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					           Dada and Surrealism
   Surrealism was an artists
    movement inspired by the           Meret Oppenheim
    Dada movement.                 Oppenheim's best known piece is
                                    Object (Le Dejeuner en fourrure)
                                    (1936). The sculpture consists of a
                                    teacup, saucer and spoon that the
                                    artist covered with fur from a
                                    Chinese gazelle. It is displayed at
                                    the Museum of Modern Art in New
                                    York.

                                   This became the symbol of
                                    Surrealism.

                                   Her originality and audacity
                                    established her as a leading figure
                                    in the surrealist movement.
                     Introduction
   The movement known as Dada was born in Zurich,
    Switzerland and was primarily created as a backlash to
    the traditional views of culture, art, and literature.

   The first group of Dadaists sought to eliminate all forms
    of reason and logic due to the atrocities caused by World
    War I.

   Art created during the Dada movement was to be
    interpreted freely by the viewer and was not based on
    the formal standards shown by earlier traditional artists.

   The Dada movement was spread throughout Zurich,
    Berlin, New York, Paris, and the Netherlands and varied
    by form such as: poetry, art, literature, and music.
   The complex nature of the Dada
    movement began as a negative                 Dada
    response to society and, in turn,
    radically altered twentieth-century
    art. The movement criticized
    conventional ideas of the use of
    mediums by utilizing prefabricated
    supplies, altering them slightly in order
    to obtain a different view of the piece.
   Marcel Duchamp‘s readymade,
    Fountain, a porcelain urinal in which the
    artist wrote R. Mutt on and submitted it
    to the Society of Independent Artists
    Exhibit in 1917.
   The purpose of the Dada movement
    was viewed negatively and was ―not
    intended to be creative: it is intended to
    cast discredit on creative activity‖(Frey
    12).
   He proclaimed, ―the creative act could
    be reduced to the choice of the mind
    rather than the act of the hand.‖ In other
    words, the viewer is involved in the          Marcel Duchamp Fountain,
    creative act of interpretation a long with
    the artist.                                   1916-17
                           Jean Arp
   Collage was another technique used by
    artists Hannah Hoch, Kurt Schwitters,
    and Jean Arp during the Dada
    movement.

    Jean Arp‘s Collage Arranged According
    to the Laws of Chance, completed in
    1916, displays a random pattern of
    squares depicting the notion of escaping
    the rational world.

   Arp‘s collages differ greatly from the
    academic realm of art because of the
    way in which he created them. He did
    not use a formula he just drop his
    collage pieces and let them fall into
    place by chance. He declared that these
    works, like nature, were ordered        Jean Arp‘s Collage Arranged
    according to the laws of chance.        According to the Laws of
                                               Chance, completed in 1916
                   Surrealism
   Surrealism, in turn, was a positive movement
    which at first was solely focused around
    automatic writing, expressing the thought and
    subconscious of the artist.

   Surrealism was founded by Andre Breton in the
    1920‘s and stretched the human imagination
    revealing through artistic imagery a world of
    fantasy and dreams, not reality.

   Both Dada and Surrealism share the same
    purpose to explore avant-garde methods of
    creativity while rejecting the traditional standards
    of art.
   The art of the Surrealist movement was centered around the
    irrational and the subconscious, both depicting dream-like images.

   When the Surrealist movement began in 1919 the main aspect of
    creativity was applied through automatic writing, which allowed
    irrational thoughts to be written through lack of reason and logic.

   The way in which art was later depicted changed when artists began
    to document dreams through imagery in paintings.

   The Surrealist approach to art depicts the artist‘s inner thoughts and
    subconscious, digressing from the negatively charged Dada
    movement.

   Art critics have described surrealism as a ―search for the bizarre and
    marvelous‖(Matthews 139) because of the whimsical and dream-like
    images found in paintings of this movement.
                Overview:
           2 Forms of Surrealism
1.) Improvised Art - without conscious control.
       Artist Examples:
               Joan Miro – The Joy of Painting
               Max Ernst – Mother of Madness
2.) Realistic Techniques with dream-like scenes
       Artist Examples:
               Salvador Dali – Painting Paranoia
               Renee‘ Magritte – Dream Visions
               Giorgio de Chirico – Metaphysical Painter
               Frida Kahlo – Wore her heart on her canvas.
                     Joan Miro
                    The Joy of Painting
   Miro use the automatic style of
    painting.

   Painted squiggles in a tranclike
    state; working spontaneously.
    ―What really counts is to strip the
    soul naked.‖ Prudence throuwn
    to the wind, nothing held back.

   Invented unique biomorphic
    signs for natural objects (sun,
    moon, and animals); simplified
    into shorthand pictograms of
    geometric shapes and amoeba-
    like blobs – a mixture of fact and    Biography   Gallery
    fantasy.
                Joan Miro




                   Dutch Interior II


Cosmic Ladder
   Joan Miro's painting Carnival
    of Harlequin, completed in
    1924, displays a scene of
    brightly colored organic forms
                                     Joan Miro
    and shapes in a humorous
    manner.
   The creatures or figures in
    Miro's paintings appear
    almost as if they are
    cartoons, taking up the entire
    canvas so that the viewer
    doesn't focus on merely one
    aspect of the scene.
   Some of the shapes appear
    to be floating in the top
    corners of the canvas while
    others, such as the one on
    the left side, use ladders to
    climb up through the work.
    The figures in Miro's Carnival
    of Harlequin are "lively,
    remarkably vivid, and even       Carnival of Harlequin, completed in
    the [his] inanimate objects      1924
    have an eager
    vitality"(Arnason 295).
                       Max Ernst
                       Mother of Madness
   Experienced hallucinations as a
    child with a fever from measles.
    He found he could induce
    similar near-psychotic episodes
    (and adapt them in art) by
    staring fixedly until his mind
    wandered into some psychic
    netherworld.

   Ernst had been a member of the
    Dadaists before joining the
    Surrealist Group. Many of his
    early works deliberately played
    with chance.


                                       Biography   Gallery
                             Max Ernst
        collage, frottage and grattage techniques
   One of the methods he used to
    stimulate his imagination was
    collage. He would bring together
    illustrations and photographs from
    widely different sources and stick
    them together to create strange
    new relationships. (see Celebes)

   Invented ―fonttage‖‘ a new method
    for generating surprising imagery.
    This is rubbings from textured
    surfaces and embellished to
    produce fantastic, sometimes
    monstrous imagery.

   Grattage – scrapping into thick
    paint
                       Max Ernst
                        Early works
   Max Ernst‘s painting Celebes,
    which was completed in 1919,
    depicts an ambiguous creature
    that somewhat resembles an
    elephant. This painting is an
    example of the whimsical and
    bizarre imagery used during the
    Dada and Surrealism Movement.
   In the bottom right corner of the
    painting, a headless body is
    beckoning the creature towards its
    direction, making the image
    disturbing as well as humorous.
    The main focus of Celebes is a
                                         Max Ernst, Celebes,
    fantastical creature whose body      1921
    resembles a boiler.
                  Salvador Dali
                   Spanish, 1904 - 1989

   Based his technique on
    ―critical paranoia‖ and
    explored his own neuroses.
    He was terrified of insects, of
    crossing streets, of trains,
    boats and airplanes, of taking
    the Metro – even of buying
    shoes because he couldn‘t
    bear to expose his feet in
    public. He laughed
    hysterically and uncontrollably
    and carried a piece of
    driftwood at all times to ward
    off evil spirits.
     Gallery                          Biography
                          Salvador Dali
                          Painting Paranoia

   With so rich a lode of irrational fears
    fueling his art, Dali placed a canvas
    at his bed and recorded what he
    called ―hand-painted dream
    photographs‖ when he awoke.

   Instead of inventing new forms to
    symbolize the unconscious, he
    represented his hallucinations with
    meticulous realism.

   His recurrent nightmare of a rotting
    corps often appeared in his work.

     Gallery, Gallery 2                       Biography
                                          Salvador Dali
   Dali is fascinated by the idea of multiple
    images; the way the same image can take
    on quite different meanings. In this painting
    the lake, with the strange splash at one end,
    can also be read as a fish on a table. In real
    life our own experiences constantly invest
    objects with double meanings such as a
    bunch of flowers meaning I love you, or I‘m
    sorry.
   Dali tells us that his parents visited this lake
    after the death of their first child, who was
    also named Salvador. Dali was haunted by
    this dead brother he never knew. The
    telephone might be a symbol of trying to
    contact someone on the other side,
    someone who is absent.
   Dali painted this work in 1938 on the eve of
    World War Two. He has suggested the
    telephone relates to the negotiations in
    September 1938, between Neville
    Chamberlain, the British Prime Minster, and
    Adolph Hitler.                                     Mountain Lake, 1938
   In both the personal context of his dead
    brother and the international political
    situation, the telephone speaks of a lack of
    connection and of ultimate death. The fish
    floundering on the table ready to be cooked
    might represent the countries Hitler was
    about to march into and conquer.
      The Persistence of Memory
   The Persistence of Memory,‖
    shows limp watches and a strange
    lump of indefinable flesh. Although
    metallic, the watches appear to be
    decomposing. A fly and cluster of
    jewel-like ants swarm over them.

   Breton said, ―With the coming of
    Dali, it is perhaps the first time that
    the mental windows have been
    opened really wide so that one
    can feel oneself gliding up toward
    the wild sky‘s trap.‖

   Can you find the self portrait in
    this painting?

                                              The Persistence of Memory
          Dali‘s self portraits (early works)

   Self Portrait with neck of
    Raphael, 1921




                                    In both of these self
                                     portraits we see a
                                     sense of narcissism
    Self Portrait with Fried Bacon, 1941
   Dali painted this self-portrait during his
    eight-year-exile in the United States,
    where he had fled from the Spanish civil
    war. The, sometimes, childlike
    enthusiasm and the drive of the
    American society appealed to Dali and
    he had a most productive period there.
    Under this influence he appeared to
    reverse his "paranoid-critical" method.
    Now he painted more from the inside
    out, as his comment on his self-portrait
    indicates. Dali himself styles his self-
    portrait as "an anti-psychological self-
    portrait, instead of painting the soul, or
    the inner of oneself, to paint solely the
    appearance, the cover, my soul's glove.
    This glove of my soul can be eaten and
    is even a little sharp, like highbred
    game; therefor ants appear together
    with the fried bacon. As the most
    generous of all painters I continuously
    offer myself as food and thus give our
    era the most delicious delicacies
                                         The Christ of St.
                                         John of the Cross.
                                         1951. Oil on canvas.
                                         205 x 116 cm. St
                                         Mungo Museum of
Portrait of Frau Isabel Styler-Tas       Religious Life and
(Melencolia). 1945. Oil on canvas.       Art, Glasgow, USA.
65.5 x 86 cm. Staatliche Museen
Preussischer Kulturbesitz Neue
Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany.

Fifty Abstract Paintings Which as Seen
from Two Yards Change into Three
Lenins Masquerading as Chinese and as
Seen from Six Yards Appear as the Head
of a Royal Bengal Tiger. 1963. Oil on
canvas. 200 x 229
   The Surrealists wanted to create strange images in order to startle
   viewers into new ways of thinking about the world. They saw
   beauty in the most bizarre, unexpected combinations of things such
   as a lobster and a telephone.




Salvador DALÍ
Lobster
telephone
   Rene Magritte
Pronounced – Mah GREET




   Gallery   Biography
                        Renee‘ Magreet
                                Dream Visions
   (1898-1967) Dream Visions

   Painted disturbing, illogical
    images with startling clarity.

   Began as a commercial artist –
    he used this mastery of realism
    to defy logic.

   He placed everyday objects in
    incongruous settings and
    transformed them into electric
    shocks. Juxtaposed familiar
    sights in unnatural contexts.
                                       The False Mirror
   Belgian painter Rene Magritte specialized in
   paintings of strange, imaginary scenes, often
   involving men in bowler hats. This one has
   hundreds of them hovering in the air above
   an ordinary—looking street.




Gonconda. 1953. Oil on canvas. 81 x 100 cm. The Menil
                        Collection, Houston, TX, USA.
                Magritte‘s self portrait
   The painting of a man in a gray
    overcoat and derby hat whose face is
    almost entirely hidden by a big green
    apple is one of the best-known works
    of Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte,
    1898-1967. It is also the closest he
    was willing to come to answer a
    request for a self portrait. That tells us
    how little this marvelous artist cared
    for publicity and self-promotion, even
    though he was delighted to sell his
    work widely.
   If this painting looks familiar to us, it is
    because Magritte‘s work has so
    strongly influenced not only other
    artists but also a great many people
    who did want to do publicity and
    promotion, advertising, design and
    films, during much of the last century.
Despite the strangeness of the scene, Magritte
painted it in a very lifelike way. It is only the
combination of things that makes it look absurd.
Magritte loved painting ordinary things in
ordinary situations. He said he wanted to play
with the viewer‘s expectations in order to
―challenge the real world.
René Magritte. The     La Durée poignardée.
Red Model. 1934.       1938. Oil on canvas. 146
Oil on canvas. 183 x   x 97 cm. Art Institute of
                       Chicago, Chicago, IL,
136 cm. Museum
                       USA.
Boymans-van
Beuningen,
Rotterdam,
Netherlands.
            Giorgio De Chirico
                  Pronounced - KEY ree coh

   Italian, 1888 – 1978




                        Hailed by the Surrealists as their
                        precursor, Italian painter, was
                        painting nightmare fantasies fifteen
                        years before Surrealism existed.
                Giorgio De Chirico
                       Metaphysical Painter
   Drawing on irrational childhood
    fears, De Chirico is known for his
    eerie cityscapes with empty
    arcades, raking light, and
    ominous shadows.

   The skewed perspective and
    nearly deserted squares
    inhabited by tiny, depersonalized
    figures project menace. In fact,
    with these paintings as his best
    evidence, De Chirico was
    exempted from military service as
    mentally unstable. On an early
    self-portrait he inscribed, ―What
    shall I love if not the enigma?‖     The Mystery and Melancholy of
                                         a Street
   Immediately prior to World War I, the Greco-
    Italian painter, Giorgio de Chirico created
    enigmatic paintings in which he used a
    traditional style to describe not the external
    world, but haunting dreamscapes infused with
    illogical images, bizarre spatial constructions,
    and a pervasive melancholic mood.
    He was greatly inspired by the writings of
    Friedrich Nietzsche, who believed hidden
    realities were seen in such strange
    juxtapositions as the long shadows cast by the
    setting sun into large open city squares and
    onto public monuments.
   De Chirico called his art "metaphysical," and
    with it hoped to destabilize the meaning of
    everyday objects by making them symbols of
    fear, alienation, and uncertainty. His paintings
    were highly influential for the Surrealists a
    decade later in their effort to create art from the
    unconscious.
   Andromache refers to the beautiful and loyal
    wife of Hector, the Trojan warrior slain by
    Achilles in the Iliad. Here Andromache stands,
    reduced to simple ovoids, alone in a quiet,
    almost airless Italian piazza, her mood reflected     Andromache, 1916
    in the dark shadows stretching across the             Oil on panel. 8 x 5 3/4 in. (20.3 x
    square. The buildings, equally simplified, frame
    the image, lending it an almost stage-like            14.6 cm)
    quality.                                              Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Paul
                                                          Schectman, Class of 1935. 76.90
                                  Ten years before publication of the Manifesto of
                                   Surrealism, the Italian artist DeChirco was
                                   extending the traditions of ‗realism‘ in painting to
                                   describe dream worlds that contained aspects of
                                   his own life in scenes of melancholy and
                                   foreboding. He said he wished to combine ‗ in a
                                   single composition, scenes of contemporary life
                                   and visions of antiquity, producing a highly
                                   troubling dream of reality.’

                                  In this painting the antique world is represented by
                                   a broken sculpture and the historic buildings and
                                   city square; whilst the contemporary is shown by
                                   the train steaming across the horizon and the
                                   bunch of bananas in the foreground. Trains for De
                                   Chirco evoked sadness of goodbyes and nostalgia
                                   for what was left behind, seeing them as almost
                                   magical in the way they transported loved ones or
                                   ourselves from one place to another. The liveliness
                                   of the train and the ripe bananas is contrasted with
                                   the cold, lifelessness of the shadowy buildings,
                                   made more sinister by the tilted perspective and
                                   geometric precision of the shadows. The two
The Uncertainty of the Poet.       arches look like blind eyes. The female bust plays
1913                               across these two extremes; the voluptuous body
                                   contrasted with its broken form and being made of
                                   cold, hard marble.
   Giorgio de Chirico. Piazza d'Italia.
    1913. Oil on canvas. Art Gallery of
    Ontario, Toronto, Canada.




                                              Giorgio de Chirico. The Disquieting
                                               Muses. 1918. Oil on canvas. Private
                                               collection.
De Chirico self portrait
              Frida Kahlo
            Pronounced – FREE-da KAH –lo
                          Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 –
                           July 13, 1954) was a
                           Mexican painter.
                          In 1925, a trolley car collided
                           with a bus Kahlo was riding;
                           an iron handrail impaled her,
                           broke her spine, and exited
                           through her lower body. She
                           survived her injuries and
                           eventually regained her
                           ability to walk, but she would
                           have relapses of extreme
                           pain which would plague her
                           for life.
                          After the accident, Kahlo
Gallery
                           turned her attention from a
Biography                  medical career to painting.
     Frida Kahlo
―Wore her heart on her canvas.‖
              Drawing on her personal
                experiences, her works are
                often shocking in their stark
                portrayal of pain and the
                harsh lives of women. Fifty-
                five of her 143 paintings are
                self-portraits that incorporate
                personal symbolism
                complete with graphic
                anatomical references.
              She was also influenced by
                indigenous Mexican culture,
                aspects of which she
                portrayed in bright colors,
                with a mixture of realism and
                symbolism.
   In constant pain due to an earlier
    accident while riding a bus it
    collided with a trolley – resulting in
    32 operations in 26 years on her
    back and leg – her leg was later
    amputated and she
   The bulk of her 200 paintings were
    fantasized self-portraits, dealing
    with subjects seldom tested in
    Western art: childbirth,
    miscarriage, abortion.
   She delighted in role-playing and
    wore colorful Mexican costumes,
    basing her painting style on
    indigenous folk art and Roman
    Catholic devotional images.
   Twice she married Diego Rivers (dee-
    A-go Riv-ERR-a) a famous Mexican
    Muralist. She had a constant obsession
    with him.
   Because of her injuries and her
    husband‘s many affairs, Kahlo‘s
    paintings tell the story of her physical
    and emotional pain.




                                    The Two Fridas. 1939. Oil on canvas. 170
                                    x 170 cm. Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico
                                    City, Mexico
   At her first one woman show, Kahlo‘s doctor said she was too ill to
    attend, so she had herself carried in on a stretcher as part of the
    exhibit. Kahlo died soon after. When they pushed her body into the
    oven to be cremated, the intense heat snapped her corpse up to a
    sitting position. Her hair blazed in a ring of fire around her head.
    She looked painter David Siqueiros said, as if she were smiling in
    the center of a sunflower.




Frida Kahlo. Without Hope. 1945. Oil on canvas     Frida Kahlo. The Dream. 1940. Oil on
mounted on Masonite. 28 x 36 cm. Dolores Olmedo   canvas. 74 x 98.5 cm Private collection.
Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico.
   Frida disagreed with being labeled a surrealist
    because she said, ―I never painted dreams. I
    painted my own reality.‖




                                    Frida Kahlo. The Dream. 1940. Oil on
                                   canvas. 74 x 98.5 cm Private collection.
   Her work is a rare blend of true emotion, heartbreak,
    love, and life, as well as death. Most of her paintings
    were self-portraits. She said, "I paint self-portraits
    because I am the person I know best. I paint my own
    reality. The only thing I know is that I paint because I
    need to, and I paint whatever passes through my head
    without any other considerations."
   Her paintings are very open and honest. They reflect her
    emotions, the events in her life, changes in her feelings--
    -whether good or bad. She recorded her life in paint. Her
    imagery and style were very original, dramatic, and
    courageous.
   Her husband, the famous Mexican muralist Diego
    Rivera, said: "Frida is the only example in the history of
    art of an artist who tore open her chest and heart to
    reveal the biological truth of her feelings. The only
    woman who has expressed in her work an art of the
    feelings, functions, and creative power of woman."
              Surrealism Study Guide
                                                Word Bank
            Dadaism                                                      Improvised Art
            Diego Rivera                                                 Jean Arp
            Sigmund Feud                                                 De Chirico
            Dream Analysis                                               Renee Magritte
            Frida Kahlo                                                  Marcel Duchamp
            Max Ernst                                                    Surrealism
            Joan Miro                                                    Salvador Dali
            Meret Oppenheim

Fill in the blank for questions 1 – 12 using the words from the list above.

1.   __________________________ painted squiggles in a trancelike state. Invented unique signs for
     natural objects that were simplified into shorthand pictograms of geometric and biomorphic
     shapes.
2.   _________________________first experienced hallucinations as a child during a fever from
     measles. He later learned to use hallucinations to produce art. He invented frottage.
3.   _________________________ based his technique on critical paranoia and painted his own
     neuroses inspired from his dreams. Instead of inventing new forms to symbolize the unconscious
     mind, he represented his hallucinations with meticulous realism.
4.    __________________________ began as a commercial artist who used
      mastery of realism to defy logic by placing everyday objects in incongruous
      settings. Often painted men in bowler hats.
5.    _______________________ was the precursor to Surrealism, he painted
      nightmare fantasies with eerie cityscapes with empty arcades, raking light
      and ominous shadow. Thought of himself as the ―metaphysical painter.‖
6.    _______________________ is a female surrealist artists whose art became
      a recognized by many as the symbol of Surrealism.
7.    _______________________ said, ―I never paint dreams. I painted my own
      reality.‖
8.    _______________________ is a ―negative‖ art movement that came before
      Surrealism and got its name from a nonsense world after WWI. The artists
      protested the madness of war, by producing spur-of-the-moment art that
      shocked and ―awakened imagination‖ and intended to cast discredit on
      creative activity. This movement lasted a few short years.
9.    _______________________ is a ―positive‖ art movement that followed
      Dadaism. It flourished in Europe and America during the 1920 - 30‘s. The
      artists believed in a higher degree of reality painting ―beneath the realistic
      surface of life.‖
10.   _______________________ is a philosopher who inspired Surrealism.
11. _______________________        is one of two represented
    forms of Surrealism. Artists practiced spur-of-the-
    moment art, distancing themselves as much as possible
    from conscious control.
12. _______________________ represented a style of
    Surrealism where artist juxtaposed (placed next to each
    other) incongruous (unrelated) objects using realistic
    techniques turning inward to paint dreams, memories
    and / or feelings.
13. _______________________ He was a Mexican muralist
    who was married to Frieda Kahlo.
14. _______________________ created collages out of
    random and chance arrangements of paper.
15. _______________________ created a ―readymade‖,
    titled Fountain, which was an urinal with the signature,
    ―R. Mutt.‖
   Answer in complete sentences.

13. Describe what Frida Kahlo painted and
   why.

14. Compare and Contrast the two styles of
   Surrealism.

15. How and shy did Surrealism became an
   art movement?

				
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