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1 Design and Implementation of a Traffic Data Engine and Visualization Interface for a Mini- Traffic Database Management System David Keppel, Michael Wyland and around roadways. These sensors provide data that allows Abstract—Traffic management in our country’s major us to study the behavior of traffic in certain locations and/or metropolitan areas has become a significant concern for federal, over certain periods of time. The challenge for a traffic state, and local governments, as well as frustrated commuters. information system is to be able to store such traffic sensor New information systems, coupled with detailed data about traffic in a given area have allowed government and the general data in a flexible, efficient manner. With many highways to population to better understand and characterize issues. Such analyze, and many traffic sensors to monitor, performance of a information systems must make efficient use of traffic traffic information system is always important. Since our measurement data for storage, processing, and visualization to its highways are continually evolving to meet the demand of a users. The situation calls for a Traffic Database Management growing population, a traffic information system must also be System that is composed of a flexible, efficient Traffic Data flexible to deal with more highways and more traffic sensors. Engine and a powerful, yet user-friendly Visualization Interface. This paper describes the design and implementation of just such a In addition, as new methods of measuring traffic performance system. are developed in the future, a traffic information system must be flexible enough to handle new types of sensors, while Index Terms— data processing, database systems, traffic seamlessly folding the data together for the end-users who only information systems, visualization seek to solve the problems at hand. This document describes the design and implementation of such a traffic information system, specifically a Traffic I. INTRODUCTION Database Management System. Two key components of the E VERY day millions of Americans take to the highways to go about their daily lives. Society, paired with an ever- evolving economy, has driven tremendous growth in travel Traffic Database Management System, a Traffic Data Engine (TDE) and a Visualization Interface (VI) will be discussed. The TDE component is responsible for receiving, storing, over the path several decades. This freedom to travel as we and processing data from traffic sensors. The specific design desire does not come without a price, however, particularly in of a TDE in this document will support data formats acquired booming growth regions around major metropolitan cities. It from the Virginia Department of Transportation’s Smart is in these locations that the phrase “rush hour” is defined. Traffic Center and the Virginia Transportation Research Federal, state, and local governments are continually Council, in partnership with Virginia Tech. The TDE is challenged to meet the growing demand for larger, more flexible, however, to support data input from other sources. complex roadways, while the common traveler looks to avoid The TDE must support access to the data from external time lost in a snarling traffic jam. applications, such as the VI component, in a variety of ways to In recent years technological innovations have attempted to include temporal and spatial aggregation. both characterize and solve the traffic problems of our The VI component is responsible for retrieving raw or country’s cities. Only a powerful information system could processed traffic data from the TDE component for display to allow us to not only better understand the phenomena of traffic end users. performance, but to also highlight areas for improvement. It is Section II of this document discusses some related work in clear that a traffic information system solution is in order. the field of traffic information systems. Section III of this Fortunately, many metropolitan area planning organizations document discusses the detailed design and implementation of have had the forethought to place traffic measuring sensors in a Traffic Database Management System, including the TDE and VI components. This work is completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for course CS 5614, Database Management Systems, at Virginia Tech, Fall 2007, under the guidance of Professor Chang-Tien Lu. D. M. Keppel is a student at Virginia Tech, National Capital Region, Falls II. RELATED WORK Church, VA 22043 USA; Phone: 703-585-0571; e-mail: email@example.com The Spatial Data Management Lab M. S. Wyland is a student at Virginia Tech, National Capital Region, Falls Church, VA 22043 USA; Phone: 703-327-3009; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. (http://spatial.nvc.cs.vt.edu/) in Virginia Tech’s National 2 Capital Region Computer Science department has powerful and flexible, but haven’t used it ever before and demonstrated innovative concepts for spatial data storage, haven’t attempted to set it up yet) processing, and visualization. Traffic visualization is a core C. Data Sets competency of the lab, as evidenced by several papers. The following papers represent related work from the lab, some of The data set to be used with this project has been provided which has contributed to the development of the Mini-Traffic to us. It is a semi-raw dataset of real traffic data taken in one Database Management System documented in this work: week in August 2007 from I-66 EB/WB. Some of the data S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, P. Zhang, "CubeView: A System has been massaged to cover certain events to look for in the for Traffic Data Visualization," Proceedings of the IEEE final project. 5th International Conference on Intelligent D. Entity Relationships and Schema Design Transportation Systems, 2002. (PostScript , PDF) Draw the ER/EER diagram(s) and schema design C.T. Lu, A. P. Boedihardjo, J. Zheng, "AITVS: (possibility to use Oracle design tools to get the graphics?) If Advanced Interactive Traffic Visualization System," we have time we ought to show a more flexible/extendable Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference design that abstracts a “loop detector” into just a specific type on Data Engineering (ICDE '06), pp. 167, Atlanta, GA, of “sensor” such that other sensors can be easily integrated April 3-8, 2006. (radar, “visual” sensors like cameras, etc.) Y. Jin, J. Dai, C.T. Lu, "Spatial-Temporal Data Mining in Traffic Incident Detection," the 2006 SIAM Conference on Data Mining, Workshop on Spatial Data Mining, Bethesda, Maryland, April 20-22, 2006. (PDP- id direction id Mile_marker P) C.T. Lu, A. P. Boedihardjo, "Advanced Traffic Station Highway Visualization and Mining System," the 12th Annual ITSVA (Intelligent Transportation Society of Virginia) 1 1 Conference & Exhibition, Arlington, VA, June 1-2, 2006. (PDF) detectors detectors K. Jefferson, C.T. Lu, X. Li, T.C. Hsu, T.F. Chu, "The N N Case for Using Spatiotemporal Traffic Data for Transportation Network Management," Managing Travel key Loop_detector for Planned Special Events: Tools for Practitioners, 1 Newport Beach, CA, Nov. 29-Dec. 1, 2006. Lat/lon S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, S. Chawla, P. Zhang, "Data Mining measures and Visualization of Twin-Cities Traffic Data," Dept. of Computer Science Technical Report TR 00-015, U. of N Minnesota. ( PostScript , PDF ) S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, Rulin Liu, "High Performance Date/tim e Metrics d Spatial Visualization of Traffic Data," Minnesota U U U U Department of Transportation, Technical Report. volume speed occupancy s5 (PostScript, PDF) d1 d5 s1 III. PROPOSED APPROACH A. System Architecture Figure 1 - ER Diagram Draw up and discuss the system architecture with hardware (servers, network, etc.) view and software (database, application, web, etc.) view. Would be nice to use Visio for this to make it pretty. E. Indexing Structures TBD B. Languages and Software Tools Discuss our choice of applications (Oracle 10g Express Edition due to familiarity and availability under the XE IV. CONCLUSION license, Microsoft IIS 5 due to easy availability and compatibility, prefer to use ASP.NET for actually writing the . interface due to experience, actually prefer to use Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET) but having trouble getting a APPENDIX working ODBC configuration with that so far. Prefer to use . Dundas Chart for .NET since it’s easily compatible, pretty 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT REFERENCES  S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, P. Zhang, "CubeView: A System for Traffic Data Visualization," Proceedings of the IEEE 5th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2002  C.T. Lu, A. P. Boedihardjo, J. Zheng, "AITVS: Advanced Interactive Traffic Visualization System," Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE '06), pp. 167, Atlanta, GA, April 3-8, 2006.  Y. Jin, J. Dai, C.T. Lu, "Spatial-Temporal Data Mining in Traffic Incident Detection," the 2006 SIAM Conference on Data Mining, Workshop on Spatial Data Mining, Bethesda, Maryland, April 20-22, 2006.  C.T. Lu, A. P. Boedihardjo, "Advanced Traffic Visualization and Mining System," the 12th Annual ITSVA (Intelligent Transportation Society of Virginia) Conference & Exhibition, Arlington, VA, June 1-2, 2006.  K. Jefferson, C.T. Lu, X. Li, T.C. Hsu, T.F. Chu, "The Case for Using Spatiotemporal Traffic Data for Transportation Network Management," Managing Travel for Planned Special Events: Tools for Practitioners, Newport Beach, CA, Nov. 29-Dec. 1, 2006.  S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, S. Chawla, P. Zhang, "Data Mining and Visualization of Twin-Cities Traffic Data," Dept. of Computer Science Technical Report TR 00-015, U. of Minnesota.  S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, Rulin Liu, "High Performance Spatial Visualization of Traffic Data," Minnesota Department of Transportation, Technical Report.
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