PARENTING POSITIVE PARENTING PROVIDES ref: Fahlberg • Emotional Nurturing • Teaching Appropriate • A Basic Sense of Expression of Emotions Acceptance • Encouragement for • Times of Unconditional Reciprocal Interactions Giving • A balance between • Appropriate Limit Setting Dependency and Independence • Positive Role Modelling • Discipline/Correction • Encouragement for rather than Punishment Growth and Change • Teaching Life Skills • Teaching Responsibility including Relationship Skills AIMING FOR CHILD- CENTRED COMMUNICTION Not Child- Directed Examples of Child Directed Behaviour • Criticism • Commands • Instructs • No • Negative Facial Expressions • Negative Touch • Double Speak • Questions which sound like an interrogation Examples of Child Centred Interaction • Encouragement • Praise • Imitation • Positive Touches • Smiles • Does not give attention to behaviour which needs to be stopped. • Asks • Attends • Play SUPPORT PARENTAL BEHAVIOUR WHICH MAKES A CHILD FEEL ACCEPTED AND APPROVED AS A PERSON. Child feels they matter – are accepted, loved, experience warmth and nurturance. CONTROL PARENTAL ACTIONS INTENDED TO DIRECT THE BEHAVIOUR OF A CHILD IN A MANNER DESIRABLE TO THE PARENTS. Methods: Coercive control – directs behaviour through the use of external force or threat of force (if predominate style can have negative consequences). Inductive Control – directs behaviour through the use of reason and explanation (helps child understand). COMMON PARENTING STYLES AUTHORITARIAN – high coercive control - low inductive control - low/moderate support Outcome – less socially able: when young more withdrawn & distrustful: older can be rebellious & aggressive COMMON PARENTING STYLES PERMISSIVE – low coercive control: - low inductive control - high/moderate social support Outcome - can lack self-direction and control: young least socially competent, vulnerable as adolescents COMMON PARENTING STYLES AUTHORITATIVE - low coercive control: - high inductive control - high social support Outcome – best for promoting cognitive development, compliance, self-control and social competence COMPARISON AUTHORITARIAN – high coercive control Less socially able - low inductive control When young more - low/moderate support withdrawn & distrustful: older can be rebellious & aggressive PERMISSIVE – low coercive control Can lack self-direction & control: - low inductive control Young least socially competent - high/moderate social support Vulnerable as adolescents AUTHORITATIVE - low coercive control: Best for promoting cognitive - high inductive control development, compliance, - high social support self-control & social competence Parenting Teenagers FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HEALTHY ADOLESENCE David Hamburg: American Journal Psychiatry 154.6 June 1997 • Find a valued place in a constructive group • Learn how to form close, durable relationships • Feel a sense of worth as individuals • Know how to use support systems • Express constructively curiosity and exploratory behaviour • Believe in a promising future with real opportunities • Find ways of being useful to others • Learn to live respectfully with others in circumstances of democratic pluralism • Cultivate the inquiring and problem-solving skills that serve lifelong learning and adaptability.