Learning for Improvement Leverage About 3% of the opportunities for improvement come from attention to unique processes. This means that approximately 97% of the opportunities for improvement come from changes related to overall business strategy and companywide systems. Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming, The New Economics, p. 38 Seeing Interrelationships Improvement Learning Change Seeing Interrelationships Improvement Learning Change Individual Reflection Think about a time when you decided to learn something new. • How did you approach the topic? • How did you feel about the task of learning? • Who did you share your interests with and why did you choose these individuals? Learning for Improvement What is the connection between learning and improvement? What does it mean to say you have "learned" something? What is the connection between teaching and learning? Knowledge and Understanding Knowledge and understanding is one of the few commodities in the world that grows through use. It is not a competition; the more you know the more I can know. If I want to know more I will have to see to it that you know more. Nancy Dixon The Organizational Learning Cycle Learners and the Learned In times of change learners shall inherit the earth while the learned are beautifully equipped for a world that no longer exists. Thurber Learning Learning occurs through the recognition of differences and the making of connections Learning may be purposeful or unintended Learning involves more than just the acquisition of information–the ability to act differently is also necessary. Learning requires the ability to explain— not just describe Prediction and Knowledge A statement, if it conveys knowledge, predicts future outcome, with risk of being wrong, and it fits without failure observations of the past. Study Re Study . vis Re e st vis Te e st Te Predict Predict PDSA Cycle What new If we do ____, I questions/ideas think the result do we have? will be ____. What do Act Plan Here’s how we we do next? can try this... Did we get Study Do Small scale the results study we expected? Data collected What did we learn? The Prediction Game What are we trying to accomplish? • We have observed a pattern in the output from a process. We want to discover the rule that generated this sequence. • Each team should develop theories to test in order to determine the rule. You may go for: small scale test (what will be next and why) full scale implementation (what is the rule that will provide the sequence into the foreseeable future) Predictions Your prediction should ‗fit‘ the past observations and predict the future observation(s). The process is as follows: • predict • test • study • revise What Can We Learn? The role of developing a theory (a hunch to test) The possibility for multiple theories Learning from success and from failure The cumulative nature of learning Tacit Learning Researchers estimate that a small part (possibly less than 5%) of what we 'know' was learned in a school setting! Consider the story of SCHOOL "The Little Boy" Theories-in-Use Actions Speak Louder than Words Espoused Theory: Cooperation and teamwork are important. Behavior is influenced by our structure. We group 'pieces of information' from the environment to gain 'knowledge.' This knowledge helps direct our actions. Information Knowledge Action Individuals are Withhold requested resources promoted who from peers in case they might are not team The organization be needed at a future time players rewards individual performance, not Choose to stay and work on Performance teamwork project rather than attend review process a team meeting rewards individual performance Criticize subordinates when they spend time in cross- functional team meetings Defensive Routines Pattern Example Send a mixed message Your decision was a good one, but I'm overruling it Act as though it is not a You can be proud of your mixed message (or ignore contribution the inconsistencies) Make the mixed message I feel good about this outcome, undiscussable and I'm sure you do too Make the undiscussability Now that I've explained every- undiscussable thing to your satisfaction, is there anything else you'd like to talk about? Argyris, Chris, "Good Communication That Blocks Learning" Single Loop and Double Loop Learning The uncreative mind can spot wrong answers, but it takes a creative mind to spot wrong questions. Anthony Jay, Management and Machiavelli Values Consequences Actions Assumptions Experiences Single Loop Learning Double Loop Learning Mental Models Mental Models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. Mental Models are both helpful and limiting. Meaning Structures Meaning Structures are ways we organize data in order to make sense of it. We create meaning structures both intentionally and unintentionally. Meaning structures are created intentionally when we are consciously trying to understand or learn something. We also create meaning structures without conscious awareness over time (for example, language and expected behavior in an organization) Seeing and Believing Consider the following quotes: Seeing is believing. I must believe it to see it. Organizational Learning What is it? How is it different from individual learning? What supports and discourages organizational learning? An Organization A group of people becomes an organization when the individuals which comprise it develop procedures for: • Making decisions in the name of the collective. • Delegating to individuals the authority to act for the collective. • Setting boundaries between the collective and the rest of the world. Argyris and Schon Definitions Learning Organization or Organizational Learning "Organizational learning is the intentional use of learning processes at the individual, group, and system level to continuously transform the organization in a direction that is increasingly satisfying to its stakeholders." (Dixon, 1994) "Learning organization–an organization that is continually expanding its capacity to create its future." (Senge, 1990) Organizational Learning Cycle Widespread generation of information Authority to take Integration of new/ responsible action local information into on the interpreted organizational meaning context Collective interpretation of information Dixon, The Organi- zational Learning Cycle Requirements for Learning A culture that encourages learning Circumstances which make it physically possible to learn Knowledge of how to learn David Kerridge, May 1992 New Ideas "Because our variety of experience and insight means that all those I meet know more than I do about something, so I can learn from them: but equally they can learn from me." "Our awareness of our need to learn makes us very democratic in instinct, but truth cannot be decided by majority vote. In fact, the more advanced the idea, the more likely the one who understands it is to be in a minority." David Kerridge Meaning Structures and Learning Private meaning structures–those which the individual chooses to withhold from other members Accessible meaning structures–those which the individual is willing to make available to others in the organization Collective meaning structures–those which organizational members hold Dixon, The Organizational Learning jointly with other members Cycle Changing Collective Meaning Structures Tacit meaning structures must be brought to the surface - some event may trigger questions in a few minds - sufficient number of people begin to question assumption Meaning structure becomes accessible Dialogue, exploration of private meaning structures, and collection of external information takes place New meaning structures form for individuals A critical mass of individuals share the altered meaning structure for it to again be considered collective Thinking Together not just the ideas but connections themselves between ideas not just con- but differences flicting views bringing new in- sight to the whole not just the topics but the unspoken ? ? discussed ? questions and issues arising not just approval but inner tension as yes/no or disapproval clues to underlying assumptions Bennett and Brown, "Mindshift: Strategic Dialogue for Breakthrough Thinking" Expanding Our View Events Artifacts (reactive) (visible organiza- tional structures) Patterns of Behavior Espoused Values (responsive) (strategies, goals, philosophies) Systemic Structure Underlying Assumptions (generative) (often tacit) Senge, The Fifth Schein, Organizational Culture Discipline, p. 52 and Leadership, p. 17 Assumptions and Values Assumption Value Whole = sum of parts Performance of individual person & unit The individual is the Competition to bring out dominant producer the best Cream will rise to the Rating, Ranking, Praise, top Reward Meritocracy The future is an Problem solving extension of the past Adapted from talk by Ed Baker, August 1994 Dialogue and Discussion Dialogue Discussion A process of "opening up"– A process of analyzing a "thinking together." subject from various Assumptions are brought points of view to "focus to the surface and in." Different views are explored in order to obtain presented and (often) a new view and to see defended. The goal is to patterns of interactions. understand a situation The goal is discovering a (and make decisions). new view. Dialogue is Discussion in convergent divergent in nature. in nature. Dialogue and discussion are complementary approaches that expand our "world view" and enhance our ability to take action for improvement. Necessary Conditions Conditions that support collective interpretation of information include: • Information and expertise that are distributed • Participants "suspend" their assumptions [Suspend ==> hold out for all to examine] • Egalitarian values: freedom to speak openly equality (necessary for freedom) respect (necessary for equality) [Participants who regard each other as colleagues] • Processes and skills that facilitate organizational dialogue [A "facilitator" who "holds the contest"] Dialogue • Provide others with accurate and complete information that bears upon the issue • Confirm others; personal competence when disagreeing with their ideas • Make the reasoning that supports their position explicit; say how they got from the data to the conclusion • Voice the perspective of others • Change position when others offer convincing data and rationale • Regard assertions, their own and others, as hypotheses to be tested • Challenge errors in others' reasoning or data Recognizing Assumptions From a letter to the editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch discussing educational reform: ―How will our respected faculties grade a child‘s achievement toward becoming a ‗fulfilled individual,‘ a ‗supportive person,‘ a ‗life-long learner,‘ or an ‗environmental steward‘?‖ Personal Performance Can we today accurately and fairly rate (individual) result contribution? a • Evaluations are done by b e evaluators c d f • Training‘s effect must be removed or considered to be consistent from individual to individual • Effects of the system must be Drawings: Gipsie B. Ranney, May 1992 separated from the effects due Questions: General Motors Powertrain to the person Individual Contribution result result a a b e e d b f d f c c result result a a b e e d b f d f c c Carryover Effects Person 1 Person 2 Person 3 Action Result Action Result Action Result Result Action Result Action Result Action Ranking Assumptions You can separate the contribution of the person from the effect due to the system All individuals have received the same training Carry-over effects can be separated from the contributions of the individual Evaluators have no effect The time period used for the review provides the same opportunity for contribution for all individuals Recognizing Assumptions Christmas in the Melton household Assumptions • There should be Gifts under the tree Surprises Gifts that don‘t need to be exchanged/returned (i.e., the recipient should like the gift) Seeing Interrelationships Improvement Learning Change Source? I think I will … You will … Resistance to Change Suppose you are the developer of the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard for typewriters and word processors. This keyboard has potential to increase operator efficiency by over 40% – List as many reasons as you can for why people should discontinue using the old QWERTY keyboards – Predict as many reasons as you can for why people will resist using the new keyboard. Dvorak Keyboard + 7 5 3 1 9 0 2 4 6 8 = : , • & ? , • P Y F G C R L / _ A O E U I D H T N S - ; Shift Shift Q J K X B M W V Z • space bar Changing Nature of Work FROM TO Unskilled work Knowledge work Meaningless repetitive tasks Innovation and caring Individual work Teamwork Functional-based work Project-based work Single-skilled Multiskilled Power of bosses Power of customers Coordination from above Coordination among peers Gifford & Elizabeth Pinchot, The End of Bureaucracy & the Rise of the Intelligent Organization, p. 30 Changing World View Logical Creative Change is a step-by-step Different things can come incremental process.. The together and form world works in a logical, something totally new– rational way. nature is dynamic. Material objects exist inde- Everything exist as sets of pendently of each other and connections with the world their environments. around it. Events are driven by and The most powerful forces are a result of past causes; driving change come from the present is determined the future. by the past. Breakpoint and Beyond by George Land and Beth Jarman, pp. 98-105 Change as a Reaction Problem Solving • I do not like what happened • Let me do something about it • Example: Problem: Can‘t find my advisor at the start of the semester Problem Solving The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. Albert Einstein Change to Modify Existing Process Improvement • We can do this better Incremental change Proactive Change within the current framework • Example: Improve: Registration at the start of the semester Change that Breaks with the Past Innovation • Redefines the market • Breaks with the past • Creative • Driven by desire • Example: On-line education Negative Response to Change Anger Acceptance EMOTIONAL RESPONSE Active Bargaining Denial Testing Passive Immobilization Depression TIME Managing at the Speed of Change by Daryl Conner, p. 133 Positive Response to Change Hopeful Realism PESSIMISM Informed Pessimism Informed Optimism CHECKING OUT Uninformed Completion Optimism TIME Managing at the Speed of Change by Daryl Conner, p. 137 Stages of Change Commitment Degree of Support for the Change Internalization Institutionalization Commitment Phase Adoption Installation Positive Commitment Perception Threshold Acceptance Phase Understanding Preparation Disposition Phase Awareness Threshold Contact time Managing at the Speed of Change by Daryl Conner, p. 148 Change Equation Perceived Shared vision need for or desired Good next Resistance further future state steps to change change • Level of • Leadership • What • Fear of unknown dissatisfaction commitment • When • Autonomy and • Shared by • Involvement security • Who many threatened • Clear • How • Strength • Belief other's are • Concise • Flexible incorrect • Primary cause • Consistent with system • Support not values subsystem visible other • Inconsistent with "A Statistical Approach to Human Resource Systems," other systems OQPF 1992, Mary Jenkins Seeing Interrelationships Improvement Learning Change Leverage About 3% of the opportunities for improvement come from attention to unique processes. This means that approximately 97% of the opportunities for improvement come from changes related to overall business strategy and companywide systems. Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming, The New Economics, p. 38 Improvement Adaptive Problem fixing things gone wrong Solving: Continual incremental improvement Improvement: within the current framework Creation: bringing new products, services and/or processes into being Generative Analysis and Synthesis "Anyone can break something up into small pieces. The trick is to knit them back together again into a whole without compromising their autonomy." David Nadler Systems A system consists of a set of parts • Each part can affect the essential (defining) function, behavior, or property of the whole • The way each part affects the whole depends on what at least one other part is doing • Every possible subset of these parts can affect the essential function Take a system apart and it looses its properties and the parts loose the properties Russell Ackoff System Concepts A system must have an aim that is clear to everyone in the system. Management of a system requires knowledge of the interrelationships between all of the components within the system and of the people that work in it. The larger the boundary of the system, the bigger the possible benefits, but the more difficult to manage. The secret is cooperation between components toward the aim of the organization. Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming, The New Economics System "Killers" Appraisal Systems Pay for Performance (Traditional) Job Descriptions Competition Profit/Cost Centers Everyone Doing their Best Fear and Lack of Trust Management by Results Numerical Goals and Quotas Purchasing Policies Organizational Structure Rewards Unintended Consequences Select one of the "system killers." What are/were the intended consequences of this? (Why would we want to do this? What are we trying to accomplish?) What are the unintended consequences? (What dominos fall as a result of this?) Accelerating the Pace of Improvement Concepts, Improve Vague, Redesign a Process Strategic Move Steps in Process Closer Together Move Order receipt and the warehouse process closer together Move the FAX that receives the orders into the warehouse area Ideas, Specific, Write a work order to have FAX moved Actionable on Monday Lloyd Provost at OQPF's Eleventh Annual Deming Conference, 1997 Transportable Concepts The Chaotic Picnic • I was at a picnic (with about 100 other people). • Hamburgers and hotdogs were cooked on the grill. • People filed down both sides of a long table to get their food. • Chaos was the order of the day cups buns Chips Slaw What I Saw… lettuce plates hamburgers & hotdogs drinks mayo, mustard, ketchup What We Did… Concepts Specific • Improve flow • Moved the plates to the beginning of the line • Reorder steps • Put the buns before the condiments and meat • Create parallel • Put the slaw and chips processes in line (so people from both sides of the table could get to them) • Separate into multiple • Moved the drinks and processes cups to a separate table Focusing Energy Focusing our efforts on things that are of Circle of concern to us and that Concern we can influence can produce positive results (and an increase in our circle of influence). To focus our energy Circle of where we have no Influenc influence results in an e increase in our own feelings of Adapted from Covey, helplessness (and a Stephen R., The 7 Habits of shrinking of our circle Highly Effective People, pp. 81-86 of influence).