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					                                         GENERAL ELECTIVES



In addition to the core modules and the required number of prescribed electives, students must
offer general electives which can be chosen from subjects offered by the University, whether
within or outside the Institute.

Students on the Primary course whatever their combinations of Academic Subjects offer 6
academic units of general electives.

This section provides a list and description of the general electives offered in NIE.

Students are responsible for ensuring that the modules they select do not clash on the class
timetable and the examination timetable.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                             1
General Elective: Art

  Category/             Module                          Title                    No. of        Pre-
   Subject               Code                                                     AUs       requisites
 ART                    BAA281         Introduction to Chinese-brush Painting       3             -
                        BAA282         Principles and Practice of Photography       3             -
                        BAA283         Introduction to Printmaking                  3             -
                        BAA284         Visual Arts in Asia                          3             -
                        BAA285         Arts Across the Borders                      3             -

BAA281             Introduction to Chinese-brush Painting

                   Studio practice of brush technique and the exploration of different subject
                   matters, such as bird, flower, fish, landscape and others.


BAA282             Principles and Practice of Photography

                   Introduction to thinking about, taking, making and manipulating photographic
                   images.


BAA283             Introduction to Printmaking

                   An approach to some basic printmaking techniques.


BAA284             Visual Arts in Asia

                   Introduction to the various art forms in Asia. The influences of historical
                   backgrounds, philosophical beliefs and trade on symbolism, forms, techniques
                   and functions of artefacts.


BAA285             Arts Across the Borders

                   A thematic and integrated study focused on the discovery and understanding of
                   the artistic heritage and cultural significance, both historical and contemporary, of
                   a specific region. The module will culminate in a study visit to the site.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                       2
General Elective: Biology

  Category/            Module                          Title                  No. of        Pre-
   Subject              Code                                                   AUs       requisites
  BIOLOGY              BAB181          Conservation and Management of           3             -
                                       Natural Habitats
                       BAB182          Economic Botany                          3             -

BAB181             Conservation and Management of Natural Habitats

                   Natural areas and the means by which they can be best preserved and managed.
                   The conflicting demands between development and economic growth on one hand
                   and conservation on the other. The management of natural areas – such as
                   mangrove swamps, primary and secondary forests and rocky shorelines – and the
                   dilemmas for policy makers to maintain a balance between ecosystem, recreation,
                   and economic needs. In particular, Singapore as an excellent case study in which
                   these issues have been considered and resolved through sometimes difficult
                   decisions.

BAB182             Economic Botany

                   Plants as sources of medicine, food, fibre and timber. Economically important plants
                   have changed societies and social habits and have made history. Uses of local
                   plants and plant products, and their impact on the region's economy. Exploring the
                   future global impact of plants in healthcare, diets, lifestyles and the environment.
                   Emphasis on man's dependence on plants. Use of plants as renewable resources.
                   Prospects for research into plants that will yield new wonder drugs to combat age-old
                   as well as emerging diseases. Bioprospecting for novel plant products of industrial
                   value. Genetic modification of plants. Scientific advance and ethical concerns in the
                   brave new world.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                   3
General Elective: Chemistry

   Category/           Module                          Title                   No. of         Pre-
    Subject             Code                                                    AUs        requisites

 CHEMISTRY             BAY101          Inorganic Chemistry I                      3             -
                       BAY102          Physical Chemistry I                       3             -
                       BAY180          Introduction to the Chemistry of Soap      2             -
                                       and Detergents
                       BAY201          Inorganic Chemistry II                     3             -
                       BAY202          Physical Chemistry II                      3             -
                       BAY203          Organic Chemistry I                        3             -
                       BAY204          Organic Chemistry II                       3             -

Except for BAY180, please refer to the section on Academic Subjects for details of the above
modules.

BAY180             Introduction to the Chemistry of Soap and Detergents

                   General introduction to the chemistry of soaps and detergents. Physical properties of
                   surfactants; surface tension, contact angle, thermodynamic of micellization,
                   solubilization. Surfactant applications in industry and consumer products: laundry
                   detergent, shampoo, cosmetics, environmental remediation, enhanced oil recovery,
                   medical applications, mineral floatation.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    4
General Elective: Chinese Language

     Category/           Module                          Title                  No. of      Pre-
      Subject             Code                                                   AUs      Requisites
   CHINESE               BAC181        Chinese Calligraphy                         3           #
   LANGUAGE
                         BAC182        Intensive Speech Practice in Mandarin       3           #
                         BAC281        Introduction to Chinese Information         3           #
                                       Technology

# Pre-requisites:
  A1, A2, B3 or B4        in “AO” CL2 (or CL)
  A1 or A2                in “O” Lvl CL1 (or HCL)
  A, B, C, D or E         in “A” Lvl CL2 or CL1 (or HCL)


BAC181             Chinese Calligraphy

                   Origin and development of Chinese calligraphy; various styles; lives and styles of
                   prominent calligraphers; the use of the Chinese brush; techniques in writing the
                   basic strokes; demonstrations and practices.


BAC182             Intensive Speech Practice in Mandarin

                   Intensive speech practices; emphasis on mastery of spoken standard Mandarin;
                   formal and informal modes of communication across a range of social contexts.


BAC281             Introduction to Chinese Information Technology

                   Introduction to basic concepts and skills in Chinese Information Technology;
                   types of Chinese computing environments and codes; application software in
                   Chinese computing; Chinese word processing; Internet resources for Chinese
                   language and culture.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    5
General Elective: Chinese Literature

     Category/            Module                          Title                 No. of        Pre-
      Subject              Code                                                  AUs       requisites
  CHINESE                 BAJ181        Children’s Literature                      3           #
  LITERATURE
                          BAJ182        Modern Chinese Short Stories               3           #
                          BAJ281        Modern Chinese Poetry                      3           #
                          BAJ282        Introduction to Traditional Chinese        3           #
                                        Customs and Beliefs


# Pre-requisites:
  A1, A2, B3 or B4           in “AO” CL2 (or CL)
  A1 or A2                   in “O” Lvl CL1 (or HCL)
  A, B, C, D or E            in “A” Lvl CL2 or CL1 (or HCL)


BAJ181             Children’s Literature

                   Introduction to theory and practice of children’s literature in Chinese; focus on the
                   appreciation and writing of children’s poetry, production of children’s drama, etc.


BAJ182             Modern Chinese Short Stories

                   Development of the short story from the beginning of the May Fourth period till the
                   1980s. Readings and group discussions of selected pieces.


BAJ281             Modern Chinese Poetry

                   Development, characteristics and styles of modern Chinese poetry from the May Fourth
                   Period to the 1980s. Appreciation and discussion of selected works by major poets of
                   the time.


BAJ282             Introduction to Traditional Chinese Customs and Beliefs

                   Daily lives of the Chinese and traditional customs and beliefs; Chinese customs
                   and beliefs as reflected in popular idioms and moral precepts; Chinese myths
                   and legends; traditional Chinese festivals.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    6
General Elective: Drama & Performance

        Category/             Module                        Title                  No. of      Pre-
         Subject               Code                                                 AUs     requisites
   DRAMA &                    BAD281        Voice Studies & Production               3          -
   PERFORMANCE
                              BAD282        Introduction to Theatre Appreciation     3          -
                              BAD283        Introduction to Playwriting              3          -
                              BAD284        Shakespeare on Film                      3          -
                              BAD381        Drama in the Literature Classroom        3      BAR201,
                                                                                            BAR202
                              BAD382        Drama in the Primary School              3      BA Level 2
                                            Classroom                                       Non-D&P
                                                                                             students

BAD281             Voice Studies & Production

                   Aims to strengthen and enhance the student’s natural voice and increase
                   awareness of the best use of the voice in various working contexts, particularly
                   that of the school classroom. Use of established approaches (as constructed
                   collaboratively between the theatre and medical professions), to develop physical
                   and personal awareness, a feeling for the dynamics of language, and
                   understanding of basic theory of physiology and voice production.


BAD282             Introduction to Theatre Appreciation

                   High points of world theatre covered in a way that engages the class as a
                   theatrical production engages an audience. Selections from the Greeks to
                   discuss origins and influence, through to the modern era (West End, Broadway,
                   etc.). Anecdotal material about the theatre and its evolution will be emphasised.
                   The English Music Hall and American Musical Theatre will also be included.


BAD283             Introduction to Playwriting

                   The fundamentals of writing for the stage. The one-act play as a useful
                   introduction to dramatic language and structure. The one-act play as an
                   elaboration of a single incident, theme and subject matter, and the “discovery” of
                   theme as an action’s controlling idea, plot construction and related elements such
                   as beginnings, endings, proportion, climax, pacing, the building of suspense,
                   characterisation through action and through dialogue; and the revision of
                   dialogue.


BAD284             Shakespeare on Film

                   The aesthetic and technical aspects of adapting or translating Shakespearean
                   drama to the screen. Consideration of such cinematic adaptations as Oliver’s
                   Othello, the Nicol Williamson and Mel Gibson versions of Hamlet, Kenneth
                   Branagh’s production of Henry V, and Macbeth and King Lear as rendered by
                   Akiro Kurosawa.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                     7
BAD381             Drama in the Literature Classroom

                   How to apply drama strategies to the teaching of literature. Range of process
                   drama techniques to enhance creative learning outcomes in the teaching of
                   literature. Focus on a core literary text currently on the curriculum.


BAD382             Drama in the Primary School Classroom

                   How to apply drama strategies in the Primary School Classroom. Range of
                   process drama techniques to enhance creative learning outcomes across the
                   Primary School curriculum, particularly in history and the social sciences.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                               8
General Elective: Education Studies

The general elective modules (education) are intended to provide student teachers with an
opportunity for in-depth and rigorous study of some significant areas in the field of education. They
also serve as a basis for the application of educational principles in a variety of instructional contexts.

    Category/          Module                          Title                     No. of         Pre-
     Subject            Code                                                      AUs        requisites
 EDUCATION             BED181       Guidance and Counselling in Schools            3              -
 STUDIES               BED182       Learning and Individual Differences in the     3              -
                                    Classroom
                       BED183       Becoming a More Effective Student              3              -
                       BED184       Problem-solving Strategies of Primary          3              -
                                    School Pupils
                       BED185       Using Pupil Learning Styles to Maximise        3              -
                                    Instructional Effectiveness
                       BED281       Assessment and the Learning Process            3              -
                       BED282       Thinking Skills to Enhance Learning            3              -
                       BED283       Computer-based Learning                        3              -
                       BED284       Understanding and Helping                      3              -
                                    Underachievers
                       BED285       Fundamentals of Group Guidance                 3              -
                       BED286       Using and Producing Videos for                 3              -
                                    Classroom Teaching
                       BED287       Catering to Pupils with Behavioural and        3              -
                                    Learning Problems
                       BED288       Meeting the Needs of Bright Pupils in the      3              -
                                    Regular Classroom
                       BED381       Basic Counselling Skills for Teachers in       3              -
                                    Initial Training Programme
                       BED382       Teaching Mixed Ability Classes                 3              -
                       BED383       Problems and Issues in Singapore               3              -
                                    Education
                       BED384       Values Education: Concepts, Principles         3              -
                                    and Strategies
                       BED385       Effective Pupil Management in Schools          3              -
                       BED386       Motivating Pupils to Learn                     3              -


BED181             Guidance and Counselling in Schools

                   The concept and practice of pastoral care and career guidance (affective and career
                   education) and its introduction to Singapore schools. Group processes in the
                   classroom as well as psychosocial factors that may affect the development and
                   learning of pupils; assessment of guidance needs, group guidance techniques,
                   theories of career guidance, the helping relationship and basic counselling skills.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      9
BED182             Learning and Individual Differences in the Classroom

                   Biological, social, educational, psychological and cultural factors that may bring about
                   individual differences in learners; identification, assessment and nature of such
                   differences; and teaching strategies to cater to the different abilities and interests of
                   learners.


BED183             Becoming a More Effective Student

                   Techniques and skills for becoming a more effective student; hands-on activities in
                   learning and academic skills, time and stress management and effective
                   communication. Learning how to become more effective as “students” themselves,
                   and acquiring the resources to teach their pupils how to be effective as well.


BED184             Problem-solving Strategies of Primary School Pupils

                   Strategies of investigation; imitation; imagination; language and manipulation;
                   material-rich environment; problem, knowledge and discovery activities; ways of
                   consolidating and generalising competencies; further elaboration.


BED185             Using Pupil Learning Styles to Maximise Instructional Effectiveness

                   Learning styles as a crucial factor in pedagogical decision-making. The ‘mind
                   qualities’ of learners to be considered in terms of teaching strategies that can be used
                   to maximise effective learning in the classroom.


BED281             Assessment and the Learning Process

                   Basic knowledge and practical skills of monitoring and assessing pupils’ learning;
                   essentials of measurement in the cognitive, affective and behavioural domains; the
                   use and construction of classroom tests; assessing creativity and thinking skills; item
                   analysis, test reporting and basic statistics in educational measurement.


BED282             Thinking Skills to Enhance Learning

                   Cognitive and social factors affecting learning; the nature of thinking and types of
                   thinking skills; the role of the teacher in creating a conducive environment for thinking;
                   metacognition and learning strategies; various approaches to the teaching of thinking
                   skills and related programmes; teaching specific thinking skills to enhance learning;
                   the assessment of thinking and learning.


BED283             Computer-based Learning

                   Use of the computer for a variety of educational purposes; the effective use,
                   adaptation and integration of computer-based learning for teaching based on
                   research studies on learner control, motivation, computer-human interface, and
                   individual differences.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      10
BED284             Understanding and Helping Underachievers

                   Problem of underachievement; identification and diagnosis of problems; home, family
                   and school factors; personality factors; motivation; self-concept; categories and
                   characteristics of underachievers; educational considerations; teaching methods and
                   resources.


BED285             Fundamentals of Group Guidance

                   Developmental guidance to enhance learning and social interaction in the classroom.
                   Group theories and techniques in group guidance; decision-making; problem solving;
                   conflict resolution; and fostering of creativity in groups.


BED286             Using and Producing Videos for Classroom Teaching

                   Planning and producing videos: scripting and storyboards; video production
                   techniques; sound and video dubbing; titles and simple editing using students’ own
                   cameras; evaluation of use of video in classroom teaching.


BED287             Catering to Pupils with Behavioural and Learning Problems

                   Types of behavioural and learning problems; identification and diagnosis; nature of
                   handicapping conditions; causal factors accounting for learning difficulties; discipline
                   problems; grouping arrangements and intervention strategies; individualised
                   education plans; and multi-disciplinary approach in evaluation and intervention.


BED288             Meeting the Needs of Bright Pupils in the Regular Classroom

                   Conceptions of giftedness; current issues in the field of gifted education;
                   characteristics and needs of bright learners; differentiated and defensible educational
                   practices; interdisciplinary approaches; role of the family; bright underachievers.


BED381             Basic Counselling Skills for Teachers in Initial Training Programme

                   Students will learn to better identify, assess and help individual pupils with problems
                   which they may be experiencing at school or at home. Hands-on activities to learn
                   and practise basic counselling skills will be included.


BED382             Teaching Mixed Ability Classes

                   Biological, social, psychological and cultural factors influencing individual differences
                   in learning; identification and assessment procedures; classroom management
                   techniques; grouping and teaching strategies to cater to differences among pupils.


BED383             Problems and Issues in Singapore Education

                   A socio-historical study of problems and issues in Singapore Education; reform and
                   school effectiveness; school drop-outs and the educational disadvantages of working
                   class children; subject-centred and student-centred curriculum; co-operative learning
                   and beginning teachers’ concerns.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                     11
BED384             Values Education: Concepts, Principles and Strategies

                   The aims, content and methods of various teaching, with special reference to primary
                   education. The nature of morality, right moral motivation, and the psychology of
                   moral development. Philosophical understanding with regard to moral values and
                   their justification as the basis for validating content in values teaching.


BED385             Effective Pupil Management in Schools

                   Values and beliefs which contribute to positive pupil management; strategies to
                   promote positive pupil behaviour, handling discipline problems in class; managing
                   pupils with problem behaviours; whole-school approach to pupil management.


BED386             Motivating Pupils to Learn

                   Motivation and its relationship to classroom learning and pupil behaviour, factors
                   influencing motivation to learn; effective strategies for motivating pupils to learn;
                   matching problem type with appropriate motivation strategy and making learning
                   interesting.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                  12
General Elective: English Language

    Category            Module                         Title                   No. of        Pre-
     Subject             Code                                                   AUs       requisites
 ENGLISH                BAE101         Introduction to the Study of              3           Non-
 LANGUAGE                              Language                                             English
                                                                                            majors
                        BAE182         Cross-cultural Communication              3           Non-
                                                                                            English
                                                                                            majors
                        BAE183         Language and Social Life                  3          Non-
                                                                                           English
                                                                                           majors &
                                                                                           BAE101
                        BAE185         Writing for Communication                 3             -
                        BAE186         Computer Applications in Language         3          Non-
                                       Studies                                             English
                                                                                           majors &
                                                                                           BAE101
                        BCE281         Connecting Primary Children to            3             -
                                       Books: Teaching towards Lifelong
                                       Literacy


BAE101             Introduction to the Study of Language

                   Introduction to core areas in the study of human language. The classification of the
                   sounds of English and their use in basic transcription. The concept of the phoneme.
                   Morphology and the analysis of the components of English words. Syntax, word
                   classes and the form and function of sentential constituents. Exploration of different
                   varieties of language and patterns of language.


BAE182             Cross-cultural Communication

                   General introduction to cross-cultural communication; the influence of a society’s
                   value orientations, role expectations, perception, nonverbal patterns and
                   language behaviour on communication with people of other cultures or nations.


BAE183             Language and Social Life

                   Introduction to sociolinguistics, including varieties of language, patterns of
                   language use, language maintenance and shift within multilingual communities,
                   and cross-cultural differences in language behaviour.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    13
BAE185             Writing for Communication

                   Exploration of the characteristics and processes of effective and ineffective
                   writing in academic and occupational settings with the aim of equipping students
                   with the cognitive operations, attitudinal stances, and linguistic skills underlying
                   successful writing.     Besides considering theoretical issues affecting the
                   composition and comprehension of written communication, students will examine
                   their own writing and samples of academic and non-academic transactional
                   writing to see how reader expectations, culture, communicative intent, and
                   context of situation shape the development of a text.


BAE186             Computer Applications in Language Studies

                   State-of-the-art software for various types of language processing, including
                   speech recognition, and its application to language research and the teaching
                   and learning of language. Examines multimedia production, particularly the
                   production of materials for teaching language skills.


BCE281             Connecting Primary Children to Books: Teaching towards Lifelong Literacy

                   Offered for students who are interested in children’s books. Examination of
                   commendable children’s books in different genres. Ways to promote and
                   enhance language and literacy learning in the primary classroom through variety
                   of reader-response activities and children’s literature.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      14
General Elective: Geography

     Category/           Module                        Title                  No. of        Pre-
      Subject             Code                                                 AUs       requisites
  GEOGRAPHY              BAG181        Human Impact on the Environment          3        Non-Geog
                                                                                          students
                         BAG281        World Development & Resources            3        Non-Geog
                                                                                          students
                         BAG381        Population & Health                      3        Non-Geog
                                                                                          students
                         BAG382        Information Technology in                3         Students
                                       Geographic Education                              majoring in
                                                                                         Geography

Note:

Not all general electives will be offered every year

BAG181             Human Impact on the Environment

                   Distribution of human populations and the different ways human activities have
                   altered the climate, vegetation, soils and landforms of the earth. Case studies
                   from Southeast Asia to illustrate relationships between climate, soils, vegetation
                   and human activities.


BAG281             World Development and Resources

                   The nature and availability of the earth’s resources which influence world
                   economic development and wealth distribution. The distribution of three key
                   resources: food, energy and industrial raw materials, and the relationship of
                   these resources with population growth and consumption patterns. The impacts
                   of population increase and industrialisation on the environment as well as future
                   world development patterns.

BAG381             Population and Health

                   Elements of population and health issues in the light of their usefulness and
                   relevance to teachers, administrators, engineers, scientists, business personnel,
                   and people with an interest in these issues. Overview of such topics as fertility
                   and mortality revolutions, shifts in population debate, population projections and
                   estimations, population ageing, social policy implications of ageing populations,
                   disability and handicap, health intervention programmes and health transitions.
                   Special reference to developed and developing countries including Singapore
                   and other ASEAN countries.


BAG382             Information Technology in Geographic Education

                   Critical issues in information technology in geography teaching and learning.
                   Web-based instruction in geography including the use of the Electronic Reserve
                   Shelf and web-based asynchronous discussion forums. The optimisation of
                   open-tool multimedia software in geography teaching such as the integrated
                   curriculum-based multimedia courseware, and generic CD-ROM software.
                   Evaluating the quality of Internet information sources. Evaluating multimedia
                   courseware materials.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    15
General Elective: History

      Category/            Module                           Title                   No. of      Pre-
       Subject              Code                                                     AUs     requisites
   HISTORY                BAH181          History of Singapore                        3           -
                          BAH182          ‘Secret Histories’: Spies, Security and     3           -
                                          Betrayal
                          BAH183          History of Science and Technology           3           -

BAH181             History of Singapore

                   The motives behind the establishment of modern Singapore in 1819.
                   Developments and changes in Singapore in the nineteenth century. The origins
                   of a plural society. The shifts and changes within the immigrant communities and
                   British policy towards the different races and the reactions of the Chinese,
                   Indians and Malays. The rise of nationalism in Singapore before and after the
                   Japanese occupation and the road to independence.                Nationhood and
                   Singapore's relations with her ASEAN neighbours from the viewpoint of
                   Singapore's needs and global developments.


BAH182             ‘Secret Histories': Spies, Security and Betrayal

                   Covers the world of security and intelligence, both real and fictional. Looks at the
                   role of intelligence and security, the motivations and actions of spies, and the
                   impact of intelligence on society.


BAH183             History of Science and Technology

                   Modern science was developed in the West. However, many overlook the fact
                   that people in different parts of the world have played a part in laying the
                   foundations upon which modern science was built. Looks at the symbiotic
                   relationships that have been sustained between science and technology and
                   certain historical and contemporary cultures and civilisations.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      16
General Elective: Literatures in English

     Category/            Module                          Title                   No. of        Pre-
      Subject              Code                                                    AUs       requisites
 LITERATURES              BAR281        Poetry Workshop                              3             -
 IN ENGLISH
                          BAR282        Short Story Workshop                         3             -

                          BAR283        Literature & Technology                      3             -
                          BAR284        Literature & Ecology                         3             -
                          BAR285        The City in Literature                       3             -
                          BAR381        Madness in Literature                        3       BA Level 2
                                                                                              students
                          BAR382        Silence in Literature                        3       BA Level 2
                                                                                              students

BAR281             Poetry Workshop

                   The variety of forms of poetic creativity possible. The characteristics of the
                   genre, the function of intensity of expression and the role of originality.
                   Experimentations in original and individualistic ways, stretching the range of use
                   of language, rhythm, voice and control.


BAR282             Short Story Workshop

                   The demands of the short story form. What is a short story? What makes a
                   good short story? How do you work on characters or engage the readers in a
                   short story? Students write their own stories as a way of responding to these
                   questions.


BAR283             Literature & Technology

                   Narrative fictions of utopian and dystopian societies, ranging from utopias posited
                   by Bacon, Morris and Butler, through satirical prophecies imagined by Wells,
                   Huxley, Orwell, Clarke, Aldiss and Vonnegut, to contemporary women’s science
                   fiction. Ideological criticism of the present amidst imagined worlds of disaster or
                   deliverance.


BAR284             Literature and Ecology

                   Issues of nature worship from primitivism to aboriginal rites; of religious
                   inspiration and despair in the wilderness; of literary settings and motifs,
                   geographical prejudices and privileges, of ecological insensitivity through war and
                   abuse; of ideological links between man, animal and land. The pastoral,
                   pantheist and lyrical literary responses.


BAR285             The City in Literature

                   The representation of the city in literature and art. Urbanisation, industrialisation,
                   alienation and depersonalisation; educational advancement, centralised
                   efficiency, commercial growth, independence of thought and social harmony. Is
                   there a common bias against an accurate representation of the city?



BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                        17
BAR381             Madness in Literature

                   Madness as the subject of a literary work, e.g., Dostoevsky’s The Possessed.
                   Madness as an informing experience of the work of a writer, e.g., Nietzsche,
                   Kafka, William Styron, A Alvarez, Michel Foucault.


BAR382             Silence in Literature

                   Silence as a subject in literature e.g., in Patrick White and silence as a point of
                   reference which literature indicates as standing beyond itself e.g., in Paul Valery,
                   Rainer Maria Rilke.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      18
General Elective: Mathematics

      Category/             Module                     Title                   No. of        Pre-
       Subject               Code                                               AUs       requisites
  MATHEMATICS              BAM183        History of Mathematics                  3             -
                           BAM185        Introduction to Mathematical            3             -
                                         Problems and Solutions
                           BAM187        Introduction to Computing               3             -
                           BAM188        Understanding Statistics                3             -
                           BAM196        Mathematical Kaleidoscope               3             -
                           BAM197        Computer Algebra Systems                3             -
                           BAM381        A Multi-dimensional Approach to         3         BCM201
                                         Classroom Assessment in
                                         Mathematics

BAM183             History of Mathematics

                   Origins of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mensuration and computation
                   in Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Chinese and Arabic mathematics from the earliest
                   times until the Thirteenth Century.


BAM185             Introduction to Mathematical Problems and Solutions

                   Kinds of Problems in the real world. Mathematics and Problems: Mathematical
                   Problems. The art of Problem Posing. Kinds of Solutions. Mathematical Solutions.
                   Validity of mathematical solution. Ways to search for mathematical solutions.
                   Mathematics and Problem Solving Strategies. Mathematical thinking: trying to make
                   sense for all things. Mathematical abilities: building up mathematical experience and
                   perceptions. A look at some mathematical problems and the searching of their
                   solutions.


BAM187             Introduction to Computing

                   Use of a programming language (Basic, FORTRAN, C++, etc). Data types and
                   constants. Expressions. Data initialisation. Assignment statements. Control
                   statements. Input and output.


BAM188             Understanding Statistics

                   Descriptive statistics (Exploratory Data Analysis). Measures of central tendency,
                   location and spread. Use of software (e.g. MINITAB). Probability-basic concepts
                   and rules. Elementary sampling techniques. Special distributions – uniform,
                   binomial, Poisson, geometric, hypergeometric, exponential, normal. Applications.


BAM196             Mathematical Kaleidoscope

                   A mathematics appreciation course, which looks at mathematics from a recreational
                   point of view. Includes some history, some topics in the traditional syllabuses but
                   from a different point of view, and also some topics outside the standard curriculum,
                   for example, magic squares.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                   19
BAM197             Computer Algebra Systems

                   Introduction to one or more computer algebra systems (CAS), for example, MAPLE.
                   What CAS is capable of. (Not a training course for the use of CAS. The
                   manipulative skills will be kept to calculus or pre-calculus level depending on the
                   class.)


BAM381             A Multi-dimensional Approach to Classroom Assessment in Mathematics

                   The following topics in relation to their application in mathematics: current issues of
                   classroom assessment. Instructional objectives. Table of specifications. Preparing
                   test items. Performance assessment. Observations, interviews, conferences and
                   questionnaires. Mathematics portfolios. Student self-assessment. Scoring or
                   grading of student learning. Reporting of student learning.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    20
General Elective: Music

    Category/           Module                          Title               No. of       Pre-
     Subject             Code                                                AUs      requisites
 MUSIC                  BAI281         Improvisation                           3           -
                        BAI282         Movement Studies                        3           -
                        BAI283         Percussion                              3           -
                        BAI381         Studies in Indian Music                 3           -
                        BAI382         Studies in Japanese Music               3           -
                        BAI383         Classical Guitar 1                      3           -
                        BAI384         Choir I                                 3           -
                        BAI385         Choir II                                3           -
                        BAI386         Voice                                   3           -
                        BAI387         Recording                               3           -
                        BAI388         Band I                                  3           -
                        BAI389         Band II                                 3           -
                        BAI481         Studies in Chinese Music                3           -
                        BAI482         Studies in Malay Music                  3           -
                        BAI483         Classical Guitar 2                      3       BAI383
                        BAI484         Choir III                               3           -
                        BAI485         Choir IV                                3           -
                        BAI486         Studies in Jazz & Pop                   3           -
                        BAI487         Music and Acoustics                     3           -
                        BAI488         Band III                                3           -
                        BAI489         Band IV                                 3           -
                        BAI490         Advanced Conducting                     3           -


BAI281             Improvisation

                   A practical-based course in the various musical and thought processes that
                   underpin improvisation as a music-making activity with reference to a number of
                   cultural contexts.

BAI282            Movement Studies

                   This course revolves around some of the practical possibilities of making the
                   body respond to music.


BAI283             Percussion

                   A practical-based course in percussion playing and developing skills on a range
                   of instruments as well as in ensemble playing.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                 21
BAI381             Studies in Indian Music

                   A practical-based course on both North and South Indian classical music. The
                   study involves developing instrumental skills in performing on the tablas, sitar
                   and using Indian vocal techniques.


BAI382            Studies in Japanese Music

                   The study involves one or two traditional ensemble instruments, koto or
                   shakuhachi. Largely a practical-based course. Music activity will involve learning
                   and developing skills in performing on the respective instruments as well as in
                   ensemble playing.


BAI383            Classical Guitar 1

                   A beginner’s course in learning to play the classical guitar. Reading of basic
                   notation and understanding and recognising chord symbols.


BAI384             Choir I

                   Participation in the NIE Choir. Study of choral repertoire from all periods,
                   concentration on vocal and choral techniques as related to musical styles,
                   preparation and presentation of concerts.


BAI385             Choir II

                   Further experience of the choral repertoire and of vocal techniques in the NIE
                   Choir.


BAI386             Voice

                   Fundamentals and techniques of singing. Study of the basic technique,
                   repertoire and function of the vocal mechanism.


BAI387             Recording

                   Basic acoustics and Engineering Theory. The process of recording. Differences
                   in commonly used recording techniques. The nature and operation of studio
                   equipment. Recording live music. Assembling a domestic playback system.
                   Exposure visits to various professional studios.


BAI388             Band I

                   Rehearsing and performing in the symphonic band.             The band provides
                   performers with a wide range of repertoire.


BAI389             Band II

                   Further participation in the symphonic band to perform the fine band literature,
                   both original and transcribed, for the modern band, including premieres of new
                   works.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    22
BAI481             Studies in Chinese Music

                   This will involve the study of performance of Chinese flute in ensemble playing.
                   Playing techniques and skill development will be taught. Ensemble playing with
                   other Chinese musical instruments will be encouraged throughout the
                   programme.


BAI482             Studies in Malay Music

                   This will involve the learning and playing of the Malay framed drums, kompang
                   and the Malay lute gambus. Performance techniques will involve acquiring skills
                   in interlocking rhythmic variations and doing group performances.


BAI483             Classical Guitar 2

                   Advanced techniques in guitar performance will be taught. Development of a
                   broadly based classical guitar repertoire.


BAI484             Choir III

                   Further experience of the choral repertoire and of vocal techniques. Based on
                   individual singing proficiency, students may be assigned to participate in the NIE
                   Choir or, the NIE Singers, an a cappella vocal ensemble which consists of a
                   selective group of singers.


BAI485             Choir IV

                   Further experience of the choral repertoire and of vocal techniques in the NIE
                   Choir or the NIE Singers.


BAI486             Studies in Jazz & Pop

                   A study of the development of popular music in the late 20th century from its
                   European and Afro-American roots. This is largely a practical-based course.


BAI487             Music and Acoustics

                   This module involves a musician’s approach to acoustics as the science of
                   sounds and deals with the aspects of perception, propagation and transmission
                   of sound as well as an exploration of acoustics of musical instruments.


BAI488             Band III

                   Continued experience in the symphonic band. To perform literature of the
                   highest aesthetic value with emphasis on major original works.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                    23
BAI489             Band IV

                   Advanced experience in performing the band literature which requires individual
                   musicianship and advanced playing techniques.


BAI490             Advanced Conducting

                   Development of knowledge and skills at a professional level; various periods and
                   composers and relationship of different styles to the conductor’s art; musical
                   analysis and practice in conducting.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                  24
General Elective: Physical Education

     Category/           Module                          Title                No. of      Pre-
      Subject             Code                                                 AUs     requisites
 PHYSICAL                BPA180        Health and Fitness                       2       Non-PE
 EDUCATION                                                                              Students
                         BPA380        Principles of Athletic Training          2       BPA101
                         BPA381        Fitness and Exercise Counselling         2       BPA201
                                                                                          and
                                                                                        BPA203
                         BPA383        Sports and the Child                     2      Yr 3 & 4 PE
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA384        Introduction to Comparative Physical     2       Yr 3 & 4
                                       Education and Sports                             Students
                         BPA387        Sports History                           2       Yr 3 & 4
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA480        Nutrition and Sports Performance         2      Yr 3 & 4 PE
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA481        Philosophy of Sports                     2       Yr 3 & 4
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA482        Physical Education for Students with     2       Yr 3 & 4
                                       Special Needs                                    Students
                         BPA484        Comparative Physical Education and       2       BPA384
                                       Sports II
                         BPA486        Coaching the School Athlete              2      Yr 3 & 4 PE
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA488        Recreation and Leisure Studies           2       Yr 3 & 4
                                                                                        Students
                         BPA489        Topics in Physical Education             2      Yr 3 & 4 PE
                                                                                        Students
                         BPC280        International Games                      1           -
                         BPC281        Weight Training for Women                1           -
                         BPC284        Creative Dance for Primary School        1           -

BPA180             Health and Fitness

                   Basic scientific knowledge about one’s body and the use of this information and
                   understanding to improve health and wellness through exercise, diet and stress
                   management techniques.


BPA380             Principles of Athletic Training

                   The recognition and assessment of common athletic injuries.          A detailed
                   understanding of surface anatomy, landmarking, injury mechanics and assessment
                   techniques as well as the implications of injury to body parts.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                25
BPA381             Fitness and Exercise Counselling

                   Current trends in fitness assessment and exercise counselling. A detailed theoretical
                   and practical examination of exercise leadership and the administration and
                   interpretation of established fitness tests. Athlete assessment as well as employee
                   fitness programmes, home fitness programmes, private clubs, fitness assessment
                   certification and government fitness programmes.


BPA383             Sports and the Child

                   The role of sports and physical activity in the lives of growing children. Children in
                   competition, stress in young athletes, injuries in youth sports, developmental
                   consideration for children in sports.


BPA384             Introduction to Comparative Physical Education and Sports

                   Comparative and international studies by means of selected area studies. Analysis of
                   selected countries to provide a broad awareness of the range of problems and issues
                   faced by physical education and sports systems throughout the world and the
                   different strategies that have been adopted to address these. Physical education
                   within the framework of compulsory schooling and sports within the context of
                   national sports for all programmes as well as elite competitive sports.


BPA387             Sports History

                   Sport has a central role in Singaporean culture, in fact, it is one of the most pervasive
                   social forces in modern society. This subject will consider the historical development
                   of sport and in particular how this has impacted upon the development of Singapore’s
                   sporting heritage. The history of sport will be traced from Ancient Greece to the
                   current post-modern age. Students will be able to more fully appreciate how
                   historical, political and socio-cultural factors have influenced the development of
                   Singaporean sport and, indeed, society in general.


BPA480             Nutrition and Sports Performance

                   The links between nutrition, exercise and health. The effects of diet and exercise on
                   body composition and weight control; the relationships between diet, health and
                   disease, particularly coronary heart disease and the role of nutrition in optimising
                   sports performance.


BPA481             Philosophy of Sports

                   An overview of the fundamental nature and purpose of sports and physical activity
                   from a philosophical perspective. The significance and method of philosophy that is
                   applied to the study of physical activity. Some of the main issues concerning the
                   value of physical activity. An attempt to synthesise accounts of Eastern and Western
                   origin.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                     26
BPA482             Physical Education for Students with Special Needs

                   The role of Physical Education in the total development of students with disabilities.
                   The need for, scope of, and structure of adapted physical education for selected
                   special groups of students with disabilities.        Etiologies and distinguishing
                   characteristics of selected disabilities.    Factors underlying programme/lesson
                   planning and implementation. Practical sessions as well as lectures.


BPA484             Comparative Physical Education and Sports II

                   Comparative studies in physical education and sports. Some current examples of
                   cross-cultural research. The process of enquiry through comparison. Selected
                   themes in both national and international context with the broad aim of helping us
                   "understand better our past; locate ourselves more exactly in the present; and discern
                   a little more clearly what our future may be".


BPA486             Coaching the School Athlete

                   Planning training programmes for school athletes. Periodisation techniques in
                   designing the annual and quadrennial training of athletes. Testing, monitoring and
                   implementing programmes for elite athletes.


BPA488             Recreation and Leisure Studies

                   This module examines and studies recreation and leisure, particularly Singapore’s
                   recreation and leisure facilities and opportunities, from a theoretical and applied
                   perspective including the following topics: administration and management; local and
                   national planning; benefits-driven approaches; needs assessments in the evaluation
                   of activities and services; contemporary issues; and the marketing and promoting of
                   the recreation and leisure product.


BPA489             Topics in Physical Education

                   Investigation of particular themes in physical education, e.g. the asthmatic child's
                   physical activity, home-based physical education, imagery use in children, active
                   living education in schools and the life history of physical education teachers in
                   Singapore. (Not offered every year).


BPC280             International Games

                   The play traditions of different cultures around the world. The importance of play in
                   different societies, theories of play behaviour and the philosophy of play. Practical
                   component covering the play activities of different cultures around the world.


BPC281             Weight Training for Women

                   This module introduces theoretical and applied principles of weight training with
                   particular emphasis on specific gender issues involved with women’s participation.
                   Both fixed equipment and free weights will be utilised while students learn safety
                   rules and etiquette, individualisation of programmes, and a variety of exercises and
                   resistance training systems.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                  27
BPC284             Creative Dance for Primary School

                   Teaching of creative dance and basic dance technique for children with a focus on
                   fundamental principles of safe, efficient and aesthetic movement.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                              28
General Elective: Physics

   Category/            Module                         Title                  No. of         Pre-
    Subject              Code                                                  AUs        requisites
 PHYSICS                BAP101         Mechanics of Particles and Waves          3             -
                        BAP102         Thermal Physics & Optics                  3             -
                        BAP181         Environmental Science                     3             -
                        BAP182         Flat Panel Display and Visual             3             -
                                       Sciences
                        BAP183         The Making and Improvisation of           3             -
                                       Science Teaching Aids
                        BAP204         Physics Laboratories (General             3             -
                                       Physics Experiments and
                                       Electronics)
                        BAP281         Introduction to Applied Optics            3             -

Except for BAP181, BAP182, BAP183 and BAP281, please refer to the section on Academic
Subjects for details of all the above modules.

BAP181             Environmental Science

                   Environmental Science is a truly multidisciplinary field and this module serves to
                   provide a comprehensive introduction to a complex interdisciplinary field. The
                   objective is to provide the students with a sufficient background and information so
                   that they can begin to think about how to approach the environment and the hazards
                   posed rather than just provide simple “cookbook” solutions.


BAP182             Flat Panel Display and Visual Sciences

                   Today, the IT age is upon us and one of its greatest impacts can be seen in the
                   computer world – graphics and visualisation. Its implications for education, be it
                   teaching or learning is obvious and hence, there is also a great need to expose the
                   students to the current technologies used in visual displays and how they impact on
                   society. This elective serves to introduce to the students the fascinating world of
                   visual technologies and displays as well as increase their awareness of the scientific
                   principles behind their development.


BAP183             The Making and Improvisation of Science Teaching Aids

                   Construction of an expended polystyrene cutter. Working with foamed polystyrene to
                   produce teaching models.       Working with discarded glass bottles and jars.
                   Constructing teaching models with acrylic materials for use on the OHP. The
                   Pegboard and its accessories. Assembling a simple science experiment for
                   classroom demonstration using a Pegboard. Use of constructed models for science
                   teaching – student presentations.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                   29
BAP281             Introduction to Applied Optics

                   Elements of geometrical and wave optics. Optical instruments. Introduction to lasers
                   and laser applications. Optical fibres and optical communication. Light detectors.
                   Display devices.

                   The basic concepts of geometrical optics: refractive index, reflection, refraction, total
                   internal reflection. Lenses, mirrors and simple optics: focal length, imaging,
                   magnification. Electromagnetic waves and photons: EM waves and spectrum,
                   emission and absorption. Elements of physical optics: interference, diffraction,
                   polarisation, scattering, dispersion; the colours of the sky. Optical instruments:
                   magnifying glass, telescope, microscope, spectrometer. Introduction to lasers and
                   their applications: concept, types, properties, applications. Optical fibres and optical
                   communication: parameters, and types of fibres, optical communication systems.
                   Light detectors: photoconductive detectors, photodiodes, photomultipliers, CCDs.
                   Display devices: cathode ray tubes, light emitting diodes, plasma displays, liquid
                   crystals displays.




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                     30
General Elective: Science

    Category/           Module                         Title                     No. of         Pre-
     Subject             Code                                                     AUs        requisites
 SCIENCE                BCS382         Thinking Science, Creative                  3              -
                                       Science
                        BRE381         Research Exercise                           3              -
                                                                               (6 weeks
                                                                               practical)

BCS382             Thinking Science, Creative Science

                   Scientific Thinking: the importance of good assessment of aims and available
                   methods; careful observation and measurement; systematic testing and
                   experimentation; and logical reasoning and forming conclusions. The thinking
                   elements in scientific thinking and the core skills in creative science thinking.
                   Lectures and discussions on the generation of aims and ideas, the making of
                   observations and the forming of logical conclusions: what is involved in critical
                   thinking in science; how scientific decisions are made and scientific problems solved;
                   creativity in the science classroom. Practical sessions on Activities for science
                   classroom teaching, including thinking through and designing new activities;
                   Projects which will be done with a critical and creative eye; and the importance of
                   Questions in the teaching and learning of Science.


BRE381             Research Exercise

                   A six-week full-time academic exercise during the vacations where students are
                   required to conduct research in the disciplines of either Biology, Chemistry,
                   Mathematics or Physics. This course provides the opportunity for students to
                   undertake independent research which involves experimental design, analysis of data
                   as well as scientific writing. These skills are vital for the training of science project
                   supervision in schools.

                   For the school of Science, students may take this course during Years 1,2,3 and 4.
                   For Year 4, students can only take this course during the November-December
                   vacation at the end of Semester 1 of Year 4.

                   All students are required to prepare a research report (70% of the total mark) and to
                   have an oral presentation at a research seminar (30% of the total mark) two months
                   after the completion of projects (i.e. August for projects completed in the May-June
                   vacation, February for projects completed in the November-December vacation).




BA/BSc with Diploma in Education - General Electives                                                      31

				
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