COGNITIVE by xiangpeng

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									Cognitive process
 Dr:Hussein Suliman Hussein
 BA,DPM,M.Sc,PhD Medical Psychology
Overview:

    Background sensation and perception
    Learning
    Retention and forgetting
    Cognitive process
 The next slide deals with the acquisition
  of new responses, storage of new
  information, and the ability to retrieve and
  use information at later time. This
  sequence thus represents learning,
  memory, problem solving, cognition and
  many additional topics.
Learning

  Learning is defined as a relatively
   permanent change in behavior that
   occurs as the result of experience.
  This definition implies that there is
   acquisition of the response and storage
   (or retention) of the response once it
   becomes part of an organism’s behavior.
Types of learning:

  The most common types of learning are:
    Classical conditioning
    Operant conditioning
    Cognitive social learning
Classical conditioning

  A stimulus that produces the response on the
   first trail and every trail afterward is called
   unconditioned stimulus. (abbreviated US) and
   the response is (UR)
  A stimulus that is originally neutral and comes
   to be response-producing is called a
   conditioned stimulus (abbreviated CS) and the
   response is (CR).
Classical conditioning
  Pavlov used dogs as subjects. He found that
   presentation of meat powder (US) would cause
   the dogs to salivate (UR). Pavlov then paired
   the ringing of a bell (CS) with presentation of
   the meat powder. The pairing soon led the
   dogs to salivate at the sound of the bell (CR).
   The (OR) in this situation occurred in the first
   few trails when dogs turned their heads in
   attempt to determine the origin of the bell
   sound.
Classical conditioning:
Operant conditioning

  Is a learning process that involves changing
   the probability of a response by manipulating
   the consequences of that response.
  Un untrained and hungry rat placed in Skinner
   box, may learn to press the lever which will
   activate the feeder mechanism and deliver
   food pellets into the trough. This represents a
   positive reinforcement situation.
Operant conditioning:
Retention and forgetting

  The learning process is divided into two
   subcategories: the acquisition of new
   materials and the memory of those
   materials as measured by retention.
  Retention is though of as the storage of
   learning over a period of time called the
   retention interval.
 Memory: Includes both retention
  (storage) and retrieval, which involves
  getting response out of storage.
 If for some reason the subject is unable
  to produce the response at the end of the
  retention interval, forgetting - the loss of
  retention or inability to retrieve - has
  occurred.
Types of storage:

  The most widely accepted explanations
   of storage propose three level or
   categories: sensory storage, short term
   storage, long term storage. When
   measured by retrieval of information
   these level referred to also as, sensory
   memory, short term memory, and long
   term memory
Information system theory:

  This theory describes the process of
   sensation, perception and types of
   memory.
Information system theory:
Memory system:
External strategies to improve memory
Internal strategies to improve memory
Internal strategies to improve
memory
Cognitive process:

  Cognitive process are things that go on in
   mind, the mental content and activity. A
   major aspects of cognitive processes:
      Conceptual thinking.
      Problem solving.
      Descion making
      Development and use of language.
 Conceptual thinking:
 The contents of memory provide the bases on
  which conceptual thinking is formed. Thinking
  is symbolic mediation, or the use of symbols to
  span the time interval between presentation of a
  stimulus and the response made to it. Thinking
  is an internal personal process that is often
  attributed to the process of the activity of the
  mind. The mental manipulation of the
  presentation of information, thinking can not be
  observed directly but must be assumed from
  observable behaviors.
Symbols:

  A symbol is any stimulus that has
   become accepted representation of an
   object, event, action or idea. A symbol
   may take any form or meaning as long
   there is general agreement it stands for
   another particular thing.
Concepts:

  Are symbols that summarize or
   generalize attributes typical of several
   objects, events, actions, or ideas that are
   dissimilar in other important aspects.
Problem solving:

  Occurs when individual or group
   establishes a goal and seeks ways to
   reach that goal.
  Creativity: The structuring of ideas or
   response in original or novel yet
   productive ways.
Divergent thinking:

  Is the ability to generate unusual yet
   appropriate responses or response
   patterns when solving the problem and
   therefore represents creative thinking.
Convergent thinking:

  Occurs when a problem is solved by
   calling forth solutions based on already
   known knowledge or logic.
Insight

  Is the term used to describe the
   phenomenon in which a problem is
   posed, followed by a period of no
   apparent progress in solving the problem
   and then a sudden solution.
Language:

  Psycholinguistics covers the acquisition,
   structure and use of language.
  Expressive versus receptive language:
  Expressive language is defined as words
   that conveys message. Receptive
   language defines what is understood
   from the whole words
Thank you

								
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