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The Diesel Engine

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									    DIESEL ENGINE




    Teknik Kendaraan Ringan
     Semester 5 th Class XII
       Kompetensi Kejuruan
           SK-KD 5TH
1
DIAGRAM ALUR PENCAPAIAN KOMPETENSI
             DIESEL ENGINE

 In 1894, German inventor Rudolph
  Diesel developed the first single-
  cylinder diesel engine.
 He signed a multi-million dollar deal
  with Adolphus Busch, head of brewery
  empire, to manufacture the diesel
  engine.
 However, he lost his fortune, and in
  1913, mysteriously was found dead
  after going overboard a boat. Suicide
  was one speculation, but also
  assassination by Kaiser Wilhelm’s
  agents, fearing that Diesel, with WW I
  looming, would sell the engine to
  England

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        The Combustion Cycle

     The four-stroke combustion cycle of the diesel
      engine is composed of the intake stroke,
      compression stroke, power stroke, and the exhaust
      stroke.
     The diesel engine operates through the motion of
      compression pistons in inside the cylinders of the
      engine.
     Pistons inside the cylinders are connected by rods
      to a crankshaft. As the pistons move up and down
      in their cylinders, they cause the crankshaft to
      rotate.
     The crankshaft’s rotational force is carried by a
      transmission to a drive shaft, which turns axles,
      causing the wheels to rotate.

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            The Intake Stroke
 During the intake stroke, the intake
  valve opens as the piston moves
  down to allow air into the cylinder.
 The air is pushed by atmospheric
  pressure into the cylinder through
  the intake valve port.




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      The Compression Stroke
 After the piston reaches its lower
  limit, it begins to move upward and
  as the piston moves up, the intake
  valve closes.
 The exhaust valve is also closed, so
  that at this point in the cycle, the
  cylinder is sealed.
 As the piston moves upward, the air
  is compressed and the compression
  of the air causes the pressure and
  the temperature of the cylinder to
  increase.




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           The Power Stroke

     As the piston reaches maximum
      compression of the air, diesel fuel is
      injected to the combustion chamber
      filled with compressed air.
     The heat of the compressed air
      ignites the fuel spontaneously at the
      self-ignition temperature of the fuel.
     As the cylinder pressure increases,
      the piston is forced down into the
      cylinder.
     The power impulse is transmitted
      down through the piston, through
      the connecting rod, and to the
      crankshaft, which is rotated due to
      the force.

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         The Exhaust Stroke


     As the piston reaches the bottom
      of its stroke, the exhaust valve
      opens.
     As the piston moves up on the
      exhaust stroke, it forces the
      burned gases out of the cylinder
      through the exhaust port.
     Then as the piston reaches the
      top of its stroke, the exhaust
      valve closes, and the intake valve
      opens.
     The cycle repeats again with the
      intake stroke.


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9   Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                  Efficiency


      One positive aspect of the diesel engine is
       that they are thermally efficient.
      The improved efficiency is caused by the
       relatively high compression ratios
      The diesel engine is 54% thermally efficient,
       while gasoline engines are only 34%.
      As a result of diesel engines thermally
       efficiency, they are able to achieve better gas
       mileage because they produce greater
       horsepower output for fuel intake.




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              Fuel Economy

 One main reason for the diesel engine’s excellent fuel
  economy is that it burns far more air than fuel.
 In a gasoline engine, it’s air intake is carefully
  restricted and controlled by the carburetor for a 15:1
  air to fuel ratio.
 However, in the diesel engine, the air intake is
  unrestricted.




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                    Durability


 Diesel engines are also capable of running high
  miles without major engine work.
 Truck diesel engines can run 250,000 or even
  500,000 miles without major engine work.
 In 1978, Mercedes-Benz launched a “Great Diesel
  Search” to find the highest mileage diesel in the
  United States.
      Robert O’Reilly drove his 1957 Mercedes-Benz 180D
       1,184,000 miles, 750,000 on its original engine.
      Another owner drove his 1968 Mercedes-Benz 220 D
       912,000 miles, 902,000 miles on its original engine.

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           Compression Ratio

 The diesel engine compresses at a very high ration of
  14:1 to 25:1.
 The higher the compression ratio, the more power is
  generated.
 The main limiting factor to compression ratio is
  based on the knock limits of the fuel.
 Knock is the term used to describe the auto ignition
  that occurs when a fuel ignites because the pressure
  in the cylinder is such that combustion occurs.
 The knock limit of the fuel is determined by the point
  at which the engine begins to shake.
 The higher the knock limit, the higher the
  compression ratio, the more power is generated.



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     Advantages of a Diesel Engine

 Low maintenance, greater efficiency, high power
  output, and better fuel economy under all types of
  loads.
 Does not require a spark plug to ignite fuel, it relies
  on the spontaneous combustion through the heat of
  compression to ignite the diesel fuel.
 Because of this type of combustion, a diesel engine
  are built more ruggedly and heavily built than the
  gas engine.
 The ruggedness of the diesel engine gives a two to
  three times longer life than the gas engine, which
  has a life of around 100,000 miles.




15                                        Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                   Disadvantages
 Components of diesel engines are usually heavier that
  those of gasoline engines because of the additional
  structural strength needed to obtain the higher
  compression ratio and power output.
 They can emit large amounts of ozone-forming
  constituents and particulates.
 Because of diesel engines’ weight and compression ratio,
  they tend to have lower maximum RPMs than gasoline
  engines.
    This makes diesel engines has high torque rather than high
     horsepower, and this tends to make cars with diesel engines slow in
     terms of acceleration.
 Diesel fuel is not as readily available at all locations as
  gasoline tends to be.
 Diesel engines are harder to start in cold weather
  conditions, because it is difficult to get the temperature
  inside the cylinder up to the self-ignition temperature of
  the diesel fuel.

16                                                    Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                  Emissions


 The most harmful emission from diesel engines are
  the nitrogen oxides.
 The problem of nitrogen oxide (NO) production in
  diesel engines comes from the early rapid burning,
  which produces very high-temperature products.
 As a result of the pollutants from diesel engines, they
  are subject to increasingly stringent regulations that
  require continual improvements in the combustion
  process.




17                                       Teknologi dan Rekayasa
            Main Differences of Gas and Diesel


 The main difference between a gasoline engine and a
  diesel engine is that in a diesel engine, there is no
  spark plug to ignite the fuel.
 Diesel fuel is injected into the cylinder, and it ignites
  spontaneously as the heat and pressure of the
  compression stroke cause the temperature inside the
  cylinder to increase.
 The other major difference between the two types of
  engines is in the gas mileage.
      As a result of diesel fuel having a higher energy
       density than gasoline, diesel engines get higher gas
       mileage.



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19   Teknologi dan Rekayasa
     DIESEL COMPONENTS




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          COMBUSTION CHAMBER TYPE
             ( DIRECT INJECTION )




Semi Spherical Type
                                             Spherical Type




                      Multi Spherical Type


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             INDIRECT INJECTION TYPE




                           Glow
                           Plug




                          Nozzle



                                                  Piston

     SWIRL CHAMBER TYPE      PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER TYPE
                                    ( AIR CELL )


22                                        Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                 IN – LINE INJECTION PUMP



     IN – LINE INJECTION PUMP


                                Feed
                                Hole

                                Control
                                groove

                                Driving
                                 face




23                                          Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                 DISTRIBUTOR INJECTION PUMP ( VE )




     VE : “ VERTEILER EINSPRITZ )


24                                          Teknologi dan Rekayasa
     DISTRIBUTOR INJECTION PUMP ( VE )
                   ( SCEMATIC )




25                             Teknologi dan Rekayasa
              FUEL FILTER




                            FUEL FILTER PARTS
From Fuel   To Injection
                              1. Priming Pump
  Tank        Pump

                              2. Filter

                              3. Water Sendimeter




   26                           Teknologi dan Rekayasa
                           NOZZLE




     NOZZLE PARTS

       1.Pressure spring
       2.Nozzle Needle
       3.Nozzle Body
       4.Adjusting Shim
27                                  Teknologi dan Rekayasa
     PRE HEATING SYSTEM




28                        Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Bibliography:

Bosch Injection Pump Repair Book
Toyota Technician, Toyota Astra Motor




29                           Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Presented by Anang Waskito
   SMK Negeri 1 Magelang

								
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