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Unit 4 Exam
For each of the following questions, correctly fill-in the corresponding letter on your scantron.

    1.   Location of specific biomes can be predicted based on
    A)   large landforms in the area.
    B)   precipitation and temperature.
    C)   the Coriolis Effect.
    D)   the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
    E)   seasonal variations in sunspots.

    2.   Most of the world's grasslands are found
    A)   on relatively dry continental interiors.
    B)   in narrow strips on the edges of mountains.
    C)   in North America.
    D)   along major river systems.
    E)   on the moist edges of continents.

    3.   The word “conifer” distinguishes plants that are
    A)   found in northern latitudes.
    B)   cone-shaped.
    C)   cone bearing.
    D)   needle bearing.
    E)   evergreen.

    4.   Boreal forests are generally
    A)   warm and humid, with large rivers.
    B)   dry because water is frozen most of the year.
    C)   cool and moist, with many streams and wetlands.
    D)   soggy in the summer because of permafrost.
    E)   cold and dry, with extensive barren areas.

    5.   Taiga water and soils are often acidic because of
    A)   salts exposed by erosion.
    B)   the high number of deciduous leaves.
    C)   It is not clear why they are acidic.
    D)   acid rain.
    E)   moss and conifer needles.

    6.   Humid tropical forests have extraordinary biological diversity
    A)   despite a complete absence of nutrients in the environment.
    B)   despite the lack of biochemical cycles.
    C)   because of the very fertile tropical soils.
    D)   despite the poor, weathered soils.
    E)   because rainfall dissolves soil nutrients and makes them available to plants.




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7. The biome types that have lost the greatest percentage of their original (before human impact)
   area are
A) tropical and temperate forests.
B) tropical forests and grasslands
C) temperate conifer forests and arctic tundra.
D) tropical rainforests and cloud forests.
E) temperate forests and grasslands.

8.    The biome types that are the least disturbed by humans are
A)    tropical and temperate forests.
B)    tropical forests and grasslands
C)    temperate conifer forests and arctic tundra.
D)    tropical rainforests and cloud forests.
E)    temperate forests and grasslands.

9.    The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which
A)    nutrient levels are the lowest.
B)    the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone.
C)    light no longer penetrates enough for photosynthesis to occur.
D)    seasonal lake mixing occurs.
E)    pollutants are trapped and held.

10.   Landscapes are typically larger than a _________ and smaller than a _________.
 A)   habitat, biome
 B)   niche, habitat
 C)   biome, ecosystem
 D)   habitat, ecosystem
 E)   ecosystem, biome

11.   Efforts to repair or reconstruct ecosystems are known as
 A)   conservation reserve programs.
 B)   mitigation.
 C)   restoration ecology.
 D)   land stewardship.
 E)   landscape ecology.

12.   The principal purpose of Arcata, California's, marsh and wildlife sanctuary is to
 A)   provide an educational resource for school students.
 B)   provide open park space for the city's community.
 C)   store drinking water for urban use.
 D)   re-establish populations of rare cranes.
 E)   filter the city's sewage.

13.   A “woodland” is an open
 A)   forest with trees at least 20 meters tall.
 B)   canopy forest where tree crowns cover at least 50 percent of the ground.
 C)   canopy forest where tree crowns cover at least 90 percent of the canopy.
 D)   canopy forest where tree crowns cover less than 20 percent of the ground.
 E)   forest with at least 20 harvestable trees per hectare.




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14. Which of the following statements about old-growth forests is true?
 A) Old-growth forests have been without disturbance of any kind for at least 100 years.
 B) Old-growth forests include temperate rainforests, tropical rainforests, boreal forests, and
    deciduous forests.
 C) Humans do not reside in old-growth forests.
 D) The largest remaining areas of old growth in North America are in the United States.
 E) All of these statements are false.

15.   “Forest management” means planning for
 A)   a continual increase in forest complexity.
 B)   building the maximum biodiversity in a forest.
 C)   sustainable harvests and forest regeneration.
 D)   old-growth status in the managed forests.
 E)   gaining maximum, quick profit from trees.

16.   A disadvantage of monoculture agroforestry is that it is
 A)   susceptible to pests and requires pesticides.
 B)   difficult to replant.
 C)   takes more time to replant.
 D)   difficult to harvest with clear-cut methods.
 E)   economically inefficient.

17.   Milpa or swidden agriculture in tropical forests is
 A)   an unsustainable practice that leads to forest fires.
 B)   sustainable and highly productive if plots are reused every two to five years.
 C)   sustainable and highly productive if plots are left for 10 to 15 years.
 D)   usually used in temperate forests rather than tropical forests.
 E)   an unsustainable practice that leads to land that is practically useless because of the
      loss of nutrients.

18. Since tropical forests typically have only a few commercially valuable trees per acre, logging
    operations
 A) do extensive damage because of road building and injury to surrounding trees.
 B) Tropical forests typically have many more than a few commercially valuable trees per acre.
 C) are usually not successful.
 D) usually do little damage to the trees that are left.
 E) generally do not encourage conversion of the forest to farmland.

19. Although most of the world's forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about
    tropical forest loss because
 A) there are fewer remaining tropical forests than any other forest type.
 B) they contain irreplaceable wood resources.
 C) they contain such high biodiversity.
 D) tropical trees are the biggest trees in the world.
 E) All of these are reasons that biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss.

20.   Extracting just a few large trees often destroys tropical forest canopy cover because
 A)   tropical tree roots are shallow and trees fall over when there is a gap from logging.
 B)   vines and interlocking branches pull down many trees at once.
 C)   wounded trees are highly susceptible to insects and diseases.
 D)   tractors and other logging equipment damage trees.
 E)   All of these explain why extracting just a few large trees can destroy the tropical forest
      canopy cover.


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21.   Debt-for-nature swaps are beneficial mainly to
 A)   governments of developing countries.
 B)   environmental groups.
 C)   lending institutions.
 D)   All of these.
 E)   None of these.

22. Spotted owls became the subjects of national controversy in 1989 because the Forest Service
    was forced to
 A) halt all mineral exploration.
 B) cease issuing hunting permits.
 C) limit logging to save habitat.
 D) build roads into forests.
 E) plant thousands of acres of new habitat.

23.Most commercial loggers prefer “clear-cut” harvesting because it
 A)does not waste any trees.
 B)is the most environmentally sustainable type of harvest.
 C)is the most efficient way to get valuable small timber without disturbing the larger early
   successional trees.
D) is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly
   labor.
E) is the most effective way to refresh soil with sun and rain.

24.   In the process of selective cutting, loggers
 A)   cut some of the mature trees every 5 - 10 years.
 B)   only use horses or mules to skid out the logs.
 C)   cut all trees in only 30 percent of a forest.
 D)   take all small vegetation as well as trees.
 E)   take only small trees.

25.   Why is there a need to reeducate people about the role of fire in natural systems?
 A)   People are well educated about fire and do not need to be reeducated.
 B)   People are starting fires in wilderness areas to make the area available for logging.
 C)   People who camp are not putting their campfires out causing fires in inaccessible areas.
 D)   People do not understand that fire is a natural part of many biological ecosystems.
 E)   People are still throwing away cigarette butts that can start forest fires.

26.   Seasonal migration allows grazing livestock to
 A)   produce more young animals with less range.
 B)   use only the most nutritious plants in a pasture.
 C)   depend more on domestic pastures.
 D)   use marginal lands year after year with modest environmental damage.
 E)   use the most fertile pastures continuously.

27.   The first symptom of range overgrazing is usually
 A)   the disappearance of palatable herbs.
 B)   desertification.
 C)   gullying.
 D)   the compaction of soils.
 E)   the absence of trees.




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28. Why would governments in the Philippines, Cameroon, and Tanzania consider
    indigenous people living in the forests as squatters?
 A) The indigenous people sold their land to the governments and are still living on it.
 B) These governments had the right to take the land because it was uncultivated land.
 C) The indigenous people are not using the land in a sustainable manner.
 D) These governments fail to recognize the rights of indigenous people.
 E) The indigenous people recently moved to the forests and have recently claimed it.

29.   The United States' first two national parks are
 A)   Olympic and Yosemite.
 B)   Glacier and Great Smoky Mountains.
 C)   Yosemite and Yellowstone.
 D)   Great Smoky Mountains and Yellowstone.
 E)   Yellowstone and Everglades.

30.   National parks are an important part of our heritage,
 A)   but they lack any protection from mining, logging, and grazing.
 B)   but they are endangered by overcrowding.
 C)   that unfortunately exist only in remote inaccessible areas.
 D)   and they remain pristine and undisturbed because of their park status.
 E)   but they are endangered by overcrowding, pollution, and in some places, mining.

31. One way to control herd sizes in national parks is the reintroduction of predators, but this
    course is opposed by
 A) scientists.
 B) park rangers.
 C) animal rights activists.
 D) neighbors and local ranchers.
 E) wilderness advocates.

32.   The goal(s) of national parks is/are to
 A)   provide education for visitors.
 B)   preserve our natural heritage.
 C)   provide protection for the environment.
 D)   All of these.
 E)   None of these.

33.   Which of the following are severely underrepresented in protected areas?
 A)   tropical dry forests, grasslands, and deserts
 B)   deserts, arctic tundra, and grasslands
 C)   aquatic ecosystems, tropical dry forests, and temperate deciduous forests
 D)   grasslands, aquatic ecosystems, and islands
 E)   islands, tropical rain forests, and deserts

34.   Poor people in developing countries often threaten wildlife preserves because
 A)   vandalism is a popular use of spare time.
 B)   they enjoy sport hunting.
 C)   they dislike unsettled territory.
 D)   their religion often emphasizes the action of dominating wildlife.
 E)   they need the resources to survive.




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35.   Which part of a biosphere reserve has the most intensive human impact?
 A)   in the multiple use zone
 B)   there is no human impact in a biosphere reserve.
 C)   there is the same amount of human impact throughout the biosphere reserve
 D)   in the core zone
 E)   in the buffer zone

36. If managed carefully, ecotourism benefits natural areas by giving economic value to land and
    water resources
 A) without destroying them.
 B) that never existed before.
 C) that have no other value.
 D) that no one is interested in.
 E) All of these are economic benefits of carefully managed ecotourism.

37.As officially defined by Congress in the 1964 Wilderness Act, “wilderness” is
 A)an area of at least 10,000 acres with low-impact development by humans
 B)any area with important scenic, historic, and recreational value.
 C)undeveloped land where humans have little impact and temporary presence, and visitors can
   find solitude.
D) a place where people live in harmony with nature, building only low-impact structures and
   roads.
E) an area of at least 10,000 acres with no human intrusion.

38.   Coastal wetlands are important because they
 A)   prevent saltwater intrusions into groundwater.
 B)   stabilize shorelines.
 C)   provide recreation for many people who enjoy nature.
 D)   provide food for offshore species.
 E)   All of these.

39.   Which of the following has caused the most wetland loss in the United States?
 A)   dredging transportation canals
 B)   the greenhouse effect
 C)   conversion to housing.
 D)   conversion to farmland
 E)   urban development

40.   Floods are worse after levees are built and wetlands are drained because
 A)   people complain more about damage.
 B)   water moves into rivers more quickly.
 C)   rainfall becomes more intense per unit area.
 D)   the total volume of water increases.
 E)   All of these are reasons floods are worse after levees are built and wetlands are
      drained.




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Name ______________________________                      Hour ____             Score ______/15

Unit 4 Short Answer
41. Humans have a tendency to dominate in areas that are beneficial to their needs. Name two biomes
that humans have dominated. For each listed biome describe how humans damage the biomes and the
effect of the damage on the biome. (6)




42. Create a flow chart that describes how overgrazing causes desertification of rangelands. How does
overgrazing encourage undesirable plant species to flourish? (4)




43. Explain how the removal of natural predators has caused destructive grazing problems. When the
gray wolf was reintroduced back into Yellowstone National Park, why were some people for it and some
people against it? (5)




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Unit 5 Exam Answer Key—EVEN

   1.   B                                  SHORT ANSWERS
   2.   A                              41. VARIETY OF ANSWERS
   3.   C                              42. Animals eat all the vegetation—Nothing to
   4.   C                                  hold back the soil—massive amounts of
   5.   E                                  runoff—soil cannot soak up the water to
   6.   D                                  nourish plants or replenish groundwater—
   7.   E                                  wells and springs dry up—seeds cannot
   8.   C                                  germinate—more sun is reflected off the
   9.   B                                  ground—changing wind patterns—driving
  10.   E                                  away moisture
  11.   C
  12.   E                                  Grazing animals only eat certain species
  13.   D                                  of plants. If the animals are allowed to
                                           overgraze, those species are reduced
  14.   B
                                           greatly allowing for the uneaten,
  15.   C
                                           undesirable, plant species to flourish.
  16.   A
                                           The reduction in competition could cause
  17.   C
                                           the undesired species to not allow the
  18.   A                                  desired species to grow making the land
  19.   C                                  unusable.
  20.   E
  21.   D                                  Cow eats grassgrass is
  22.   C                                  depletedweeds begin to flourishcows
  23.   D                                  do not eat the weedsso many weeds
  24.   A                                  that the grass does not growcows must
  25.   D                                  find new area to eat.
  26.   D
  27.   A                              43. They are needed to help keep balance in
  28.   D                                  the ecosystem. When removed, prey
  29.   C                                  species flourish causing vegetation to
  30.   E                                  decrease and smaller animals to reduce
  31.   D                                  due to lack of resources from
  32.   D                                  overpopulated prey. ON THE OTHER
  33.   D                                  HAND Ranchers believe the wolves
  34.   E                                  should stay gone because they are a
  35.   A                                  threat to children, pets, and livestock.
  36.   A                                  The wolves can destroy a rancher’s whole
  37.   C                                  world.
  38.   E
  39.   D
  40.   B




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