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PHYSICAL VS MENTAL REHEARSAL

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PHYSICAL VS MENTAL REHEARSAL Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                                  12/6/2009




                                      CHANGES IN PERFORMERS                         CHANGES IN PERFORMERS
                                       AS THEY BECOME MORE                           AS THEY BECOME MORE
                                             SKILLED                                       SKILLED
Practice Makes Perfect . . .        • Awareness of movements decreases             • Awareness of movements decreases
                                    • Changes from visual to proprioceptive        • Changes from visual to proprioceptive
        Or Does It?                   control                                        control
                                    • More impervious to distractions              • More impervious to distractions
      HPS 402 Fall 2009             • Cues attended to change                      • Cues attended to change
                                    • Acquire confidence in ability to attend to   • Acquire confidence in ability to attend to
     Dr. Joe G. Schmalfeldt           correct cues                                   correct cues




   AMOUNT OF PRACTICE                   SPACING OF PRACTICE                           WHOLE/PART LEARNING
• BENEFITS VS TIME                  • MASSED VS
                                      DISTRIBUTED
• OVERLEARNING
                                      PRACTICE
• SUGGESTED GUIDELINES


                               M.                         D.
                                                          LONG
                               NO
                                                          REST
                               REST




                                          DECISION BASED ON
        PART METHOD                        COMPLEXITY AND                                  PHYSICAL VS
                                            ORGANIZATION
• PURE PART                                        TASK ORGANIZATION
                                                                                             MENTAL
                                                                          LOW
• COLLECTIVE PART                       HIGH

                                        WHOLE          COMBO             PART
                                                                                           REHEARSAL
• PROGRESSIVE PART
                                        LOW         TASK COMPLEXITY       HIGH



                                    • DECISIONS:
• REPETITIVE PART                     – 1ST RULE: WHERE SKILL LIES ON EACH
                                        CONTINUUM
                                      – 2ND RULE: PRACTICE TOGETHER PARTS
                                        THAT ARE HIGHLY DEPENDENT




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         MENTAL REHEARSAL                                                            USE OF IMAGERY                                            VARIABILITY OF PRACTICE
            “IMAGING”
                                                                                                                                              • NOVEL R - A SITUATION IN
  • DEF: COGNITIVE REHEARSAL OF A                           • ATHLETES FEEL MUSCLES IN                                                          WHICH R TO BE MADE HAS
    PHYSICAL SKILL IN THE ABSENCE OF                          ACTION AS THEY REHEARSE                                                           NOT BEEN PREVIOUSLY
                                                                                                                                                PERFORMED IN EXACTLY
    OVERT, PHYSICAL MOVEMENTS                                 THROUGH IMAGERY                                                                   THE SAME WAY
  • IMAGERY:                                                  – CAN USE FOR MOVEMENT OR                                                       • SCHEMA - PLAN OR SET OF
                                                                                                                                                RULES WHICH SERVES AS
     – INTERNAL IMAGERY - BEING INSIDE ONE’S BODY AND           STRATEGY                                                                        INSTRUCTIONS FOR
       EXPERIENCING THE SENSATIONS THAT MIGHT BE                                                                                                DECISIONS
       EXPECTED IN THE ACTUAL SITUATION
                                                              – IDENTIFY TARGET BEHAVIORS (HELP
                                                                                                                                              • SUCCESS ENTAILS:
     – EXTERNAL IMAGERY - VIEWING ONSELF FROM                   PLAYER TO “SWITCH INTO SCENE”)
                                                                                                                                                 – A LOT OF PRIOR
       PERSPECTIVE OF AN OBSERVER (WATCHING ONESELF N
       A MOVIE)
                                                              – “RIDDING” ONESELF OF NEGATIVE                                                      PRACTICE
                                                                                                                                                 – VARIETY OF PRACTICE
                                                                THOUGHTS




    VARIABLE PRACTICE AND                                    VARIABLE PRACTICE AND                                                                      BLOCKED, RANDOM,
        CLOSED SKILLS                                             OPEN SKILLS                                                                            SERIAL PRACTICE
  • TWO CONDITIONS:                                         • MUST VARY THE REGULATORY
                                                                                                                                                          Day 1               Day 3      Day 4
     – PRACTICE UNDER SAME CONDITIONS                         STIMULI ALONG WITH NON-                                                                              Day 2                            Day 5      Day 6
                                                                                                                                   Blocked     10 min                         All
       THAT WILL PREVAIL IN TEST                              REGULATORY STIMULI                                                   Practice    10 min
                                                                                                                                                        All        All                All       All
                                                                                                                                                                            Underhand Underhand Sidearm
                                                                                                                                                                                                               All
                                                                                                                                                        Overhand
       CONDITION                                                                                                                                                   Overhand                                    Sidearm
                                                            • HOW?                                                                             10 min
                                                                                                                                                                                         Underhand Sidearm
     – REGULATORY STIMULI ARE HELD                                                                                                 Random
                                                                                                                                               10 min Underhand    Sidearm    Overhand                         Underhand
                                                              – BLOCKED PRACTICE                                                               10 min Overhand     Underhand Sidearm     Overhand   Overhand   Underhand
       CONSTANT; NON-REGULATORY                                                                                                    Practice
                                                                                                                                                                                         Overhand
       STIMULI ARE VARIED                                     – RANDOM PRACTICE                                                                10 min Underhand    Overhand   Sidearm               Sidearm
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Overhand
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sidearm
                                                                                                                                               10 min Overhand     Overhand   Overhand   Overhand              Overhand
                                                              – SERIAL PRACTICE                                                    Serial
                                                                                                                                               10 min Underhand    Underhand Underhand Underhand Underhand     Underhand
                                                                                                                                   Practice                                                      Sidearm
                                                                                                                                               10 min Sidearm      Sidearm   Sidearm   Sidearm                 Sidearm




                                                                                                                                                     CONTEXTUAL
     BLOCKED AND RANDOM                                     Effects of Blocked and Random Practice,                                              INTERFERENCE EFFECTS
    PRACTICE WITH WEIGHTS                                            Retention and Transfer
                                                                                                                                                         (CIE)
                                                                                     25                                                       • HIGH CIE                               • LOW CIE
                                                                  CORRECT ATTEMPTS




                                                                                     20                                                          – Cognitively based                      – Repetition based
                        1            2                  3                                                                                        – Challenges learner                     – Learner does not have
                                                                                     15                                  BLOCKED                   during practice                          to think during practice
          10 REPS   LEG LIFTS   BENCH PRESS                                                                              RANDOM
                                              SIT-UPS                                10                                                          – Leads to better                        – Better performance
BLOCKED 10 REPS     LEG LIFTS   BENCH PRESS   SIT-UPS                                5                                                             retention                                during practice, but not
PRACTICE 10 REPS    LEG LIFTS   BENCH PRESS   SIT-UPS                                                                                                                                       better retention
                                                                                     0
          10 REPS   SIT-UPS     LEG LIFTS     BENCH PRESS                                                        R
                                                                                          2

                                                                                              6

                                                                                                  10

                                                                                                       14

                                                                                                            18




                                                                                                                 E   T
RANDOM    10 REPS   LEG LIFTS   BENCH PRESS   SIT-UPS
                                                                                                  TRIAL BLOCK    T   R
                                                                                                                 E   A
                                                                                                                     N
PRACTICE 10 REPS    SIT-UPS     LEG LIFTS     BENCH PRESS                                                        N
                                                                                                                     S
                                                                                                                 T
                                                                                                                 I   F
                                                                                                                 O   E
                                                                                                                 N   R




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                                                                                                                                                        12/6/2009




      CONCLUSIONS (CIE)                                           WHY CIE EFFECT?                                       MOTIVATION TO
• Low CIE is better during practice, but
  random or serial CIE better for retention or
  transfer
                                                        • ELABORATION
                                                          VIEW
                                                                                                                          ENHANCE
• Caveat - High CIE seems to help those with
                                                           – ENHANCES MEMORY
                                                             TRACE DURING
                                                             PRACTICE
                                                                                                                          LEARNING
  strong background in open skills
                                                        • ACTION PLAN
• High CIE should be introduced in Gentile’s              RECONSTRUCTION
  Stage II                                                VIEW
• Practice conditions that allow all variations            – REQUIRES MORE
                                                             ACTIVE PROCESSING
  each day are superior to those that allow                  DURING PRACTICE
  only one variation/day




             MOTIVATION                                             STATE ANXIETY
• LEARNING AND MOTIVATION ARE                           • Related to trait anxiety
                                                          and situation variables,
  RECIPROCAL
• AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
                                                          eg.:                                                           GOAL SETTING
                                                           – Importance of situation
  – TRAIT ANXIETY: Personality characteristics:              to the individual
    person’s general predisposition to view a              – Uncertainty of the
    situation as either threatening or nonthreatening        outcome of the
                                                             situation
  – STATE ANXIETY: Response to a specific
                                                           – Task to be performed
    situation




           GOAL SETTING                                            TYPES OF GOALS                                     GOAL SETTING GUIDELINES
                                                        • SHORT- OR LONG-TERM GOALS
                           • AN EFFECTIVE                                                                             • SET GOALS THAT WILL ENHANCE SKILL
                             MOTIVATING                    – IDEAL GOALS - Ultimate; end result                         MASTERY
                             TECHNIQUE                     – ACTION GOALS - Momentary                                 • SET OBJECTIVE GOALS
                           • GOALS ARE                  • ACHIEVEMENT GOALS                                           • SET GOALS THAT ARE MEANINGFUL
                             PERFORMANCE                   – MASTERY                                                  • SET DIFFICULT RATHER THAN EASY
                             OBJECTIVES                       • Self is referent                                        GOALS
                                                              • Learning to perform well or mastering skill           • SET ATTAINABLE GOALS
                                                           – COMPETITIVE                                              • SET GOALS ACCORDING TO INDIVIDUAL
                                                              • Others are referent                                     DIFFERENCES
                                                              • Demonstrating skill or dominance relative to others




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                                                                                   12/6/2009




     GOAL SETTING (cont)
• SET GOALS ON THE BASIS OF PAST
                                         MODELING         EFFECTIVE MODELING
  EXPERIENCES
• SET BOTH SHORT- AND LONG-TERM
                                            OR         • STATUS OF MODEL
  GOALS                                                • CORRECTNESS OF DEMONSTRATION
• SET SPECIFIC GOALS RATHER THAN “DO   OBSERVATIONAL   • WHEN SHOULD THE MODEL BEGIN
  YOUR BEST GOALS”                                       DEMONSTRATING
• USE GOAL SETTING PLUS PERFORMANCE      LEARNING      • HOW FREQUENT SHOULD
  FEEDBACK
                                                         DEMONSTRATION OCCUR
• PARTICIPANT INVOLVEMENT LEADS TO
  BETTER PERFORMANCE THAN GOALS
  ASSIGNED WITHOUT PARTICIPANT
  INVOLVEMENT




 IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE
       MODELING
• MODEL MUST CONVEY TO
  OBSERVERS THE MOST CRITICAL
  FEATURES
• FACILITATOR MUST DIRECT
  ATTENTION TO WHAT NEEDS TO BE
  OBSERVED (REMEMBER KAHNMAN’S
  “MOMENTARY INTENTIONS”)




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Description: Lying on the ground, his hands placed on cross his chest, legs slightly bow, such as general sit-ups, get up and lie down, repeat several times. As the number of personal fitness is determined visually. Poor, or from lack of physical exercise, could the help of other help, such as the feet hooked through the wardrobe drawers, or ask someone to help hold the foot in order to get up. Another Stretch your hands forward, or light set aside, and can help easy movement arose, although the effect is not as good as your hands across the chest is good, but it has a beer belly for the initial movement exercises.