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					                                             CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA
                                                        10.01.2011




Management of Bauxite Residue
        (Red Mud)




        Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research
Development and Design Centre (JNARDDC), Nagpur, India
 Effective utilization of waste
 materials for value added products -
 Special Reference to Bauxite Residue
Major Projects related to Bauxite Residue under AP-7 are Funded by
         National Aluminum Company Ltd. (NALCO, India)
                          5000      Alumina production 2009-10
                          4500                NALCO
Alumina Production (kT)

                          4000                HINDALCO         3697
                          3500                VEDANTA
                                              TOTAL
                          3000
                          2500
                          2000   1563
                          1500             1307
                                                         827
                          1000
                           500
                             0
                                 NALCO   HINDALCO VEDANTA      TOTAL

                                         Alumina Refineries
                          5000          Red Mud Generation 2009-10   4713.5
Red Mud Generation (kT)


                          4500
                                                 NALCO
                          4000                   HINDALCO
                          3500                   VEDANTA
                          3000                   TOTAL
                          2500   1993
                          2000                1666
                          1500                              1054.5
                          1000
                          500
                            0
                                 NALCO      HINDALCO     VEDANTA     TOTAL
                                            Alumina Refineries
Approximately 1.2 –1.5 ton of red mud is generated
per ton of alumina production

        World Production (75 mt/annum)


   India 4.71


                                  World 70.29
          RED MUD GENERATION IN INDIA – Present & Projections
Company             (i)Present        Company         (ii) Addl.Gen.
                    generation                      by 2011 & beyond*
                   (MT/Annum)
                                                       (MT/Annum)
NALCO                  1.99           NALCO               0.650
HINDALCO               1.67           HINDALCO            0.455
VEDANTA                1.05           VEDANTA             1.820
TOTAL                  4.71           UTKAL               1.950
                                      RAYKAL              1.820
                                      ADITYA              1.820
                                      JSW                 1.820
                                            TOTAL         9.685
                      Grand Total -(i) + (ii)            14.395
* Total Expected expansions
JNARDDC developed
• FIRED BRICKS and ARTIFICLAL CERAMIC
 STONE CHIPS
• FOAMED LIGHT WEIGHT BRICKS
• GLASS CERAMIC TILES
• SOIL AMENDMENT
             Research Activities taken up under
       AP-7 Project on Management of Bauxite Residue



            Activity               Red mud use         Application
Development of Stabilized Blocks                 Road, Sea/river shores,
                                    60-75 %
                                                 house floors, railways
Bench Scale Studies for                          Decorative tiles for
                                    15-25 %
Development of Glass Ceramics                    household and buildings
Development of Light Weight                      Building construction,
                                    10 -45 %
Aggregates- Foam Products                        Security walls
                                                 Converting arid lands to
Use of Red Mud as Soil                           fertile lands – Assistance
                                    10-20 %
Amendments                                       to be taken from
                                                 Australia.
    DEVELOPING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR
MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL CERAMIC STONE CHIPS
  & CONSTRUCTIONAL BRICKS / BLOCKS UTILIZING
                 RED MUD




(COLLABORATION BETWEEN: NALCO, JNARDDC AND MRCPL)
PROJECT SCHEDULE
Lab. Scale Developments: 2008-2009
Pilot Scale Developments: 2009-2010
(Production, Test Marketing)
Technical Evaluation & Feasibility Report
(TEFR): 2010-2011
Demonstration Plant: 2011-2012
        COLLABORATORS:
    NALCO, JNARDDC and MRCPL
  MRCPL (Manishree Refractory & Ceramic P Ltd.) -
Capability to develop Process for Refractory &
Ceramic Products with Equipments for large scale
processing.
  JNARDDC –
Sophisticated Instruments for characterizations of
the products and process development.
  NALCO (National Aluminium Company Ltd.) –
Project funding and Commercial viability for bulk
utilisation of Red Mud.
   Compressive Strength of Bricks
IS :3495 Part-I :1992
                                     S.N   Load at    Compressive
                                           Failure,   Strength
                                           KN
                                                      N/mm2      Kg/cm2
                                     1     495        19.06      194.29
                                     2     561        20.32      207.13
                                     3     600        27.87      284.09
                                     4     631        24.94      254.23
                                     5     650        25.70      261.97

  As per IS 1077 :1992 specification the following bricks lie in 17.5 to 20 &
  25 Class designation having compressive strength of 175- 250 kg/cm2
Construction using Red Mud fired bricks
        Benefit Accrued
The cost of the fired brick is US$ 3.83 /
100 pieces (ex- works) , Damanjodi.
Adding a freight charge of bricks by railway
to major cities, the cost of brick would be
US$ 8.0/100 pieces which is very
competitive.
 Artificial Ceramic Stone Chips


Artificial Ceramic Stone Chips


 The artificial ceramic stone
 chips aggregate of -20 mm to
 + 10 mm size was tested as
 per   M25     standard.  The
 compressive strength after
 curing for 7 and 28 days had
 shown the strength that is
 comparable to gravel.
Applications :

1. Multistoried building construction

2. Will lead to substantial reduction in the total
   weight of walls and partitions in multi storied
   buildings; thus reducing the foundation costs
   and total building cost.

3. Production of Thermal insulation &      Impact
   Resistance Materials
Foaming Agents


                  Red Mud
                  Fly ash




                                Molding       Curing



         Light Weight Foamed Bricks


                                             Heat
                                          Treatment
                                                                           Optimized experimental
                                                                                  parameters


                                                                       •   Red mud ratio in the dry
                        Optim ization of Red Mud com position              mix
                   80
% Red Mud in dry




                            60
                   60                   50
                                                     40
                                                                       •   Nature and % of foaming
      mix




                   40                                           30
                                                                           agents in the dry mix
                   20

                   0
                           RM A         RM B        RM C        RM D   •   Water content in wet mix
                                          Red Mud

                   Attained 40 - 45% Red Mud Utilization               •   Ratio of foaming agent
                   in place of proposed 10 -15% in LWFB                    composition in the pre-mix
                                                   Optim ization of Foam ing agent
                                          6




                     % Foaming agent in
                                               5
                                          5
                                          4                    3


                          dry mix
                                          3                                 2
                                          2                                           1
                                          1
                                          0
                                              FM A           FM B          FM C      FM D

                                                               Foam ing Agent

1. Optimized nature and composition of Foaming Agents
2. Foaming agent utilization is as low as 0.75% (Max) with respect to dry mix weight
              CURING & FINISHING




MIXING


                                   LABELING




   MOULDING

                                   STACKING
Sl.No.      Test Parameters   Compositing (%)
   1     Al                       10.45
   2     Fe2O3                    22.77
   3     Ti                        1.02
   4     SiO2                     16.46
   5     Loss on ignition          1.05
   6     Na                        4.61
   7     Ca                        1.08
   8     Zn                        0.01
   9     Mn                        0.07
  10     Co                       0.004
  11     Ni                       0.006
  12     Cu                       0.005
  13     Cr                        0.03
  14     As                       0.003
  15     Be                        Nil
  16     Pb                       0.003
  17     Cd                      0.0005
  18     Hg                       0.006
SAMPLE    Compressive   Water       Wet        Dry     Porosity   Effloresce
          strength Kg Absorption   Density   Density
             /Sq.cm      %         Gm/cc     Gm/cc
A2 (1B         5.90     34.85       1.221     0.906    0.316        NIL
B1 (2B)        2.30     35.69       1.177     0.867    0.3097       NIL
B2 B           3.50     34.63       1.153     0.857    0.2968       NIL
C1 (3B)        4.46     40.94       1.191     0.845    0.3463       NIL
C2 (3B)        4.87     37.68       1.264     0.918    0.3461       NIL
D1 (4B)        2.07     40.20       1.081     0.771    0.3106       NIL
D2 (4B)        1.71     39.01       1.108     0.797    0.3111       NIL
E1 (5B)        3.59     33.82       1.139     0.851    0.2881       NIL
F1(6B)         3.36     40.25       1.095     0.780    0.3143       NIL
F2 (6B)        2.19     38.02       1.187     0.860    0.3272       NIL
G2(7B)         0.453    43.09       1.181     0.825    0.3558       NIL
G2(7B)         0.546    40.87       1.221     0.867    0.3539       NIL
H1(8B)         1.138    40.13       1.182     0.843    0.3386       NIL
H2(8B)         0.601    44.06       1.172     0.813    0.3585       NIL
UNDER OBSERVATION
                         COST IMPLICATION
Weight of Standard brick                                        1.54 kg
230 X 105 X 75 mm, density 0.85 g/cc
Cost of Brick (Elec.)                                     3.20 Rs./brick
                                       US $ / 100 piece              6.5
Cost of Brick (coal)                                      1.47 Rs./brick
                                       US $ / 100 piece              3.0
Appearance & Design
  Additives
  Nucleating Agents
  Colouring Agents

                      Red mud
                      Fly ash


        Mixing
                                  Melting
                                   (High         Molding
                                Temperature)


       Finished
Glass-ceramic product
                                    Annealing      Heat
                                                Treatment
                  Observations and inferences
 Mechanical properties such as crushing strength, wear and tear
 resistance are better than commercial ceramic tiles.

 Homogeneity and texture remain same throughout the product
 and these improve the durability in comparison with micron
 level surface coating imparted on ceramic tiles.

 Production of glass ceramics need lesser processing steps

                            Future Plan
Bench scale studies of the products followed by commercialization
and technology transfer
pH Change on Gypsum Treatment for Red Mud


      Treatment                pH

      Red Mud                  10.8

      Red mud + 2 % gypsum     9.35

      Red mud + 5 % gypsum     8.65

      Red Mud + 10 % gypsum    7.75
                      Plantation at JNARDDC
                                                                          ♥
  A common variety of rice was selected for study.
  pH of soil was slightly acidic
  Plants after 6 Week (Growth Study)



       With red mud
                                         Without red mud
      (10 tones/acre)




Further study is under progress for optimization of dose and other soil
parameter to have better yield.

Absorption of soil minerals into the plant body is also under progress.
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