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Facial Reconstruction

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									Facial Reconstruction

    By Jessica Wu
    Instructor: Ms. Villani

   When skeletons are discovered, it
    was hard to determine who the
    victim and who the murderer was.
   Due to growing technology and
    experience of years there has been
   Facial reconstructions are done for
    many reasons including criminal
    investigations, remains that are
    considered historically valuable and
    remains of humans and prehistoric

             Facial reconstruction is
              one of the four major
              subfields of anthropology.
             Biological anthropology -
              used in approximating the
              look of early hominid
             Archaeology – used in
              verifying the remains of
              historic figures.
How To Start…
   Skull provides clues to help
    determine facial features in
       brow ridge
       distance between the eye orbits
       shape of the nasal chamber
       shape and projection of the nasal
       chin's form
       overall profile of the facial bones.
   Sculptor familiar with facial anatomy works
    with forensic anthropologist in interpreting
    skeletal features to reveal
       anatomical features
       age
       sex
       ancestry
Circumstantial Identification

   This is constituted when the
    biological profile of a set of
    skeletal remains fit an
   The identity of an individual
    cannot be affirmed with
    circumstantial identification
    since more than on person
    can fit the same biological
Positive Identification

                   This is constituted when
                    the set of skeletal remains
                    correlate with the
                    individual’s unique
                    biological charteristics.
                   It is necessary for the
                    skeletal remains to match
                    th medical or dental
                    records, pathologies or
                    DNA analysis.
Two-dimensional Reconstructions

   Hand-drawn facial images
    based on ante mortem and skull
   Usually requires cooperation
    between artist and forensic
   Commonly used method
    involves fixing tissue depth
    markers on unidentified skull at
    various anthropological
    landmarks before photographing
Reconstructing Of Decomposing Body
                Using artist’s knowledge of face
                 and general knowledge of body
                 reaction to decomposition,
                 educated estimates can show
                 how an individual appeared
                 before death.
                All methods of facial
                 reconstruction help put a face
                 on victim to produce quick
                 identification, saving man-hours
                 and allowing victim’s family to
Three-dimensional Reconstructions
   Sculptures created with modeling
    clay and other materials
   High-resolution three-dimensional
    computer images.
   Usually require both artist and
    forensic anthropologist.
   Computer programs are used to
    maneuver scanned photographs
    of remains, facial features and
    other available reconstructions.
   Usually most effective in victim
    identification since they are not
    too picturesque or artificial.
Color on Computer Images
             CT scans cannot record vital surface
              detail so aspects are added on by
              borrowing physical features of living
              person to paste onto 3D model.
             Color mapping - 3D depiction process
              using person with similar qualities as
              model skull. Involves photographing
              person and using software to merge
              three views into one strip.
             Does have accuracy limitation like clay
              facial reconstruction. Nose, mouth and
              ear shape are mostly guessed but
              lighting conditions and ability to view
              different angles of face makes
              computer facial reconstruction very
              lifelike and helpful during cases.

   Superimposing
    photograph of individual
    believed to be the owner
    of skeletal remains over X-
    ray of the unidentified skull.
   If X-ray and photograph
    are the same individual,
    the anatomical features of
    face should align
Reconstruction Case
               April 1995, skeletal remains were
                unearthed in Crawford, Cape Town.
               Lay in shallow grave and entangled in
                female clothing.
               Anatomical features of skull were
                determined to be of mixed racial origin
                of around 24 years of age.
               Reconstruction of the face was carried
                out on plaster model of skull and then
               Photograph was placed in the
                newspaper for possible recognition
                which was unsuccessful.
Case Solved
   Using media exposure, further
    attempt showed photograph on
    Crime Stop, a television program.
   Led to telephone call from woman
    living in Upington, Northern Cape.
   Daughter had disappeared after
    attending a birthday party in Cape
   Photograph of her daughter was
   Mother was confident that her
    daughter had been identified.
Beginning the Reconstruction
             Sculptors need to know depth of skin
              that overlays skull for life-like faces.
              Around mouth and between eyes are
              heavily concentrated depths. Depth
              measurements are available for people
              of all age, race and size.
             Small pegs are used as facial depth
              indicators and are fixed into the skull or
              cast. Strips of clay that match height of
              pegs are placed between pegs and then
              clay is used to fill the gaps.
             Effectiveness of clay reconstruction
              depends wholly on the skill of the
Facial Features
   The sculptor then work on aspects of
    face that give the most character and
    parts that expire fastest as the body
   There are certain rules during
    reconstruction, ex: ears are around
    the same length as nose though
    elderly people usually have longer
    ears. When facial features are
    complete, sculptor makes mold from
    clay head using plaster of Paris
    silicone rubber.
   The facial features of victim present
    the most information on
The Face
              Reconstruction includes building
               muscles. Sculptors estimate
               muscle structures by noting
               shape and size of certain facial
               bones that affect shape of the
               muscles previously attached to
               them. Using their experience,
               sculptors can construct face by
               shaping each muscle and fixing
               them on the skull. Final step is
               covering clay muscles with layer
               of clay skin because it
               resembles real skin when
               smoothed over.

   There are certain accuracy limits that arise during
    reconstruction despite sculptor experience.
   Sculptors can guess hairstyles but cannot create expressions
    on a person’s face to make sculpture completely life like.
   But sculpture can be successful when it assist in nudging
    someone's memory or help narrow down search by
    exempting anyone who does not look like the reconstructed
New Developments
   Recently developed F.A.C.E.
    and C.A.R.E.S. computer
    software programs can quickly
    produce two-dimensional facial
    approximations that can be
    edited and manipulated with
   Programs may help speed
    reconstruction process or allow
    subtle variations to be applied to
    drawings even if they may
    produce more generic images
    than hand-drawn art work.
              Insufficient tissue thickness data
              Most pressing issue is data used
               to average facial tissue thickness.
               Data available to forensic artists
               are still very limited in ranges of
               ages, sexes, and body builds.
               Lack of information hugely affects
               accuracy of reconstructions. Until
               data is expanded, production of
               the most accurate reconstruction
               possible is greatly limited.
Problems Cont…
   Lack of methodological
    standardization in estimating
    facial features and individual
   Forensic anthropologists and
    artists have published individual
    techniques but official method for
    reconstructing is still not
   Presents major setback in facial
    approximation due to difficulty of
    forensic reconstruction to earn
    wide recognition as legitimate
    form of forensic identification
    without consistent and standard
Problems Cont…
   Subjectivity
   Reconstructions only reveal type of face person may
    have exhibited due to artistic subjectivity. Position and
    general shape of main facial features are mainly
    accurate since they are determined greatly by skull.
   But subtle details are unavoidably speculative since
    skeletal remains do not tell exact appearance. Success
    of reconstruction depends on circumstances of subject
    under investigation and accuracy of technique.
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