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Romantic Poetry

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									Romantic Poetry
    John Keats
                  Outline
•   John Keats; the odes
•   Ode on a Grecian Urn
•   Notes
•   To Autumn
John Keats
  • October 31, 1795-February 23, 1821;
    died at the age of 25 of tuberculosis .
    Published only 54 poems.
  • Originally a surgeon (apothecary-
    surgeon) and changed his mind in
    1813-1814.
  • Literary Creation: 1816 – 1821 [love
    with Fanny Browne 1818- the
    odes 1819] poverty
  • 1820 –symptoms of TB;
  • 1821 -- "Here lies one whose name
    was writ in water."
  • Major Ideas: Life as ―the Vale of
    soul-making.‖ Shakespeare with
    ―negative capability‖ (like a
    chameleon—imaginative
    identification with the other).
                 Keats‘ Great Odes
1. ―Ode to Psyche‖        • 4. ―Ode on Melancholy‖
--the goddess             She dwells with Beauty—Beauty that must die;
     Psyche in the        And Joy, whose hand is ever at his lips
     arms of Cupid        Bidding adieu and aching Pleasure nigh,
2. ―Ode on a              Turning to poison while the bee-mouth sips
     Grecian Urn‖ –
     art
3. ―Ode to a
     Nightingale‖ --art    • Journey to (or Quest) artistic
5. ―Ode on Indolence‖        eternity and transcendence and
6. 'To Autumn‗ – a           return to the mortal world
     finale
       Ode on a Grecian Urn
1. Pay attention to a) the form of address
   (apostrophe) and the object of address in
   different stanzas, which imply the
   speaker‘s different relations with the urn;
2. Pay attention to the use of metaphors in
   calling/describing the urn;
3. The two sides of the urn: their
   differences and similarities
4. The closing lines—how to interpret them.
    Blue—metaphor;
    Orange – sound
Underline-- rhetoric skills:              STANZA I
        questions
   Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness,
   Thou foster-child of silence and slow time,
   Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
   A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
   What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shape
   Of deities or mortals, or of both,
   In Tempe or the dales of Arcady? (1)
   What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?
   What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
   What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
    Blue—metaphor;
    Orange – sound
Underline-- rhetoric skills:
 Imperative, concession,                     STANZA II
        repetition

      Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
      Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
      Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd,
      Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:
      Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave
      Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
      Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss,
      Though winning near the goal--yet, do not grieve;
      She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss,
      For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!
   Blue—metaphor;
    Orange – sound
Underline-- rhetoric skills:
 Exclamation; repetition
                                          STANZA III
   Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
   Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu;
   And, happy melodist, unwearied,
   For ever piping songs for ever new;
   More happy love! more happy, happy love!
   For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd,
   For ever panting, and for ever young;
   All breathing human passion far above,
   That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy'd,
   A burning forehead, and a parching tongue.
    Blue—subjects;
    Orange – sound
Underline-- rhetoric skills:
 Exclamation; repetition
                                          STANZA IV
   Who are these coming to the sacrifice?
   To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
   Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,
   And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?
   What little town by river or sea shore,
   Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
   Is emptied of this folk, this pious morn?
   And, little town, thy streets for evermore
   Will silent be; and not a soul to tell
   Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.
   Blue—metaphor;
    Orange – sound
Underline-- rhetoric skills:
 Exclamation; repetition
                                          STANZA V
   O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
   Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
   With forest branches and the trodden weed;
   Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
   As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral!
   When old age shall this generation waste,
   Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
   Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,
   "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,"--that is all
   Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
        Ode on a Grecian Urn
1. Using apostrophe to address and speak to the
   Urn in order to ―enter‖ its realm (the realm of
   art and permanence);
  •    The Emphathic(神入﹚/Ekphrastic (讀畫/藝術作
       品) Process:
  1) approach: question understanding  confirmation
       
  2) differentiation between the human and the artistic
  – A Creative Process:
  * After all, the urn is just an ancient utensil; Keats
       creates its ―artistic‖ meanings by teasing out the
       dualities between (time and timelessness/frozen
       moments, sound and silence, thinking and
       thoughtlessness, the static and the eternal)
                    Note (1)
• Tempe and Arcady: considered as heavenly
  paradise in Greece, frequently mentioned in
  pastoral poems; symbol of artistic realm.
• Sylvan – of the forest; shady
                     Note (2)
• Ekphrasis: poetic writing concerning itself with
  the visual arts, artistic objects, and/or highly
  visual scenes (source)
• Examples: ―Musee des beaux arts‖ ―Ozymandias‖
  ―My Last Duchess‖
• Issues:
  – art and life;
  – different languages of art (an inter-art approach):
    temporal/kinetic arts (verbal, filmic) art vs. static
    (visual vs. plastic)
  – Possibilities of re-creation with different messages.
    Ode on a Grecian Urn as an
         Ekphrastic poem
• Keats first appreciates the values of plastic
  art which eternalizes one (frozen) moment;
• With the reading of the funeral procession,
  he places it back to the temporal flow.
• There is then a contrast between the urn‘s
  beauty and truth, and those of humans‘
  mortal world.
         TO AUTUMN (1819)
Pay attention to:
1) How autumn is presented; personified
   and addressed to.
2) Different focuses of ideas and image
   patterns of the three stanzas;
3) How the stanzas develop
              TO AUTUMN (1819)
Underline– subject –verb; orange- alliteration , rhyme and
  other recurrent sounds (e.g. [f], [m], [o] and [s]). Tactile
  images of fruition (softness and fullness)--boldface
                               1.
•   SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
       Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
    Conspiring with him how to load and bless
       With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;
    To bend with apples the moss‘d cottage-trees,
       And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
          To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
    With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,
       And still more, later flowers for the bees,
       Until they think warm days will never cease,
          For Summer has o‘er-brimm‘d their clammy cells.
Underline– object/possessive pronoun –verb (inactive, or
passive); orange- alliteration, rhyme and other recurrent
sounds (e.g. [th], [wi], [ft]/[st] and [u]/[au]). Action images of
rest (sleep, drowsed, spare the hook, keep steady, watch)--
boldface
                                 2.
Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?
    Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
 Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,
    Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;
 Or on a half-reap‘d furrow sound asleep,
    Drows’d with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
      Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers:
 And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep
   Steady thy laden head across a brook;
    Or by a cyder-press, with patient look,
      Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.
Underline– subject (thou) –verb (singing, or passive); orange-
alliteration, rhyme and alteration of long and short sounds (e.g.
[ourn/ong], [oo], [t] and [oft]). Audio images of singing (mourn, bleat,
whistle and twitter)--boldface

    3.
   Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?
       Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—
     While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,
       And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue;
     Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn
       Among the river sallows, borne aloft
          Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies;
     And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;
       Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft
       The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;
         And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.
         TO AUTUMN (1819)
(1) Early         (2) mid-autumn (3) Late
autumn                             autumn
Autumn            Autumn spoken Autumn gone,
observed as an    to as one        its music
active agent of   relaxed in post- confirmed
fruition          harvest
                  handling
Tactile images    Visual and       Audio images
                  figural images

								
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