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					 Learning for

                   About 3% of the
                   opportunities for
                   improvement come from
                   attention to unique

This means that approximately 97% of the
opportunities for improvement come from
changes related to overall business strategy
and companywide systems.
                         Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming,
                         The New Economics, p. 38
Seeing Interrelationships


Learning                 Change
Seeing Interrelationships


Learning                 Change
    Individual Reflection
Think about a time when you decided to
learn something new.

  • How did you approach the topic?

  • How did you feel about the task of

  • Who did you share your interests
    with and why did you choose these
 Learning for Improvement
What is the connection between learning
and improvement?

What does it mean to say you have
"learned" something?

What is the connection between teaching
and learning?
Knowledge and Understanding

 Knowledge and understanding is one of the
 few commodities in the world that grows
 through use. It is not a competition; the
 more you know the more I can know. If I
 want to know more I will have to see to it
 that you know more.

            Nancy Dixon
            The Organizational Learning Cycle
Learners and the Learned

 In times of change learners
 shall inherit the earth while
 the learned are beautifully
 equipped for a world that no
 longer exists.
   Learning occurs through the recognition of
    differences and the making of connections

   Learning may be purposeful or unintended

   Learning involves more than just the
    acquisition of information–the ability to act
    differently is also necessary.

   Learning requires the ability to explain—
    not just describe
    Prediction and Knowledge
A statement, if it conveys knowledge,
predicts future outcome, with risk of being
wrong, and it fits without failure
observations of the past.


                   Re                            e



                   PDSA Cycle

What new                         If we do ____, I
questions/ideas                    think the result
do we have?                           will be ____.

What do            Act    Plan        Here’s how we
we do next?                            can try this...

Did we get        Study   Do          Small scale
the results                          study
we expected?
                                   Data collected
What did we
          The Prediction Game
   What are we trying to accomplish?
    • We have observed a pattern in the output from
      a process. We want to discover the rule that
      generated this sequence.
    • Each team should develop theories to test in
      order to determine the rule. You may go for:
        small scale test (what will be next and why)

        full scale implementation (what is the rule
         that will provide the sequence into the
         foreseeable future)
   Your prediction should ‗fit‘ the past
    observations and predict the future
    observation(s). The process is as

             • predict
             • test
             • study
             • revise
         What Can We Learn?

   The role of developing a theory
    (a hunch to test)
   The possibility for multiple theories
   Learning from success and from
   The cumulative nature of learning
      Tacit Learning

Researchers estimate that a
small part (possibly less than
5%) of what we
'know' was learned in a school

Consider the story of

"The Little Boy"
   Actions Speak Louder than Words
Espoused Theory: Cooperation and teamwork are important.

    Behavior is influenced by our structure. We group 'pieces
    of information' from the environment to gain 'knowledge.'
    This knowledge helps direct our actions.
  Information            Knowledge                     Action
  Individuals are                           Withhold requested resources
  promoted who                              from peers in case they might
  are not team         The organization     be needed at a future time
  players              rewards individual
                       performance, not     Choose to stay and work on
  Performance          teamwork             project rather than attend
  review process                            a team meeting
  rewards individual
  performance                               Criticize subordinates when
                                            they spend time in cross-
                                            functional team meetings
             Defensive Routines
          Pattern                            Example
 Send a mixed message             Your decision was a good one,
                                  but I'm overruling it
 Act as though it is not a        You can be proud of your
 mixed message (or ignore         contribution
 the inconsistencies)
 Make the mixed message           I feel good about this outcome,
 undiscussable                    and I'm sure you do too

 Make the undiscussability        Now that I've explained every-
 undiscussable                    thing to your satisfaction, is
                                  there anything else you'd like
                                  to talk about?

Argyris, Chris, "Good Communication That Blocks Learning"
Single Loop and Double Loop
The uncreative mind can spot wrong
answers, but it takes a creative
mind to spot wrong questions.
     Anthony Jay, Management and Machiavelli

     Values                           Consequences
  Assumptions                          Experiences

                         Single Loop Learning

            Double Loop Learning
        Mental Models

Mental Models are deeply ingrained
assumptions, generalizations, or even
pictures or images that influence how we
understand the world and how we take

Mental Models are both helpful and
      Meaning Structures

Meaning Structures are ways we organize
data in order to make sense of it. We create
meaning structures both intentionally and
unintentionally. Meaning structures are
created intentionally when we are
consciously trying to understand or learn
something. We also create meaning
structures without conscious awareness over
time (for example, language and expected
behavior in an organization)
      Seeing and Believing

   Consider the following
   Seeing is believing.
   I must believe it to
    see it.
       Organizational Learning
   What is it?

   How is it different from individual

   What supports and discourages
    organizational learning?
        An Organization
A group of people becomes an organization
when the individuals which comprise it
develop procedures for:

  • Making decisions in the name of the
  • Delegating to individuals the authority to
    act for the collective.
  • Setting boundaries between the
    collective and the rest of the world.

                       Argyris and Schon
Learning Organization or Organizational Learning

     "Organizational learning is the intentional use
     of learning processes at the individual, group,
     and system level to continuously transform
     the organization in a direction that is
     increasingly satisfying to its stakeholders."
     (Dixon, 1994)

     "Learning organization–an organization that is
     continually expanding its capacity to create its
     future." (Senge, 1990)
Organizational Learning Cycle
                     generation of

Authority to take                        Integration of new/
responsible action                       local information into
on the interpreted                       organizational
meaning                                  context

                     interpretation of
                                               Dixon, The Organi-
                                               zational Learning
Requirements for Learning

A culture that encourages learning

Circumstances which make it physically
possible to learn

Knowledge of how to learn

           David Kerridge, May 1992
                New Ideas

"Because our variety of experience and insight
means that all those I meet know more than I do
about something, so I can learn from them: but
equally they can learn from me."

"Our awareness of our need to learn makes us
very democratic in instinct, but truth cannot be
decided by majority vote. In fact, the more
advanced the idea, the more likely the one who
understands it is to be in a minority."

                             David Kerridge
Meaning Structures and Learning
                                     Private meaning
                                     structures–those which the
                                     individual chooses to
                                     withhold from other
                                     Accessible meaning
                                     structures–those which the
                                     individual is willing to make
                                     available to others in the
                                     Collective meaning
                                     structures–those which
                                     organizational members hold
Dixon, The Organizational Learning   jointly with other members
   Changing Collective Meaning
Tacit meaning structures must be brought to the
   - some event may trigger questions in a few minds
   - sufficient number of people begin to question
Meaning structure becomes accessible
Dialogue, exploration of private meaning structures,
  and collection of external information takes place
New meaning structures form for individuals
A critical mass of individuals share the altered
  meaning structure for it to again be considered
                 Thinking Together
           not just the ideas                   but connections
           themselves                           between ideas

           not just con-                        but differences
           flicting views                       bringing new in-
                                                sight to the whole

           not just the topics                  but the unspoken
                                    ?       ?
           discussed                    ?       questions and
                                                issues arising

           not just approval                    but inner tension as
           or disapproval                       clues to underlying
Bennett and Brown, "Mindshift: Strategic
Dialogue for Breakthrough Thinking"
         Expanding Our View

        Events                 Artifacts
        (reactive)        (visible organiza-
                          tional structures)

 Patterns of Behavior        Espoused Values
     (responsive)           (strategies, goals,

  Systemic Structure     Underlying Assumptions
     (generative)             (often tacit)

Senge, The Fifth        Schein, Organizational Culture
Discipline, p. 52       and Leadership, p. 17
       Assumptions and Values

      Assumption                        Value
   Whole = sum of parts        Performance of
                                 individual person & unit
   The individual is the       Competition to bring out
    dominant producer            the best
   Cream will rise to the      Rating, Ranking, Praise,
    top                          Reward Meritocracy
   The future is an            Problem solving
    of the past
                                 Adapted from talk by Ed Baker,
                                 August 1994
      Dialogue and Discussion
         Dialogue                           Discussion
A process of "opening up"–          A process of analyzing a
"thinking together."                subject from various
Assumptions are brought             points of view to "focus
to the surface and                  in." Different views are
explored in order to obtain         presented and (often)
a new view and to see               defended. The goal is to
patterns of interactions.           understand a situation
The goal is discovering a           (and make decisions).
new view. Dialogue is               Discussion in convergent
divergent in nature.                in nature.

 Dialogue and discussion are complementary approaches that
 expand our "world view" and enhance our ability to take action
 for improvement.
             Necessary Conditions
    Conditions that support collective interpretation of
     information include:
    • Information and expertise that are distributed
    • Participants "suspend" their assumptions
       [Suspend ==> hold out for all to examine]
    • Egalitarian values:
          freedom to speak openly
          equality (necessary for freedom)
          respect (necessary for equality)
         [Participants who regard each other as colleagues]
    •   Processes and skills that facilitate organizational
        [A "facilitator" who "holds the contest"]
•   Provide others with accurate and complete information
    that bears upon the issue
•   Confirm others; personal competence when disagreeing
    with their ideas
•   Make the reasoning that supports their position explicit;
    say how they got from the data to the conclusion
•   Voice the perspective of others
•   Change position when others offer convincing data and
•   Regard assertions, their own and others, as hypotheses
    to be tested
•   Challenge errors in others' reasoning or data
      Recognizing Assumptions

   From a letter to the editor of the
    Richmond Times-Dispatch discussing
    educational reform:

    ―How will our respected faculties
    grade a child‘s achievement toward
    becoming a ‗fulfilled individual,‘ a
    ‗supportive person,‘ a ‗life-long
    learner,‘ or an ‗environmental
          Personal Performance
Can we today accurately and
fairly rate (individual)
 • Evaluations are done by                            b                  e
   evaluators                                               c
                                                                   d           f

 • Training‘s effect must be
   removed or considered to be
   consistent from individual to
 • Effects of the system must be             Drawings: Gipsie B. Ranney, May 1992
   separated from the effects due            Questions: General Motors Powertrain

   to the person
         Individual Contribution
result                                result

         a                                     a
             b           e                                     e
                     d                             b
                             f                             d       f
                 c                                     c

result                               result

         a                                     a
             b           e                                     e
                     d                             b
                                 f                         d       f
                 c                                     c
                      Carryover Effects
    Person 1                     Person 2              Person 3

Action                                               Result

         Action   Result

            Action                      Result

                              Action        Result

                              Action                              Result

       Ranking Assumptions
   You can separate the contribution of the
    person from the effect due to the system
   All individuals have received the same training
   Carry-over effects can be separated from the
    contributions of the individual
   Evaluators have no effect
   The time period used for the review provides
    the same opportunity for contribution for all
       Recognizing Assumptions

Christmas in the Melton household
 Assumptions

 • There should be
      Gifts under the tree
      Surprises
      Gifts that don‘t need to be exchanged/returned
       (i.e., the recipient should like the gift)
Seeing Interrelationships


Learning                 Change

I think I will …     You will …
       Resistance to Change

   Suppose you are the developer of the
    Dvorak Simplified Keyboard for
    typewriters and word processors. This
    keyboard has potential to increase
    operator efficiency by over 40%
    – List as many reasons as you can for why
      people should discontinue using the old
      QWERTY keyboards
    – Predict as many reasons as you can for why
      people will resist using the new keyboard.
                        Dvorak Keyboard

            7       5       3       1       9        0       2       4       6       8       =

        :       ,       •                                                                &
        ?       ,       •       P       Y        F       G       C       R       L       /
            A       O       E       U       I        D       H       T       N       S       -
                ;                                                                                Shift
Shift                   Q       J       K        X       B       M       W       V       Z

                                                space bar
       Changing Nature of Work
     FROM                                 TO
Unskilled work                        Knowledge work
Meaningless repetitive tasks          Innovation and caring
Individual work                       Teamwork
Functional-based work                 Project-based work
Single-skilled                        Multiskilled
Power of bosses                       Power of customers
Coordination from above               Coordination among

  Gifford & Elizabeth Pinchot, The End of Bureaucracy & the Rise of
  the Intelligent Organization, p. 30
           Changing World View
          Logical                            Creative
Change is a step-by-step           Different things can come
incremental process.. The          together and form
world works in a logical,          something totally new–
rational way.                      nature is dynamic.

Material objects exist inde-       Everything exist as sets of
pendently of each other and        connections with the world
their environments.                around it.
Events are driven by and           The most powerful forces
are a result of past causes;       driving change come from
the present is determined          the future.
by the past.

 Breakpoint and Beyond by George Land and Beth Jarman, pp. 98-105
  Change as a Reaction

Problem Solving
 • I do not like what happened
 • Let me do something about it

 • Example:
       Problem: Can‘t find my advisor at the
        start of the semester
      Problem Solving

The significant problems we
face cannot be solved at the
same level of thinking we
were at when we created

             Albert Einstein
Change to Modify Existing Process

  • We can do this better
     Incremental change
     Proactive
     Change within the current framework

  • Example:
     Improve: Registration at the start of
      the semester
Change that Breaks with the Past

      •   Redefines the market
      •   Breaks with the past
      •   Creative
      •   Driven by desire

      • Example:
             On-line education
Negative Response to Change

                                            Anger                    Acceptance



                                Immobilization       Depression


                                                            Managing at the Speed of
                                                            Change by Daryl Conner, p.
 Positive Response to Change


              Pessimism              Informed
                          CHECKING OUT
            Uninformed                       Completion

                                 Managing at the Speed of
                                 Change by Daryl Conner, p. 137
                                    Stages of Change Commitment
 Degree of Support for the Change


                                    Commitment Phase
                                                                Positive                                Commitment
                                                                Perception                              Threshold
                                    Acceptance Phase

                                    Preparation                                                         Disposition
                                                Awareness                                               Threshold


Managing at the Speed of Change by Daryl Conner, p. 148
                    Change Equation
 Perceived             Shared vision
 need for              or desired             Good
                                              next                Resistance
 further               future state
                                              steps               to change

• Level of            • Leadership           • What            • Fear of unknown
  dissatisfaction       commitment
                                             • When            • Autonomy and
• Shared by           • Involvement                              security
                                             • Who
  many                                                           threatened
                      • Clear
                                             • How
• Strength                                                     • Belief other's are
                      • Concise
                                             • Flexible          incorrect
• Primary cause
                      • Consistent with
  system                                                       • Support not
  subsystem                                                      visible
                                                                 • Inconsistent with
             "A Statistical Approach to Human Resource Systems,"   other systems
             OQPF 1992, Mary Jenkins
Seeing Interrelationships


Learning                 Change

                   About 3% of the
                   opportunities for
                   improvement come from
                   attention to unique

This means that approximately 97% of the
opportunities for improvement come from
changes related to overall business strategy
and companywide systems.
                         Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming,
                         The New Economics, p. 38

             Problem        fixing things gone wrong

             Continual    incremental improvement
             Improvement: within the current framework

             Creation:      bringing new products,
                            services and/or processes
                            into being

  Analysis and Synthesis

"Anyone can break something
up into small pieces. The trick
is to knit them back together
again into a whole without
compromising their autonomy."

                 David Nadler

A system consists of a set of parts
  • Each part can affect the essential (defining)
    function, behavior, or property of the whole
  • The way each part affects the whole depends
    on what at least one other part is doing
  • Every possible subset of these parts can affect
    the essential function

Take a system apart and it looses its
properties and the parts loose the properties

                                   Russell Ackoff
             System Concepts
   A system must have an aim that is clear to
    everyone in the system.

   Management of a system requires knowledge of
    the interrelationships between all of the
    components within the system and of the people
    that work in it.

   The larger the boundary of the system, the
    bigger the possible benefits, but the more
    difficult to manage.

   The secret is cooperation between components
    toward the aim of the organization.

                     Paraphrased from W. Edwards Deming, The New Economics
              System "Killers"

Appraisal Systems             Pay for Performance

(Traditional) Job Descriptions Competition

Profit/Cost Centers           Everyone Doing their Best

Fear and Lack of Trust        Management by Results

Numerical Goals and Quotas    Purchasing Policies

Organizational Structure      Rewards
    Unintended Consequences

   Select one of the "system killers."

   What are/were the intended consequences of
    this? (Why would we want to do this? What
    are we trying to accomplish?)

   What are the unintended consequences?
    (What dominos fall as a result of this?)
Accelerating the Pace of Improvement
 Concepts,                      Improve
 Vague,                Redesign a Process
              Move Steps in Process Closer Together
              Move Order receipt and the warehouse
                    process closer together
              Move the FAX that receives the orders
                    into the warehouse area
 Specific,    Write a work order to have FAX moved
 Actionable                 on Monday

                        Lloyd Provost at OQPF's Eleventh Annual Deming Conference, 1997
       Transportable Concepts

   The Chaotic Picnic
    • I was at a picnic (with about 100 other
    • Hamburgers and hotdogs were cooked
      on the grill.
    • People filed down both sides of a long
      table to get their food.
    • Chaos was the order of the day

What I Saw…

              & hotdogs
                 What We Did…

   Concepts                      Specific
    • Improve flow                 • Moved the plates to the
                                     beginning of the line
    • Reorder steps                • Put the buns before the
                                     condiments and meat
    • Create parallel              • Put the slaw and chips
      processes                      in line (so people from
                                     both sides of the table
                                     could get to them)
    • Separate into multiple       • Moved the drinks and
      processes                      cups to a separate table
                      Focusing Energy

                                  Focusing our efforts on
                                  things that are of
     Circle of                    concern to us and that
     Concern                      we can influence can
                                  produce positive
                                  results (and an
                                  increase in our circle
                                  of influence).
                                  To focus our energy
     Circle of                    where we have no
     Influenc                     influence results in an
     e                            increase in our own
                                  feelings of
Adapted from Covey,               helplessness (and a
Stephen R., The 7 Habits of       shrinking of our circle
Highly Effective People, pp.
81-86                             of influence).