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					                    Siegert et al. Supplementary Online Material

              Appendix 1 - References for 20 studies using SRT task1

       Brown, R. G., Jahanshahi, M., Limousin-Dowsey, P., Thomas, D., Quinn,

N. P., & Rothwell, J. C. (2003). Pallidotomy and incidental sequence learning in

Parkinson's disease. NeuroReport, 14(1), 21-24.*

       Dominey, P. F., Ventre-Dominey, J., Broussolle, E. & Jeannerod, M.

(1996). Analogical transfer is effective in a serial reaction time task in Parkinson'e

disease: Evidence for a dissociable form of sequence learning.

Neuropsychologia, 35, (1), 1-9. **

       Doyon, J., Gaudreau, D., Laforce Jr., R., Castonguay, M., Bédard, P. J.,

Bédard, F., & Bouchard, J.-P. (1997). Role of the striatum, cerebellum, and

frontal lobes in the learning of a visuomotor sequence. Brain and Cognition, 34,


       Doyon, J., Laforce Jr., R., Bouchard, G., Gaudreau, D., Roy, J., Poirier,

M., Bédard, P. J., Bédard, F., & Bouchard, J.-P. (1998). Role of the striatum,

cerebellum, and frontal lobes in the automatization of a repeated visuomotor

sequence of movements. Neuropsychologia, 36, (7), 625-641.**

       Ferraro, F. R., Balota, D. A., & Connor, L. T. (1993). Implicit memory and

formation of new associations in nondemented Parkinson's disease individuals

and individuals with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: A serial reaction time

(SRT) investigation. Brain and Cognition, 21, 163-180.*
        Ghilardi, M.-F., Eidelberg, D., Silvestri, G., & Ghez, C. (2003). The

differential effect of PD and normal aging on early explicit sequence learning.

Neurology, 60, 1313-1319.**

        Helmuth, L. L., Mayr, U., & Daum, I. (2000). Sequence learning in

Parkinson's disease: a comparison of spatial-attention and number-response

sequences. Neuropsychologia, 38, 1443-1451.**

        Jackson, G. M., Jackson, S. R., Harrison, J., Henderson, L., & Kennard,

C. (1995). Serial reaction time learning and Parkinson's disease: Evidence for a

procedural learning deficit. Neuropsychologia, 33, 577-593.**

        Kelly, S. W., Janhanshahi, M., & Dirnberger, G. (2004). Learning of

ambiguous versus hybrid sequences by patients with Parkinson's disease.

Neuropsychologia, 42, 1350-1357.*

        Laforce Jr., R. & Doyon, J. (2001). Distinct contribution of the striatum and

cerebellum to motor learning. Brain and Cognition, 45, 189-211.**

        Pascual-Leone, A., Grafman, J., Clark, K., Stewart, M., Massaquoi, S.,

Lou, J.-S., & Hallett, M. (1993). Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease and

cerebellar degeneration. Annals of Neurology, 34(4), 594-602.*

        Pascual-Leone, A., Valls-Sole, J., Brasil-Neto, J. P., Cammarota, A.,

Grafman, J., & Hallett, M. (1994). Akinesia in Parkinson's disease. II. Effects of

subthreshold repetitive transcranial motor cortex stimulation. Neurology, 44, 892-

       Shin, J. C., & Ivry, R. B. (2003). Spatial and temporal sequence learning in

patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar lesions. Journal of Cognitive

Neuroscience, 15(8), 1232-1243.*

       Smith, J. G., & McDowall, J. (2004). impaired higher order implicit

sequence learning on the verbal version of the Serial Reaction Time task in

patients with Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychology, 18(4), 679-691.*

       Smith, J., Siegert, R. J., & McDowall, J. (2001). Preserved implict learning

on both the serial reaction time task and artificial grammar in patients with

parkinson's disease. Brain and Cognition, 45, 378-391.*

       Sommer, M., Grafman, J., Clark, K., & Hallett, M. (1999). Learning in

Parkinson's disease: eyeblink conditioning, declarative learning, and procedural

learning. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 67, 27-34.*

       Stefanova, E. D., Kostic, V. S., Ziropadja, L., Markovic, M., & Ocic, G. C.

(2000). Visuomotor skill learning on Serial Reaction Time task in patients with

early Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 15(6), 1095-1103.*

       Werheid, K., Ziessler, M., Nattkemper, D., & von Cramen, D. Y. (2003).

Sequence learning in Parkinson's disease: The effect of spatial-stimulus

response compatibility. Brain and Cognition, 52, 239-249.*

       Werheid, K., Zysset, S., Muller, A., Reuter, M., & von Cramen, D. Y.

(2003). Rule learning in a serial reaction time task: An fMRI study on patients

with early Parkinson's disease. Cognitive Brain Research, 16, 273-284.*
       Westwater, H., McDowall, J., Siegert, R. J., Mossman, S., & Abernethy, D.
(1998). Implicit learning in Parkinson's disease: Evidence from a verbal version
of the serial reaction time task. Journal of Clinical and Experimental
Neuropsychology, 20(1), 1-6.*
NOTE: A single asterisk denotes a study that used the SRT task and included

both sequence blocks and a randomised block. Two asterisks denote a study

that either used the SRT task but did not include a block of random sequence

trials or used a variation of the SRT task that was so different from the standard

Nissen and Bullemer SRT task that it precluded inclusion in the meta-anlysis.
Appendix 2 - Process of inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis.

 Potentially relevant studies
  meeting search criteria to
     May 2005 (n=134)

                                           Excluded if not reporting
                                         original research on implicit
                                       learning in PD, not published in
                                        a peer-reviewed journal, not in
                                                English (n=98)

   Studies retrieved for a
  more detailed evaluation

                                         Excluded if SRT task not used
                                        (n=16), or if random sequence
                                         block not included etc. (n=7);

  Studies to be included in
   the systematic review

                                       Excluded if necessary data for
                                        meta-analysis not included

 Studies to be included in

 the meta-analysis (n=6)
Appendix 3 – Results of the Funnel plot for PD implicit learning


 Inverse Variance




                    -0.50 -0.25   0.00   0.25   0.50   0.75   1.00   1.25   1.50   1.75   2.00
                                           Standardised Mean Difference

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