboratory or research                                obtain valid results where
  organisation must be                                      replacement is not
  licensed to ensure that it is                             possible.
  properly run, with suitable
  animal care facilities,                                 In 2004, the Government set
  staffing and staff training                             up the National Centre for
 the researcher must be                                  the Replacement,
  licensed for the techniques                             Refinement and Reduction of
  and species of animal they                              Animals in Research
  can work with and what                                  (NC3Rs). Replacement is
  establishment they can                                  the Centre’s ultimate aim,
  work in                                                 ‘but for so long as the use of
 the research project is                                 animals continues to be
  licensed based on why the                               necessary, it is essential that
  research is important, why                              every effort is made to
  it needs to use animals                                 minimise their use and
  and could not be done                                   improve welfare’.9
  another way, what
  experiments will be done                                What are the issues?
  and what has been done
  to minimise the number of                               Using animals to benefit
  animals used.                                           humans
                                                          Opponents of animal
There are three principles                                research argue that it is
which are accepted widely by                              unethical to cause animals
researchers and which are
implicit in the law. These
are known as the ‘3Rs’:                                   9

                                                Page 13
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

suffering for the benefit of              to use animals as well,
humans.                                   following the 3Rs principles.
                                          They argue that the brain is
Arguments in support of                   too complicated to be able to
animal research include:                  use a computer model or cell
 finding treatments for                  cultures instead. They also
  serious human disease is                say that, for safety reasons,
  important enough to                     drugs need to be tested on
  justify using animals                   animals before they are
  (although people may feel               tested on human volunteers,
  differently about what                  although in the future
  diseases count as serious,              improved techniques may
  and some also support                   mean that this changes.
  animal research for other               However, currently, limiting
  purposes, such as                       medical research to what can
  cosmetics testing, banned               be achieved without using
  in the UK since 1998)                   animals would mean some
 animals can benefit too –               lines of research would not
  many drugs used by vets                 be possible.
  were developed for human
  medicine                                Accuracy of animal models
 we use animals for our                  Opponents of animal
  benefit in other ways, such             research point out that
  as eating meat.                         Alzheimer's disease and
                                          other forms of dementia are
Using methods which do not                human conditions. They say
involve animals instead                   that animal models of these
Opponents of animal                       diseases are artificial and will
research say that other                   not help to understand the
methods of research should                disease processes. They
be used instead, such as                  also say that testing drugs in
experiments using cell                    animals does not make
cultures and computer                     sense, because animals and
modelling.                                humans can react very
                                          differently and what is safe
Researchers say that they                 or effective in an animal may
use these methods whenever                not be so in a human. One
possible, but they still need             example of this is an

                                Page 14
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

experimental vaccine which                  Their use is not regulated in
successfully cleared                        UK law, and the
Alzheimer's-type plaques in                 organisations which oppose
the brains of transgenic                    animal research rarely refer
mice, but had to be                         to them.
withdrawn after trials with
patients showed that some                   The Home Office monitors
suffered brain inflammation.                animals used in research
                                            (but not smaller animals
Researchers who support                     such as insects and worms).
animal research say that                    In 2003, 85% of procedures
humans and animals have a                   used rodents such as rats or
great deal in common – for                  mice, and dogs, cats, horses
example, mice share more                    and monkeys put together
than 90% of our genes – and                 came to less than 1%.10
that most of their basic body
structures and processes are                Further information
the same. Where there are
differences, it can help to                 Stem cell research
develop knowledge of how
genes and disease work.                     Human Fertilisation &
They say that without animal                Embryology Authority -
research, it would not be                   licenses and monitors human
possible to develop many                    embryo research:
potential treatments to the       
point where it is safe to start
testing them on humans.                     Public Health Genetics
                                            Unit – aims to provide a link
Kinds of animal                             between academic research,
Many of the strongest                       clinical practice and the
feelings about animal                       development of policy within
research are about the use                  the NHS for genetics.
of cats, dogs and monkeys.                  Explanation of history of
Some people feel less                       policy and legislation in the
strongly about using animals                UK and Europe relating to
such as mice. Invertebrates
such as fruit flies and worms               10
cause even less concern.                      www.official-

                                  Page 15
  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

stem cell research in the UK:             Scottish Stem Cell                Network
ase/elsi/stem_cells.html                  Aims to bring together
                                          scientists and clinicians in
The Society, Religion and                 order to improve the rate at
Technology Project,                       which laboratory research
Church of Scotland – aims                 translates into therapeutic
to stimulate balanced debate              benefits for patients:
in the public at large and      
amongst those working                     BtoB.aspx
within technology. Cloning &
stem cells page:                          Animal research
ml                                        Animal Aid – aims to work,
                                          by all peaceful means, for an
SPUC Scotland – Pressure                  end to animal cruelty.
group opposing abortion,                  Article arguing against
believe that no form of                   animal research in
human cloning is compatible               neurological diseases such as
with human dignity, and no                Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s
form of human cloning is                  diseases:
ethical. Questions and          
answers on human cloning                  aign/vivi/neurology.htm
page:               Association of Medical
/education/students/embryo                Research Charities –
exp/index.html                            represents UK charities that
                                          fund medical and health
Stem Cell Research                        research. Information on the
Foundation (US) –                         benefits and regulation of
explanation of the science                animal research:
behind the research:            
www.stemcellresearchfounda                id=77
mCells                                    National Anti Vivisection
                                          Society – campaigning
                                          against animal experiments
                                          since 1875. Incorporates

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  Stem cell research and animal research in dementia

Lord Dowding Fund for                  in Research:
Humane Research to support   
and fund better methods of
scientific and medical                 RDS - UK organisation
research which replace the             representing medical
use of animals:                        researchers in the public             debate about the use of
bout/                                  animals in medical research
                                       and testing: www.rds-
National Centre for the      
Replacement, Refinement
and Reduction of Animals

                                   Alzheimer Scotland
                                   22 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh EH3 7RN
                                   Telephone: 0131 243 1453
                                   Fax: 0131 243 1450
                                   Alzheimer Scotland - Action on Dementia is a company limited by guarantee
                                   and is recognised as a charity by the Inland Revenue.
                                   Registered in Scotland No. 149069. Scottish Charity No. SC022315.

                                       Find us on the internet at

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