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Contents at a Glance

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 10

									                Contents at a Glance
Introduction ................................................................ 1
Part I: Wrapping Your Brain Around Blender ................. 7




                                                                                    AL
Chapter 1: Discovering Blender ....................................................................................... 9
Chapter 2: Understanding How Blender Thinks .......................................................... 19




                                                                              RI
Chapter 3: Getting Your Hands Dirty Working in Blender .......................................... 49
Chapter 4: Working in Edit Mode and Object Mode .................................................... 61




                                                                      TE
Part II: Creating Detailed 3D Scenes ........................... 89

                                                           MA
Chapter 5: Creating Anything You Can Imagine with Meshes.................................... 91
Chapter 6: Using Blender’s Nonmesh Primitives ....................................................... 129
Chapter 7: Changing That Boring Gray Default Material .......................................... 157
Chapter 8: Giving Models Texture ............................................................................... 185
                                                     D
Chapter 9: Lighting and Environment ......................................................................... 215
                                             TE

Part III: Get Animated! ............................................ 243
Chapter 10: Animating Objects .................................................................................... 245
                                   GH



Chapter 11: Rigging: The Art of Building an Animatable Puppet ............................. 273
Chapter 12: Animating Object Deformations ............................................................. 311
Chapter 13: Letting Blender Do the Work for You ..................................................... 327
                            RI




Part IV: Sharing Your Work with the World................ 349
                    PY




Chapter 14: Exporting and Rendering Scenes ............................................................ 351
Chapter 15: Compositing and Editing.......................................................................... 359
          CO




Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................... 387
Chapter 16: Ten Problems for New Users in Blender (And Ways
 Around Them) ............................................................................................................. 389
Chapter 17: Ten Tips for Working More Effectively in Blender ............................... 397
Chapter 18: Ten Excellent Community Resources .................................................... 403

Appendix: About the DVD ......................................... 407
Index ...................................................................... 413
                  Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................. 1
           About This Book .............................................................................................. 2
           Conventions Used in This Book ..................................................................... 2
           Foolish Assumptions ....................................................................................... 3
           How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 4
                 Part I: Wrapping Your Brain Around Blender .................................... 4
                 Part II: Creating Detailed 3D Scenes .................................................... 5
                 Part III: Get Animated! ........................................................................... 5
                 Part IV: Sharing Your Work with the World ....................................... 5
                 Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................................................ 5
           Icons Used in This Book ................................................................................. 6
           Where to Go from Here ................................................................................... 6


Part I: Wrapping Your Brain Around Blender .................. 7
     Chapter 1: Discovering Blender. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
           Getting to Know Blender ................................................................................ 9
           Discovering Blender’s Beginnings ............................................................... 10
           Making Open Movies and Games................................................................. 12
           Getting to Know the Interface ...................................................................... 13
                 An interface that stays out of your way ............................................ 15
                 Resizing an area ................................................................................... 16
                 Splitting and removing areas.............................................................. 16
                 Duplicating an area to a new window ............................................... 17
                 Maximizing an area .............................................................................. 18

     Chapter 2: Understanding How Blender Thinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
           Looking at Editor Types................................................................................ 19
           Working with the Properties Editor ............................................................ 21
           Customizing Blender to Fit You ................................................................... 23
                Using screen layout presets ............................................................... 24
                Setting user preferences ..................................................................... 26
                Using custom event maps ................................................................... 33
           Navigating in Three Dimensions .................................................................. 36
                Orbiting, panning, and zooming the 3D View ................................... 36
                Changing views .................................................................................... 37
                Selecting objects .................................................................................. 43
                Taking advantage of the 3D cursor .................................................... 43
x   Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition

                  New Features in Blender’s 3D View Since 2.5 ............................................ 45
                       Quad View ............................................................................................. 45
                       Regions .................................................................................................. 46
                       Don’t know how to do something? Hooray for fully
                         integrated search! ............................................................................ 48

             Chapter 3: Getting Your Hands Dirty Working in Blender . . . . . . . . . .49
                  Grabbing, Scaling, and Rotating................................................................... 49
                  Differentiating Between Coordinate Systems ............................................ 50
                  Transforming an Object by Using the 3D Manipulator ............................. 53
                        Switching manipulator modes............................................................ 53
                        Using the manipulator ......................................................................... 54
                  Saving Time by Using Hotkeys ..................................................................... 56
                        Transforming with hotkeys ................................................................ 57
                        Hotkeys and coordinate systems....................................................... 57
                        Numerical input ................................................................................... 59
                        The Properties region ......................................................................... 59

             Chapter 4: Working in Edit Mode and Object Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
                  Making Changes by Using Edit Mode .......................................................... 61
                       Distinguishing between Object mode and Edit mode ..................... 62
                       Selecting vertices, edges, and faces .................................................. 63
                       Working with linked vertices.............................................................. 65
                       Still Blender’s No. 1 modeling tool: Extrude ..................................... 66
                       Creating a simple model with Extrude .............................................. 70
                  Adding to a Scene .......................................................................................... 72
                       Adding objects ..................................................................................... 72
                       Meet Suzanne, the Blender monkey .................................................. 74
                       Joining and separating objects .......................................................... 74
                       Creating duplicates and links ............................................................. 75
                       Discovering parents, children, and groups ...................................... 80
                       Saving, opening, and appending ........................................................ 84


         Part II: Creating Detailed 3D Scenes ........................... 89
             Chapter 5: Creating Anything You Can Imagine with Meshes. . . . . . .91
                  Pushing Vertices ............................................................................................ 91
                  Working with Loops and Rings .................................................................... 94
                       Understanding edge loops and face loops ....................................... 94
                       Selecting edge rings ............................................................................. 95
                       Creating new loops .............................................................................. 96
                  Simplifying Your Life As a Modeler with Modifiers ................................... 98
                       Doing half the work (and still looking good!) with
                          the Mirror modifier ........................................................................ 101
                                                                                          Table of Contents                xi
           Smoothing things out with the Subdivision Surface modifier ...... 103
           Using the power of Arrays ................................................................ 107
      Sculpting Multiresolution Meshes ............................................................. 111
           Something new: The Multiresolution modifier............................... 111
           Sculpting options ............................................................................... 113
      Practical Example: Modeling an Eye ......................................................... 119
           Starting with a primitive ................................................................... 119
           Creating the pupil and iris ................................................................ 120
           Taking a knife to your pupil .............................................................. 122
           Smoothing out the eye interior ........................................................ 123
           Building the eye’s exterior ................................................................ 124

Chapter 6: Using Blender’s Nonmesh Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
      Using Curves and Surfaces ......................................................................... 129
           Understanding the different types of curves ................................. 132
           Working with curves.......................................................................... 133
           Understanding the strengths and limitations of
             Blender’s surfaces .......................................................................... 144
      Using Meta Objects ..................................................................................... 145
           Meta-wha? ........................................................................................... 146
           What meta objects are useful for ..................................................... 148
      Adding Text .................................................................................................. 149
           Adding and editing text ..................................................................... 150
           Changing fonts.................................................................................... 153
           Deforming text with a curve ............................................................. 155
           Converting to curves and meshes ................................................... 155

Chapter 7: Changing That Boring Gray Default Material . . . . . . . . . .157
      Playing with Materials................................................................................. 157
            Changing colors ................................................................................. 162
            Adjusting shader values .................................................................... 163
            Reflection and transparency ............................................................ 166
            Controlling how materials handle shadows ................................... 169
            Assigning multiple materials to different parts of a mesh............ 170
      Coloring Vertices with Vertex Paint .......................................................... 172
      Practical Example: Coloring the Eye ......................................................... 174
            Setting up a Materials screen ........................................................... 174
            The easy part: Material slots ............................................................ 176
            Getting more detailed with Vertex Paint ........................................ 181

Chapter 8: Giving Models Texture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
      Adding Textures .......................................................................................... 185
      Using Procedural Textures ......................................................................... 187
      Understanding Texture Mapping............................................................... 191
           The Mapping panel ............................................................................ 191
           The Influence panel ........................................................................... 195
xii   Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition

                     Unwrapping a Mesh..................................................................................... 196
                           Marking seams on a mesh................................................................. 196
                           Adding a test grid............................................................................... 197
                           Generating and editing UV coordinates .......................................... 199
                     Painting Textures Directly on a Mesh ....................................................... 201
                     Baking Texture Maps from Your Mesh ..................................................... 203
                     Using UV Textures ....................................................................................... 205
                     Practical Example: Unwrapping Your Eye and Painting
                       a Detailed Texture.................................................................................... 206
                           Marking seams and unwrapping ...................................................... 206
                           Reducing texture stretching ............................................................. 207
                           Baking vertex colors .......................................................................... 210
                           Assigning textures to your material ................................................ 212
                           Painting textures ................................................................................ 212

               Chapter 9: Lighting and Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
                     Lighting a Scene ........................................................................................... 215
                           Understanding a basic three-point lighting setup ......................... 216
                     Lighting for Speedy Renders ...................................................................... 228
                           Working with three-point lighting in Blender................................. 230
                           Creating a fake Area light with buffered Spots............................... 231
                           Dealing with outdoor lighting........................................................... 232
                     Setting Up the World ................................................................................... 234
                           Changing the sky to something other than dull gray .................... 234
                           Understanding ambient occlusion................................................... 236
                           Adding mist and stars ....................................................................... 238
                           Creating sky textures......................................................................... 241


           Part III: Get Animated! ............................................ 243
               Chapter 10: Animating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
                     Working with Animation Curves ................................................................ 246
                          Customizing your screen layout for animation.............................. 248
                          Working in the Graph Editor ............................................................ 249
                          Inserting keys ..................................................................................... 250
                          Editing motion curves ....................................................................... 252
                     Using Constraints Effectively ..................................................................... 255
                          The all-powerful Empty! .................................................................... 257
                          Adjusting the influence of a constraint ........................................... 258
                          Using vertex groups in constraints ................................................. 258
                          Copying the movement of another object ...................................... 259
                          Putting limits on an object................................................................ 261
                          Tracking the motion of another object ........................................... 263
                                                                                         Table of Contents               xiii
      Practical Example: Building and Animating a Simple Eye Rig................ 264
           Creating your rig ................................................................................ 265
           Animating your eyes .......................................................................... 269

Chapter 11: Rigging: The Art of Building an Animatable Puppet . . .273
      Creating Shape Keys.................................................................................... 273
           Creating new shapes ......................................................................... 274
           Mixing shapes ..................................................................................... 276
           Knowing where shape keys are helpful .......................................... 278
      Adding Hooks ............................................................................................... 278
           Creating new hooks ........................................................................... 278
           Knowing where hooks are helpful ................................................... 280
      Using Armatures: Skeletons in the Mesh .................................................. 280
           Editing armatures .............................................................................. 281
           Putting skin on your skeleton........................................................... 290
      Practical Example: Rigging Stickman ........................................................ 295
           Building Stickman’s centerline ......................................................... 295
           Adding Stickman’s appendages ....................................................... 296
           Taking advantage of parenting and constraints ............................ 299
           Comparing inverse kinematics and forward kinematics .............. 303
           Making the rig more user friendly ................................................... 308

Chapter 12: Animating Object Deformations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
      Working with the Dopesheet...................................................................... 311
      Animating with Armatures ......................................................................... 314
           Principles of animation worth remembering ................................. 315
           Making sense of quaternions (or, “Why are there
             four rotation curves?!”) ................................................................. 317
           Copying mirrored poses ................................................................... 318
           Seeing the big picture with ghosting ............................................... 320
           Visualizing motion with paths .......................................................... 321
      Doing Nonlinear Animation ........................................................................ 322
           Mixing actions to create complex animation ................................. 323
           Taking advantage of looped animation ........................................... 325

Chapter 13: Letting Blender Do the Work for You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
      Using Particles in Blender .......................................................................... 328
           Knowing what particle systems are good for ................................. 329
           Using force fields and collisions ...................................................... 332
           Using particles for hair and fur ........................................................ 334
      Giving Objects Some Jiggle and Bounce ................................................... 337
      Dropping Objects in a Scene with Rigid Body Dynamics ....................... 340
      Simulating Cloth........................................................................................... 343
      Splashing Fluids in Your Scene .................................................................. 344
xiv   Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition


           Part IV: Sharing Your Work with the World ................ 349
               Chapter 14: Exporting and Rendering Scenes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
                      Exporting to External Formats ................................................................... 351
                      Rendering a Scene ....................................................................................... 352
                           Creating a still image ......................................................................... 353
                           Creating a finished animation .......................................................... 356
                           Creating a sequence of still images for editing or compositing ..... 358

               Chapter 15: Compositing and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
                      Comparing Editing to Compositing ........................................................... 359
                      Working with the Video Sequence Editor................................................. 360
                          Adding and editing strips.................................................................. 363
                          Adding effects ..................................................................................... 366
                          Rendering from the Video Sequence Editor ................................... 368
                      Working with the Node-Based Compositor .............................................. 369
                          Understanding the benefits of rendering in passes....................... 370
                          Working with nodes ........................................................................... 374
                          Discovering the nodes available to you .......................................... 379
                          Rendering from the Node Compositor ............................................ 386


           Part V: The Part of Tens ............................................ 387
               Chapter 16: Ten Problems for New Users in Blender
               (And Ways Around Them) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
                      Auto Saves and Session Recovery Don’t Work ........................................ 389
                      Blender’s Interface Is Weird or Glitchy..................................................... 390
                      A Notorious Black Stripe Appears on Models.......................................... 391
                      Objects Go Missing ...................................................................................... 391
                      Edge Loop Select Doesn’t Work ................................................................. 393
                      A Background Image Disappears ............................................................... 393
                      Zooming Has Its Limits ............................................................................... 393
                      Lost Simulation Data ................................................................................... 394
                      Blender Doesn’t Create Faces As Expected ............................................. 395
                      Disorientation in the 3D View .................................................................... 396

               Chapter 17: Ten Tips for Working More Effectively in Blender. . . . .397
                      Use Tooltips and Integrated Search ......................................................... 397
                      Look at Models from Different Views ........................................................ 398
                      Lock a Camera to an Animated Character................................................ 398
                      Don’t Forget about Add-Ons ...................................................................... 398
                      Name Everything ......................................................................................... 399
                                                                                               Table of Contents                xv
          Use Layers Effectively ................................................................................. 399
          Do Low-Resolution Test Renders .............................................................. 400
          Mind Your Mouse ........................................................................................ 401
          Use Grease Pencil to Plan ........................................................................... 402
          Have Fun, but Take Breaks ......................................................................... 402

     Chapter 18: Ten Excellent Community Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
          Blender.org ................................................................................................... 403
          BlenderArtists.org ....................................................................................... 404
          BlenderNation .............................................................................................. 404
          BlenderBasics.com ...................................................................................... 404
          BlenderNewbies ........................................................................................... 405
          BlenderCookie.com ..................................................................................... 405
          Blendswap .................................................................................................... 405
          Blenderart Magazine ................................................................................... 405
          Graphicall.org .............................................................................................. 405
          Blender IRC Channels on freenode.net ..................................................... 406


Appendix: About the DVD .......................................... 407

Index ....................................................................... 413

								
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