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					What is Collage?
Collage is an art form in which images and/or objects are combined in one piece
of artwork. The term “collage” comes from the French word coller, which means
“to paste.”
Closely related to collage is assemblage, in which three-dimensional objects are
combined in pieces of art.
ArtLex (www.artlex.com), an online art resource, defines collage as “A picture or
design created by adhering such basically flat elements as newspaper, wallpaper,
printed text and illustrations, photographs, cloth, string, etc., to a flat surface,
when the result becomes three-dimensional, and might also be called a relief
sculpture. Most of the elements adhered in producing most collages are "found"
materials. Introduced by the Cubist artists, this process was widely used by artists
who followed, and is a familiar technique in contemporary art.”
Paper items that are collected and incorporated into collage are called
“ephemera.” The collection of various ephemera is a popular hobby, and
numerous organizations exist for people interest in general ephemera as well as
particular ephemera such as greeting cards, postcards, tickets, and game
pieces. Check out www.ephemerasociety.org for more information.
Well-Known Collage Artists



    Nick Bantock, author of series of collage-like books beginning
    with Griffin and Sabine
    Romare Bearden, African-American Harlem Renaissance Artist,
    1914-1988
    Ross Palmer Beecher, Seattle collage/assemblage artist

    Robert Rauchenberg, 1925—

     Larry Rivers

    Cubist artists, including Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Georges
    Braque (1882-1963), are often credited with introducing collage as
    an art form.
    French artists Henri Matisse (1869-1954) also added collage to his
    repertoire.
Other Collage artists

        •Maureen McCabe        •              •Eugene J.         •Mimmo
        •Nick Bantock          •              Martin             Rotella
        •Amadeo de Souza       •Arthur G.     •Henri Matisse     •Anne Ryan
        Cardoso                Dove           •Robert            •Kurt
        •V. Balu               •Marcel        Motherwell         Schwitters
        •Romare Bearden        Duchamp        •Joseph            •Gino
        •Geeta Chaudhuri       •Max Ernst     Nechvatal          Severini
        •                      •Juan Gris     •Robert Nickle     •Jonathan
        •Peter Blake           •Raymond       •Fred Otnes        Talbot
        •Umberto Boccioni      Hains          •Pablo Picasso     •Lenore
        •Rita Boley Bolaffio   •              •Francis Picabia   Tawney
        •Georges Braque        •              •Robert            •Cecil
        •Alberto Burri         •Hannah        Rauschenberg       Touchon
                               Hoch           •Man Ray           •Scott
                               •David         •Matthew Rose      Treleaven
                               Hockney                           •Jacques
                               •Istvan                           Villeglé
                               Horkay                            •Kara
                               •Ray                              Walker
                               Johnson
                               •Lee Krasner
                               •Kazimir
                               Malevich
See also
           •Altered book
           •Appropriation (art)
           •Décollage
           •Mixed media
           •Papier collé
           •Photographic
           mosaic
           •Pholage
           •Scanner art
Start with a sketch. You can always change it, but it helps to have a general
idea of where you’re heading. Think about a color scheme (use a color
wheel if necessary) and consider the materials you have to work with.

Think carefully about the background and begin there. Collage has depth,
and that depth begins with the very first layer. Select a background paper
and embellish it as needed with rubber stamps or stencils.

Choose a focal point and design around that.

Think about pleasing your audience.
People tend to enjoy art with multiple dimensions and textures: How can
you add:
•something that hangs down?
•something that opens up?
•something shiny?
•something see-through, like a window or a hole?
•something soft?
•something to pull, twist, turn, or undo?
•words?
             Stuff to save…a few examples:
              old greeting cards and postcards
               game pieces and scorecards
                        ticket stubs
 any foreign ephemera—train schedules, bus tickets, etc.
                 plane and train itineraries
                          wallpaper
                       playing cards
                       game boards
     old books that can be ripped and disassembled
                      postage stamps
                           photos
                       origami paper
                  fortune cookie fortunes
 postcards (easy to find at thrift, antique, and bookstores)
      candy wrappers (especially unusual or foreign)
     maps (outdated maps are great for backgrounds)
                           menus
                         catalogues
old magazines (look in the discard pile at your local library)
                      wine bottle labels
                  match books and boxes
 Collage Projects With Students




At the beginning of the year, have students create collages about themselves using words and images they’ve chosen
that represent various aspects of their personalities and lives.

After reading a story, have students brainstorm images from that story and then draw and gather them from magazines
and other sources. Individuals and groups can create collage with the images.

Have students create boxes about themselves: the inside contains words, images, and objects that represent their
more private selves, and the outside shows things people know about them.

Make a picture or shape out of random torn images.


Using tissue paper, create a collage that is framed by something else (like a clothes hanger or a cardstock frame) that
can be place in the window for light to shine through).

Make a collage book: A spiral bound book divided from top to bottom into three sections, the pages of which turn
separately. The top pages are all heads, the middles are mid-sections, and the bottoms are legs and feet.

Teaching colors: have students use magazines to collect images of a certain color.


Using old nature magazines, have students invent weird beasts by combining parts of images of other animals
Websites
http://www.collageart.org/
http://www.collagemuseum.com/
http://www.broccoliworks.com/
Take a look at some collages here at this virtual
gallery: http://www.collagegallery.com/
Collage artist Claudine Hellmuth shares here work here:
http://www.collageartist.com/portfolio_new.htm
Ephemera Society: www.ephemerasocietyorg
Creative Portal has all kinds of links to creative projects and
information:http://www.creativity-portal.com/howto/artscrafts/collage.html
The International Museum of Collage, Assemblage, and Construction