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Feasibility Study - Introduction

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                                     Chapter 2

        Introduction/Background of the Study



2.1 BRIEF BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY



       Tourism has become one of the most important social and economic activities in the

world. The industry has a growing local service demands to support the needs of the tourist.

It has created a demand for professionals who are committed to professional careers, or

services of well-trained, enthusiastic and responsible individuals. Tourism is a multimillion-

dollar industry, which offers extensive potentials for the future, both internationally and

domestically. The use of a foreign language is a positive social effect of tourism. The need

and desire to communicate increases the interest to learn another language. Education and

training is a high priority. It ensures the quality of tourism services where the success of

tourism industry depends. Education enters as the longest, undying profession in history. To

attract the best professionals to work in the industry is essential. 1Diplomat must really be a

future need with the providence of continuous learning and helping in personal expansion

and achievement. This study is an attempt to develop an institution in the area of language

teaching, of which the avowed purpose is to teach active and passive mastery of a language.

There are no guarantees of actual transfer of skills acquired. There are many examples of

students who graduated but are ineffective once exposed to the realities of an actual situation.

In an enterprise of language education and teaching, the social impact is immediately visible
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since some skills build on other skills. Language is learned to be used not only for basic

communication needs but also as a tool for learning – as a medium of instruction – then any

failure to attain one’s goal impacts simultaneously on one’s teaching. Failure on other

education is partially language-influenced.2



THE PROBLEM



       Mandarin language is already available in the Philippines due to the presence of a

large Chinese community. Some Filipino parents enroll their kids in a Chinese school

because they can afford the money and the location, but others don’t have the same

resources. Diplomat is an attempt to reach these people and serve them to have the good

things that the others have and was harder for them to reach.

        Many stores in the country gaining popularity and income are of Chinese owners.

Filipinos can hear these Chinese people talk using their own language but don’t understand

what they mean. Chinese people are good entrepreneurs. If Filipinos can communicate well

in the same language they will learn many things from these people not only in terms of

entrepreneurship but also they will have access to the cultures and beliefs of the sleeping

giant’s people – as China is known for. The country needs a language of wider

communication as a means of establishing relations with the outside world and as a means of

sharing the world’s store of knowledge, especially of science and technology. With the help

of Diplomat this will be attainable.

       People from country to country share knowledge in order to be abreast and to keep

with the continuous changes in technology and making everyday life easier. People need

continuous knowledge and acquiring learned language is one way to do it. Mandarin is not a
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single language that everyone should learn, there are many other languages out there. One

could spend his/her entire life studying but will still die not learning everything. But at least

people must strive hard and do their best in everything that they do. It is how they help the

others move ahead.



LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

   There are many important reasons for learning a foreign language. Among them are:

   1. It increases your range of communication.

   2. By learning another language, you gain knowledge of the customs and ways of life of

       other nations.

   3. A foreign language can help add to your knowledge of your own language.

   4. Learning a foreign language helps you add to your general stock of information. It

       can be a key that unlocks new fields of knowledge.

   5. Knowledge of a foreign language can help you gain a spirit of broad human tolerance.



FOUR DIFFERENT SKILLS IN LEARNING A LANGUAGE

       There are four skills in learning a language namely: Speaking, Understanding,

   Reading, and Writing3.



VISION and MISSION

       It is visualized that Diplomat will contribute to the East-Asian growth in the future by

providing language learning and training programs. For specific plans, Diplomat is assumed

to put up branches because of its good performance and that someday it can become a

Regional Training Center for Languages attracting East-Asian students to the school. Future
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plans of putting up larger establishments with several programs on language learning.

Diplomat believes that education is one important way to develop, improve, and bring up the

quality of life of fellow Filipinos.4

          The task then is to broaden the citizen’s vision through a liberal education and to

qualify them to assume positions of leadership in local and international level through the

offered professionalization and training on language learning.5



2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims to:

      Create a feasible business venture of cost-effective trainings that will enhance motivation,

      understanding, and increase productivity and efficiency of its trainees.6

      Achieve the goal of competent foreign language teaching, speaking, reading, and writing.

     Ensure that the teaching and allied activities effects to learning of the required contents

      and skill, global language acquisition among trainees from the efforts of the language

      trainers.

     Provide evaluation and assessment programs to gauge learning results. 7



2.3       OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE            Also trade/notes payable turnover. The average age of trade
TURNOVER
                            payables indicates the length of time or the number of days

                            during which trade payables remain unpaid. It measures the

                            time which elapses from the purchase of materials up to the

                            payment of accounts
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ACCOUNTS
                  Measures the company’s ability to collect from credit
RECEIVABLE
TURNOVER          customers. It indicates the number of times that the average

                  balance of accounts receivable is collected during the

                  period. The higher the ratio, the more successfully the

                  business collects cash.



ACCRUED EXPENSE   Services already rendered but not yet paid.



ADVERTISING       Any paid non-personal communication transmitted through

                  mass media by an identified sponsor.



AVERAGE AGE OF    Provides a rough approximation of the average time that it
RECEIVABLES
                  takes to collect receivables.



COMMUNICATION     The process of transmitting or exchanging information,

                  ideas, beliefs and opinions mainly by the use of language.

                  Communication is defines as the “transfer of information

                  from one person to another.”



COMPOUNDED        The growth in investment portfolio brought about by
GROWTH
                  ploughing back the earnings therefrom. Also referred to as

                  the ‘8th wonder of the world’ on which astounds even the

                  experienced investors.
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CONCEPT
                    An idea or thought, esp. a generalized idea of anything built

                    up by a number of particular experiences



CONTEMPORARY        Existing/happening in the same periods of time (the present)

                    referring to persons or their works



COURSE              An onward movement; progress; going on from one point to

                    the nest.



CURRENT RATIO       Is used to evaluate a company’s liquidity and short-term

                    debt paying capacity. This statistics if often assigned great

                    importance by lenders in making credit-granting decisions.

                    Too much reliance on the Current Ratio may not be

                    advisable (see window dressing). Also the working capital

                    ratio.



CURRENT ASSETS      Measures the movement and utilization of current assets to
TURNOVER
                    meet operating requirements.



DEBT TO TOTAL       Shows the percentage of the company’s assets financed by
ASSETS RATIO/DEBT
RATIO
                    debt. The higher the percentage, the greater the risk that the

                    company will be unable to meet its obligations when due.
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DISCIPLINE          Any action directed toward an employee for failing to

                    follow company rules, standards, or policies. (2) Any

                    branch of knowledge or learning.



FOREIGN LANGUAGE    Any language foreign to an individual. Languages outside

                    one’s country.



GROSS EARNINGS OF   The compensation of an employee including regular pay
EMPLOYEES
                    and overtime premium.



INVENTORY           Measures the number of times that inventory is replaced
TURNOVER
                    during the period.



INVESTABLE CASH     The amount of money that an individual can afford to keep

                    in some forms of investment for a definite length of period

                    without hampering his day-to-day operations. It may come

                    from excessive cash inflow, extra ordinary gains, or

                    disposal of idle assets.



INVESTMENT          Refers to the process of defining investment objectives,
MANAGEMENT
                    adopting and executing strategies to optimize results

                    considering the risks involved, and evaluating performance

                    periodically.
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LANGUAGE           Human speech, either spoken or written. Language is the

                   most common system of communication. It allows people to

                   talk to each other and to write their thoughts and ideas. The

                   word language may be loosely used to mean any system of

                   communication, such as traffic lights or Indian smoke

                   signals. But the origin of the word shows its basic use. It

                   comes from the Latin word lingua, meaning tongue. And a

                   language still is often called a tongue.



LANGUAGE           Provides self-instruction in speaking and understanding a
LABORATORY
                   foreign language. The lab has tape recorders, headphones,

                   and special desks. The recorders allow trainees to record

                   their own voices. They use the headphones to listen to their

                   own pronunciation or to the pronunciation of others. The

                   walls help keep out distractions.




LEVEL
                   A short range of skills. Concepts, attitudes into which the

                   whole scopes of subject matter of a particular subject area

                   are divided. Each level aims to attain one or two specific

                   objectives through certain prescribed learning activities.




LIQUIDITY BUFFER
                   The amount of cash that an entity/individual must have to

                   take care of unexpected cash requirements.
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LOUNGE         A room/space, equipped with furniture for standing, sitting,

               lying, etc. in a relaxed, lazy way.



               The profession/function of a teacher; teaching, the art or
PEDAGOGY

               science of teaching; esp., instruction in teaching methods.




PORTFOLIO
               Aggregate of assets held as investments. May consist of

               bank accounts, treasury bills, bonds, commercial papers,

               precious metals/stones, stocks and real estate.



PREMIUMS       Special incentives in a form of a gift that is made available

               to a customer for buying a product. Example, free tuition

               extended to a fourth sibling enrolling in a school where his

               brothers are enrolled.



PRINCIPLE      A fundamental truth, law, doctrine, or motivating force,

               upon which others are based. A rule of right conduct.



PUBLICITY      Any information about an individual, a service, or

               organization that is distributes to the public through the

               media, and that is not paid for or controlled by the sponsor.

               Publicity release is published free.



QUICK ASSETS   Are those that may be converted directly into cash within a
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                    short period of time. These include cash, temporary

                    investments and receivables.



QUICK RATIO/ACID-   Tells whether the company could pay all its current
TEST RATIO

                    liabilities even if none of the inventory is sold.



RERCEIVABLES
TURNOVER
                    Time required to complete one collection cycle – from the

                    time receivables are recorded to the time new receivables

                    are recorded. the faster the cycle is completed, the more

                    quickly receivables are converted into cash.




SALARIES
                    Gross earnings of an employee who is paid a flat amount

                    per week/month regardless of the hours worked in a period.



SOLVENCY            Refers to the firm’s ability to pay all its debt. Involves a

                    longer time horizon.



TRAINING            Is concerned with making the best use of the human

                    resources by providing the appropriate to acquire the

                    necessary skills for jobs.




TRAINING CENTER
                    Any establishment, which offers one or more, training

                    programs for tourism manpower development and which is

                    equipped     with    training    facilities,   equipment   and
                                                                                   - -   17


                  instructional staff.



WAGE              Gross earnings of an employee who is paid by the hour for

                  only the actual hours worked.



WINDOW DRESSING   Is a manipulation of current assets near the end of an

                  accounting period that can produce a ratio that may satisfy

                  creditors while actually weakening the immediate liquid

                  position of the company (see the book of Ballada).



WORD OF MOUTH     A method of promotion that encourages people to tell other

                  people the products/services that they have enjoyed.



                  Is a measure of the liquid resources that management will
WORKING CAPITAL

                  control in the short term. A strong working capital position

                  can be an advantage to a company attempting to obtain

                  short-term credit at favorable interest rates. Investors and

                  long-term creditors view a strong working capital position

                  as an indication that a firm will be able to make its expected

                  dividend and interest payments in a timely manner.




WORKING CAPITAL
                  Also banker’s ratio, measures the number of times that the
RATIO
                  current liabilities could be paid with the available current

                  assets.
                                                                                       - -   18




WORKING CAPITAL
                         Answers how long can the firm expect to realize cash from
ACTIVITY RATIOS
                         its receivables and inventories and when should the firm

                         pay its current liabilities. The 3 ratios are: Receivable

                         turnover, inventory turnover and accounts payable turnover.



2.4    SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY



       This study is limited on the feasibility of a single proprietorship business enterprise

named DIPLOMAT, its market study within the nearest barangays, technicalities of the

Mandarin program together with the management objectives and strategies, financial

assumptions on the Mandarin Program, and socio-economic aspects of the project.



2.5 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

       This article by Austin Ramzy from the Time Magazine issue June 26, 2006 entitled

“Get Ahead, Learn Mandarin” provides enlightenment on the appearing necessity and

demand in Mandarin communication.



                                EXPORTING MANDARIN



       Eager to assert itself internationally, the Chinese government is itself on a drive to

promote Mandarin abroad in hopes of putting it on a par with English. “Promoting the use of

Chinese among overseas people has gone beyond purely cultural issues, said Hu Youqing, a

National People’s Congress deputy and Chinese-language professor at Nanjing University, in
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an interview with the government owned China Daily. “It can help build up our national

strength and should be taken as a way to develop our country’s soft power.”

       To that end, over the past two years Beijing has opened language and cultural centers

called Confucius Institutes-modeled on Spain’s Instituto Cervantes or Germany’s Goethe-

Institut-in more than 30 countries, including Australia, Japan, Kenya, the U.S. and Sweden.

China has also deployed more than 2,000 Peace Corps-like volunteers to teach Mandarin

overseas, mostly in Asian nations such as Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore,

Malaysia, and South Korea. Meanwhile, back home, China has been rapidly upgrading

Mandarin-language schools to handle a rising influx of overseas students. In Beijing, for

example, Capital Normal University’s North Number 1 campus features a pair of new gray

steel and glass towers with polished stone floors and an indoor swimming pool. China’s

vastly ambitious goal is to have 100 million foreigners studying Mandarin by the end of the

decade. “China is like an imperial civilization, or the U.S. or Britain or France. It tends to

view the world on its own terms,” says Nicholas Ostler, the British author of Empires of the

Word: A Language History of the World. “In China, people talk in Chinese. More and more,

they expect others to speak to them in Chinese, too.”

       China’s efforts to spread Mandarin are managed from the 17th floor of an office

building in the northwest corner of Beijing. There, school officials from around the world

come to talk with Xu Lin, a voluble woman with an intense gaze who heads the National

Office for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. On a hot, smoggy day last fall, she

hosted a delegation of American educational and business leaders, including a former

assistant secretary of education and school superintendents from New York and California.

They sat at attention as Xu outlined her agency’s plans for teaching Chinese to the world. To

close the meeting, Xu signed an agreement with the commissioner on education in Kentucky
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to help his state develop a Chinese-language program. Xu and the commissioner, Gene

Wilhoit, shook hands and Xu presented him with a gift: a digital wand that reads Chinese

characters aloud when dragged across text. Wilhoit tried it out. An uncomfortable silence

followed. “I think its broken,” one of Xu’s subordinates muttered. Someone fiddled with the

gadget, and Wilhoit tried again. There was a pause, and then a mechanical voice droned out

one of the phrases that Xu deemed critical to survival in China: “Ganbei!”

       Kentucky may have to rely heavily on such technology to teach students to say,

“cheers” in Chinese. The state has only a handful of Mandarin classes, such as a program that

started up in January at a Louisville elementary school, because there aren’t enough trained

Mandarin teachers. The problem is widespread in the U.S. According to a 2004 survey by the

College Board, a nonprofit organization that conducts college placement exams, 2,400 high

schools wanted to offer Advancement Placement classes in Chinese, far more than the few

hundred schools the organization expected. “The level of interest is high, but the level of

expertise is low,” says Scott McGinnis, an academic adviser at the Defense Language

Institute in Washington. In January, U.S. President George W. Bush announced plans to

spend $114million and augment educational programs for “critical need” languages including

Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Hindi and Farsi.

       For now, Kentucky educators are relying in large part on young Chinese volunteers

such as Zhao Jing, 29-year old from the northern coastal city of Tianjin. A year ago, Zhao’s

knowledge of Kentucky was limited to visits to Ken De Ji-the Chinese name for Kentucky

Fried Chicken. But after recruited by the Kentucky Department of Education to develop the

state’s Mandarin curriculum, she drives hours to rural towns to talk with students and

teachers about China. At noon on a recent Monday, Zhao carried her laptop to an audio-

visual studio in the state education building in Frankfort, set up a PowerPoint presentation on
                                                                                         - -   21


an octagonal table, and waited for her students. One by one, department employees filed into

the room and took seats around the table fort the twice-weekly Chinese class. “Ni hao,’ they

said, and then they began a lesson on the Chinese New Year and signs of the zodiac. When

Zhao asked department policy advisor Debbie Hendricks, 51, to say her birth animal,

Hendricks laughed, “I’m in over my head.”



SETTING THE PACE



       The rest of the world isn’t going to wait for people like this to catch up in the race to

learn Chinese. East Asians have a head start, due to the long history of interaction between

China and its neighbors. China is now South Korea’s biggest trading partner – having

surpassed Japan in 2002 and the U.S. in 2004-and its people are signing up for Chinese

lessons with zeal. South Koreans are the largest group of foreigners studying in China,

representing about 40% of the 110,800 total last year. This trend is boosted by cultural ties,

both new and old. Korean music and drama are among the most popular offerings on the

mainland today, while 60% of Korean vocabulary comes from Chinese (similarly, written

Japanese has several thousand characters borrowed from China). While that language transfer

took place over centuries, Chinese now spreads across Asian borders at the speed of an

instant message. Woo Jae Hoa, a 22-year old student in Seoul, practices Mandarin by

chatting online with a Chinese girl he met on the Internet. He types phonetically as he has yet

to learn many Chinese characters. His new pen pal responds with simple, out-of-a-textbook

answers, though they also delve on lighter topics, such as Korean pop music.

       But a shared history can also be a curse. The widespread popularity of Chinese-study

in Japan has been hindered by the sensitive relationship between the former enemies. Last
                                                                                          - -   22


year, there were 24 students in Mitsuko Yajima’s Mandarin courses at Asia University. This

year, following anti-Japanese demonstrations in several large Chinese cities, there are just 14.

“Japan is slow to nurture a population of Mandarin students,” says Yajima, who has taught

mandarin at the university for 30 year. “We are way behind South Korea.”

          That’s not just an academic concern. As China’s economic clout grows, the ability to

reduce frictions and misunderstandings in business communications offers a strategic

advantage. Even enthusiastic promoters of Mandarin aren’t predicting that it will ever

overtake English as the world’s common language. But just as knowing English proved a key

to getting ahead in the 20th century, learning Chinese will provide an edge in the 21st. It won’t

be easy, though. Acquiring the language requires hundreds of hours of study, countless early

mornings memorizing characters, or, if you’re a salary man in Tokyo like Hidetoshi Seki and

his pals, practicing sentence patterns while everyone else is having fun. “We deal with a lot

of Chinese clients,” says Hidetoshi, 39. “But we weren’t sent here by the company. We’re

drinking buddies and decided to do something more constructive with our time than guzzling

beer.” Getting ahead sometimes requires a little sacrifice.8



2.5 CHAPTER ENDNOTE



1
    by Vicente J. Carlos, secretary of the Department of Tourism Philippines, a preface from the
          book Principles of Tourism Part II by Cruz, Z.1994.
2
    The World Book Encyclopedia. World Book Inc. London. Vol.12. 1996.
3
    The World Book Encyclopedia. World Book Inc. London. 1996. Vol.12. pp. 50
4
    Women Entrepreneurs in Tourism. University of the Philippines Asian Institute of Tourism.
        1998:132-134.

5
    From the book of Gonzales, Andrew et al.1991. Managing Language and Literature
                                                                                       - -   23


          Programs in the Philippine Setting. Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.
6
    Part of Yoke Meng, Ngeow. Identifying Training Needs. Classifinder Philippine Star. June
           25,2006.
7
    From the book of Gonzales, Andrew et al. Managing Language and Literature Programs in
          the Philippine Setting. Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. 1991.
8
    Ramzy, Austin. Get Ahead, Learn Mandarin. Time Magazine. June 26, 2006: 16-22.

				
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