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Intel Processor Evolution

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					  COE 305 Term Paper




                                  King Fahd University Of Petroleum and Minerals
                                     College Of Computer Science and Engineer
                                          Computer Engineer Department




                                         COE 305: Microcomputer System Design
                                                      Term Paper

                                                            Prepared For
                                                        DR. Redwan Abd-Elaal

                                                               Prepared by
                                                             Atiyah Al-Nakhli
                                                                 233139
                                                             Rayyan Al-Harbi
                                                                 233823
                                                            Redhah Al-hashim
                                                                 235219



                                                                  2007-11-24


Contents
Intel 8085: ...................................................................................................................... 3
Intel 8086: ...................................................................................................................... 3
Intel 8088: ...................................................................................................................... 3
Intel 80286: .................................................................................................................... 4
Intel 80386DX: ............................................................................................................... 4
Intel 80386SX: ................................................................................................................ 5


Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


Intel 80486DX: ............................................................................................................... 6
Intel 80486SX: ................................................................................................................ 7
Intel 80486DX2: ............................................................................................................. 8
Intel 80486DX4 Processor:............................................................................................. 9
Intel Pentium classic: ................................................................................................... 10
Intel Pentium MMX: .................................................................................................... 10
Intel Pentium Pro: ........................................................................................................ 11
Intel Pentium II: ........................................................................................................... 12
Intel Celeron: ............................................................................................................... 12
Pentium III:................................................................................................................... 14
Pentium 4:.................................................................................................................... 14
Pentium M: .................................................................................................................. 15
Intel Xeon:.................................................................................................................... 16
Intel Core Duo: ............................................................................................................. 16
Intel Core 2 Duo: .......................................................................................................... 17
References ................................................................................................................... 18




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper



Intel 8085:
    General Information:
                    The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the
            mid-1970s. The range of the speed is
            between 3.07 MHz to 5 MHZ. The
            instruction set used on it is pre x86. It has
            a single core.

         Evolutions:

                            The 8085 incorporated all the features of the 8224 (clock
                     generator) and the 8228 (system controller) increasing the level of system
                     integration. Unfortunately, the 8085 was not a success until 8086
                     processor made.


Intel 8086:
     General Information:
                    The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978.
            The range of the speed is between
            4.77 MHz to 10 MHZ. The instruction
            set used on it is x86. It has around
            29,000 transistors. It has a single core.

         Evolutions:

                             The architecture and the physical chip were therefore developed
                     very quickly, and were based on the earlier 8080 and 8085 designs with a
                     similar register set. This is because it was originally intended as a
                     temporary substitute for the ambitious iAPX 432 project in an attempt to
                     draw attention from the less delayed 16 and 32-bit processors of other
                     manufacturers (such as Motorola, Zilog, and National Semiconductor).


Intel 8088:
    General Information:
                     The Intel 8088 is an Intel
            microprocessor based on the 8086, with
            16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data
            bus. It can address up to 1 MB of memory.


Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


                 The 8088 was introduced on July 1, 1979, and was used in the original IBM
                 PC. Its speed is 4.77 MHZ. The instruction set used on it is x86. It has a
                 single core.
         Evolutions:
                          It was a modified 8085 processor. A factor for using the 8-bit Intel
                 8088 version was that it could use existing Intel 8085-type components,
                 and allowed the computer to be based on a modified 8085 design.


Intel 80286:
     General Information:
                     The Intel's 286, introduced on
             February 1, 1982, (originally named 80286,
             and also called iAPX 286 in the
             programmer's manual) was a 16-bit
             microprocessor with 134,000 transistors.
             Its Common manufacturers are Intel, AMD,
             Harris Corporation and Siemens AG. Its
             speed range is between 6 MHz to 25 MHZ.
             The MOSFET channel length is 1.5 µm. The
             instruction set used on it is x86. It has a
             single core.

         Evolutions:
                             The 80286's performance was more
                     than twice that of its predecessors (the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088) per clock
                     cycle. In fact, the performance increase per clock cycle may be the largest
                     among the generations of x86 processors. Calculation of the more complex
                     addressing modes (such as base + index) had less clock penalty because it
                     was performed by a special circuit in the 286 which make a better
                     performance.


Intel 80386DX:
     General Information:
                      The Intel 80386DX is a microprocessor which has been used as the
              central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers since 1986. Its
              speed is between 16 MHz to 40 MHZ. Its Common manufacturers are Intel,




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


                 AMD and IBM. The MOSFET channel length is between 1.5 µm to 1 µm.
                 The instruction set used on it is x86 (IA-32). It has a single core.
         Evolutions:
                         The Intel 80386DX was the first true 32-bit processor used on the
                 PC platform. Its internal register size was increased to 32 bits, and its data
                 and address buses were as well, doubling data path width to the processor
                 and increasing addressable memory to 4 GB theoretical. The 80386DX
                 offered more performance than the 80286 processor. That is because the
                 80386DX was the first to use pipelining.


Intel 80386SX:
     General Information:
                      It is a Lower speed version of 80386DX. It uses a 16-bit data bus
               instead of a 32-bit data bus. It has a 24-bit address bus. It has a speed
               between 16 MHz to 33 MHz

         Evolutions:
                              It was made to move the market away from the 80286 since it had
                     roughly the same interfaces but better performance. It provides more
                     flexibility in running existing DOS applications. Its lower performance than
                     80386DX because the larger width in bus.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper



Intel 80486DX:
     General Information:
                The Intel 80486DX made 1989. Its speed is
        between 16 MHz to 133 MHZ. Its FSB speed is
        between 16 MHz to 50 MHZ. The MOSFET channel
        length is 0.8 µm. Its Common manufacturers are
        Intel, AMD and Texas Instruments. It has a single
        core.
     Evolutions:
                The performance has change dramatically in
        this version. This is because the core of the chip can execute instructions in less
        time than earlier processors. Also, the execution pipeline was increased by one
        step. The motherboard was more efficient than before.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


Intel 80486SX:
     General Information:
               The Intel's 80486SX was a modified Intel
        80486DX microprocessor with its floating-point unit
        (FPU) disconnected. It has a speed between 16MHz
        to 33 MHZ.
     Evolutions:
               It was made for marketing reason because for its less coast to give the
        customers more choices. Rather than this, it was same as 80486DX.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


Intel 80486DX2:
    General Information:
               The Intel's i486DX2 is a CPU produced by in 1992.
       There is more than one version and the 80486DX2-
       66 is by far the most common version of this chip; a
       great number of these systems were produced and
       many are still in use today, especially in small
       businesses. It was the first chip to use clock
       doubling. It was a very popular processor for many
       players of video games during the early and mid
       1990s. The 486DX2 systems are perfectly viable for
       many uses, including routine office word
       processing and spreadsheet work under DOS and Windows 3.x



         Evolutions:
                 The 80486DX2 was identical to the 80486DX but for the addition of "clock
          doubling" technology, it performs two clock cycles per single cycle of the memory
          bus. Because of this, an 80486DX2 is faster than an i486DX-based system at the
          same bus speed. For instance, if the computer's main clock runs at 33 MHz, a
          clock-doubled CPU would run, internally, at 66 MHZ.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


Intel 80486DX4 Processor:
     General Information:
                The 80486DX4 was released in 1994 continued
        the trend started by the 80486DX2 toward faster clock
        speed processors. The 80486DX4 was most commonly
        put into systems as OverDrive processors for older and
        slower systems. The difference between Intel, AMD
        and Cyrix is that the AMD and Cyrix support write-back
        cache while the Intel does not. However, all three chips
        support power management. It available at two
        speeds: 75 MHz (for the 25 MHz bus) and 100 MHz
        (For the 33 MHz), with the 100 being by far the most popular.




         Evolutions:
          - The 80486DX4 uses "clock tripling", where the processor runs at three times
             the speed of the memory bus.
          - The processor used a voltage of 3.3V in order to keep the heat down.
          - It has its level 1 cache doubled to 16 KB.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper



Intel Pentium classic:
    General Information:
        The Intel Pentium processor was introduced in
          1993 and was a great evolution in PC
          processors. It offered PC users new levels of
          performance. So, the Intel Pentium quickly
          becomes the choice for many PC users. The
          CPU speeds are from 60 MHz to 300 MHZ. FSB
          speeds are from 50 MHz to 66 MHZ. It has 3.3
          million transistors.

         Evolution:

           It offered a superscalar architecture: It used two pipelines.
           It has separate floating-point pipeline which improve the speed of execution of
            floating-point instructions.
           it employed branch-prediction technology to help minimize the delays often
            incurred when a branch instruction alters the flow of instruction execution
           It increased the speed of data transfer from memory by using a 64-bit data
            bus.
           Built-in power management
           It has two separate Level 1 caches, one for data and the other for instructions.
           Performed 100 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS).
           It has SIMD instruction set extension which is designed for use in multimedia
            applications.

         The original Pentium was released in Socket 4 format which did not last very long
          and could only be used by the 60 & 66 MHz models. This was followed at the
          beginning of 1995 by the release of Socket 5 which was followed by the release of
          the Pentium in speeds of 75, 90, 100, 120 & 133 MHz by the end of 1995.


Intel Pentium MMX:
    General Information:
       Intel's 5th generation of x86 line of
       processors released in 1997. The Pentium
       MMX processor is binary compatible with
       older generations of x86 processors. It is



Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


          Superscalar architecture and Dual processor support. MMX processor is designed
          to run faster when playing multimedia applications. It comes in speeds of 166,
          200 & 233 MHZ. It was manufactured using the 0.35 µm or 0.25µm (for mobile
          version) manufacturing process. Its FSB are 60/66 MHZ.
         Evolutions:
         57 new microprocessor instructions have been added.
         Programs can use MMX instructions without changing to a new mode
         2x 16KB L1-Cache (32 KB).
         It has 4.5 million transistor
         New 64-bit integer data type (Quad word).
         Superscalar architecture (2 pipe-lined integer units + 1 pipe-lined FPU).
         FPU performance enhancements.
         Power management features.
         3.3V input/output level and 2.8V core.
         MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel to enhance multi-media
          applications, enhancing graphics and sound functions. According to Intel, a PC
          with an MMX microprocessor runs a multimedia application up to 60% faster than
          one with a microprocessor having the same clock speed but without MMX.


Intel Pentium Pro:
    General Information:
       The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture
       microprocessor produced by Intel in 1995. Intel was
       originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a
       full range of applications, but later, was reduced to be
       as a server and high performance desktop chip. It was
       the first generation of the P6 architecture which would
       carry Intel well into the next decade. The CPU speeds
       are from 150 MHz to 200 MHz and FSB speeds are
       60 MHz to 66 MHZ.

         Evolutions:
          - Includes a built-in 256K Level 2 cache in addition to the earlier processor's 16K
             Level 1 cache.
          - The Pentium Pro was capable of both dual- and quad-processor
             configurations.
          - It increased the pipelining stages from 5 to 14, with three pipelines. So, it gives
             greater speed of execution.


Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


          -    The size of the transistors is reduced to manage the heat.


Intel Pentium II:
    General Information:
       - The Pentium II processor which was released in
          1998 is high performance desktop processor,
          integrates the best attributes of the P6
          microprocessors. Pentium II processors are
          targeted for professionals. In addition, they are
          targeted for mainstream home and business
          users, or the Performance desktop PC market. It
          is fully compatible with existing Intel Architecture-based software.

         Properties:
          - Available in speeds from 233 MHz up to 450 MHZ.
          - CPU speeds: 233 MHz to 450 MHZ.
          - FSB speeds: 66 MHz to 100 MHZ.
          - Manufacture Process: 0.35 µm to 0.25 µm.
          - Includes MMX media enhancement technology.

         Evolution:
           Packaged in a slot-based form rather than a socket.
           Replaced the Pentium Pro's Level 2 cache with a larger, 512K cache with its
             own bus running at only half the speed of the Pentium II.
           It has headroom for applications that take advantage of Intel MMX
             technology.
           Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge packaging technology delivers high-
             performance processing and bus technology to mainstream systems.
           Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture which increases bandwidth and
             performance over single-bus processors.


Intel Celeron:
    General Information:
               The Celeron processor was introduced in April
       1998 And they have complemented Intel's higher
       performance CPUs branded as Pentium, Core and Core 2.
       The first Celeron was introduced in April 1998 and based



Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


          on the Pentium II. Later versions are based on the Pentium III and Pentium 4
          designs. The Celeron was used in many low end machines and, in some ways,
          became the standard for non gaming computers. It considered as Intel’s
          “economic" processor.

         Features:
          - more expensive but higher-performance Pentium CPUs
          - The Celeron processors can run all computer programs,
             but their performance is limited.
          - L1 Cache: 32 Kbyte
          - L2 Cache: 128 Kbyte
             L2 Cache: 256 Kbyte with Intel Celeron-A 1100MHz FC-
             PGA2 (Tualatin).
          - CPU speeds: 266 MHz to 3.60 GHz
          - FSB speeds: 66 MHz to 800 MT/s
          - MOSFET channel length: 0.25 µm to 0.065 µm
          - Sockets: Slot 1, Socket 370, Socket 478, LGA 775, Socket M.
          - The types of Celeron processors (P6):
             1. The Covington.
             2. The Mendocino.
             3. Coppermine-128.
             4. Tualatin-256.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper



Pentium III:
    General Information:
               Pentium III is produced from early 199 to
      2003 by Intel, the range of frequency 450 MHZ to
      1.4 GHZ. The FSB speed from 100 MHZ to
      133 MHZ. it has .25 um to .13 um MOSFET
      channel length and total of 9.5 million
      transistor. As the earlier processor, Pentium
      III has a different single core such as Katmai,
      Coppermine, Coppermine-T and Tualatin.

         Evolutions
                 The most notable evolution was the
          addition of SSE Instruction Set (to accelerate media processing and 3Ds graphics),
          and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during
          the manufacturing process.

         SSE : Streaming SIMD Extension
                  The fully expanded abbreviation stands for "Streaming Single Instruction,
          Multiple Data Extensions”.
          * SIMD is single instruction multiple data processing.




Pentium 4:
    General Information:
               The 7th
      generation
      microarchitecture
      Pentium 4 processor
      introduced in 2000 and
      it will be until 2008.
      The frequency range is
      1.3 GHZ to 3.8 GHZ. FSB (Front Side Bus) speed is from 400 MT/s (Mega Transfer
      /s) to 1066 MT/s. Pentium 4 is .18 um to .065 um MOSFET channel length. There



Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


          are different core names for the processor such Willamette, Northwood, Prescott
          and Cedar Mill.


         Evolutions:
                  Pentium 4 introduces the SSE2 and
          SSE3 Instruction Set to accelerate
          calculations, transactions, media
          processing, 3D graphics, and games. They
          also integrated Hyper-Trading (HT), a
          feature to make one physical CPU working
          as two logical and virtual CPUs, and more
          other features. The Intel Pentium 4 also came in a low-end version branded
          Celeron (often referred to as Celeron 4), and a high-end derivative branded Xeon
          intended for Multiprocessor servers and work station.




Pentium M:
    General Information:
             Produced From 2003 to 2007 by Intel with CPU speeds 900 MHz to 2.26
      GHz .FSB speeds 400 MT/s to 533 MT/s. MOSFET channel length 0.13 um to 0.09
      um. Pentium M Core names: Banias and Dothan.



         Evolution:
                            The Pentium M coupled the execution core of the Pentium III with a
                     Pentium 4 compatible bus interface, an improved instruction
                     decoding/issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and
                     a much larger cache. The usually power-hungry secondary cache uses an
                     access method to avoid switching on any parts of it which are not being


Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


                     accessed. Other power saving methods include dynamically variable clock
                     frequency and core voltage, allowing the Pentium M to throttle clock
                     speed when the system is idle in order to conserve energy, using the Speed
                     Step 3 technology (which has more sleep stages than previous versions of
                     Speed Step). With this technology, a 1.6 GHz
                     Pentium M can effectively throttle to clock
                     speeds of 600 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz,
                     1200 MHz, 1400 MHz and 1600 MHz; these
                     intermediate clock states allow the CPU to better
                     throttle clock speed to suit conditions. The power
                     requirements of the Pentium M vary from 5 watts
                     when idle to 27 watts at full load. This is useful to
                     notebook manufacturers as it allows them to include the Pentium M into
                     smaller notebooks.


Intel Xeon:
    General Information:
               Intel Xeon processor is introduced in 1999 with speeds range from 1.6 GHZ
       to 3.6 GHZ. It is an x86 processor with different
       architecture such microarchitecture, Intel core and
       NetBurst. The processor has 1, 2 or 4 cores.

         Evolution :
                 The Xeon brand refers to many families of Intel’s
          x88 multiprocessing CPU’s – for dual-processor (DP) and
          multi-processor (MP) configuration on a single
          motherboard targeted at non-consumer markets of server and workstation
          computers, and also at blade servers and embedded systems.


Intel Core Duo:
    General Information:
              Core Duo processor is not as previous Intel production which is single core
       processor, it has tow cores in the chip. This processor is introduced in 2006. It has
       speeds range from 1.06 GHZ to 2.33 GHZ. Moreover, the FSB increased to be from
       533 MT/s which was a maximum in Pentium M to 667 MT/s. this processor still
       uses x86 architecture.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper


         Evolution:
                  The Duo version of Intel Core includes two computational cores, providing
          performance per watt almost as good as any previous single core Intel processors.
          In battery-operated devices such as notebook computers, this translates to getting
          as much total work done per battery charge as with older computers, although the
          same total work may be done faster. When parallel computations and
          multiprocessing are able to utilize both cores, the Intel Core Duo delivers much
          higher peak speed compared to the single-core chips previously available for
          mobile devices.



Intel Core 2 Duo:
    General Information:
              The Core 2 brand refers to a range
       of Intel's consumer 64-bit dual-core and
       MCM (Multi chip Model) quad-core CPU
       with the x86-64 instruction set, and based
       on the Intel core microarchitecture, which
       derived from the 32-bit dual-core processor. It is produced in 2006 with speeds
       from 1.06 GHZ to 3 GHZ and FSB from 553 MT/s to 1333 MT/s.

         Evolution:

                  The core microarchitecture returned to lower clock speeds and improved
          processors' usage of both available clock cycles and power compared with
          preceding NetBurst of the Pentium 4brande CPU’s. It translated into more
          efficient decoding stages, execution units, caches, and buses, etc, reducing the
          power consumption of Core 2 branded CPU’s, while enhancing their processing
          capacity.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007
  COE 305 Term Paper




                                                 References


     1. Wikipedia, free encyclopedia.
     2. Encarta, Microsoft encyclopedia.
     3. www.Intel.com.
     4. The 80x 86 Family, 3rd edition.




Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007

				
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