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Mayan _Aztec _ and Mexican Art

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					Mayan ,Aztec , and Mexican
           Art
        Jasmine Reis
        Oraida Tapia
        Megan Houle
        Holly Zelano
            Geography of Mesoamerica
oMesoamerica names the region that
compromises part of present day
Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras,
and the pacific coast of El Salvador.

oThe only difference between present
day Mesoamerica and past
Mesoamerica, is that during early
Mesoamerica there was more
archaeological sites .
 Geographic Highlights of
Mesoamerican and Mexico




             Some Geographical features
             of Mesoamerica and Mexico
             volcanic and seismic
             regions, dense tropical
             rainforests, mountains that
             reach to snow level and
             land fertile for crops of
             maize or corn. Also there is
             a large source of limestone
             used both for carving and
             building.
                              Aztec Life
• The Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan
and that was where they had there         • Temples had or were decorated with powerful
temples and pyramids.                     gods.
•They had tombs called way the dead.
The city spread into 4 major
quadrants, defined by two avenues
that lead to the center streets and
alley ways defined the quadrants into
smaller squares, each separated
apartment compounds with entrances
and patios arranged to give household
privacy.
•People from far away, merchants,
potters, and stone workers lived there.
•Arid land spread to the east and
south west producing food for all
people.
•The city elite who administered
matters of state had elegant palaces
where rooms bright with murals
opened onto summer patios.                          Aztec Daily Life
     Aztec and Mayan Main Religion
•   One of the many main points for           •   Mayan god of rain (chac). One of the
    religious rituals was sacred buildings        sacrifices of this god was to drown
    and temples dedicated to the gods.            children in wells.
•   The Aztecs worship sacred places.         •   In some Mayan regions the god of
•   Aztec religions were concerned with           rain was so important that the
    the sun. the Aztecs believed that one         facades of buildings were covered in
    day the world would end violently             masks of chac the rain god.
    and to delay that they preformed
    human sacrifice. They believed it was
    there duty to feed the gods with
    human blood thereby keeping the
    sun alive.
•   God of spring time (xipe totec) it
    means our flayed lord. Aztec god
    patronized the metal workers and
    victim sacrifice in honor of the god of
    spring time were skinned alive. After
    doing so priest would wear the
    victims skin, this symbolized the
    annual spring renewal of vegetation.
                                                        Chac the Rain God
                                Sacrifices
•   Sacrifice was a religious ritual        •   Most common Aztec sacrifice was to
    preformed by both the Aztecs and            stretch the victim over a sacrificial
    the Mayans.                                 stone, five priests took part in the
•   Aztecs sacrificed more frequently           ceremony four of them held the
    and more widespread than the                limbs and one cut out the heart all
    Mayans.                                     while the victim was still alive.
•   The Mayans sometimes sacrificed         •   Another common Aztec form of scarf
    victims in wells.                           ice was to flay or to skin the man
•   Victims consisted of men women              alive.
    children and animals.                   •   Aztecs practiced cannibalism in some
•   Mayans sometimes drowned there              religious ceremonies under strict
    victims while the Aztecs removed the        regulations enemy captives were
    victims hearts.                             ritually eaten but only the legs and
                                                arms.
•   Most sacrifices were preformed in
    honor of the sun moon rain and
    earth gods.
•   People believed that just as the gods
    scarified themselves during the
    creation of the sun and moon they
    had to do the same.
                        Life After Death
                                            •
•    Mayan burial – The Mayans usually
                                                Aztec rituals of death was to take the
                                                limbs of a sacrificial victims and then
    buried there dead under house floors
                                                eat them by the victims captor it is
    or in the ground, or sometimes they
                                                done in the presence of a mummified
    cremated the remains buried them in
                                                body.
    caves in underground tanks or urns.
                                            •   It was the way that the Aztecs died
•   The upper classes were buried in very
                                                rather than how they lived that
    elaborate tombs.
                                                would determined what would
                                                happen to them in the afterlife.
                                            •   If the person died a normal death his
                                                or her sole was to pass through the
                                                nine levels of hell before reaching
                                                Mictlan or the realm of the death
                                                god.
                                            •   Warriors who died in battle and
                                                women who died in child birth joined
                                                the sun god in the sky immediately
           Ancient burial urn
                  Art Influences
  Mayan, Aztec art were
influenced by their códices
gods and by other
mesoamericana habitants.
Also they were influenced
by europeans, spainards
that came searching for
valuable instead they found
architecture and pottery.
They influenced each other,
renovating their way of
living and artisanry.
      Frida Kahlo                   •Artists that inspired her work were Durer,
                                    Rembrandt ,and Van Gogh.
                                    •Her self-portraiture became a career in itself,
                                    a vast amount of her pieces are self images.
                                    You can observe a variety of moods and
                                    values: a love of life, naïve innocence,
                                    sophistication, political activism, and fantasy.
                                    •Monkeys have along history in European art,
                                    it was often called “The Ape of Nature.”The
                                    combinations of monkeys and humans in
                                    exotic settings were found in the paintings of
                                    Douanier Heneri Rousseau, a French artist
                                    that influenced Kahlo.
                                    • Monkeys were surrogate children, altar
                                    egos, and fantasy companions. In this portrait
                                    however the monkey represents Diego Rivera
                                    which at the point was divorced with Frida .
                                    Like the veins connecting the two Fridas , the
                                    blood red ribbons falling from her hair that
                                    wrap around both her and the monkey are
Self-Portrait with Monkey, 1940     uniting them .The monkeys paw coming out of
Frida Kahlo (1907-1954)             her hair represents Diego strangling her or
Oil on Canvas. 21x16 ¾ in.          Diego slitting her neck .Frida felt suicidal.
Found out of a private collection   Later the same year they got back together.
Diego Rivera                   •   Rivera was amazed with the Tehuantepec during his
                                   visit in 1922. This piece was painted a year before
                                   Rivera married Kahlo, later on she adopted the
                                   Tehuana fashions as her own way of dressing.
                               •   One of the two monumental works Rivera made in
                                   1928 depicting the Zandunga (the other a fresco in
                                   the court of Festivals at the Secretariat of public
                                   Education in Mexico City,) his work shows he had
                                   complete assimilation of indigenismo or the usage
                                   of indigenous motifs to energize modern paintings
                                   of Mexican art. Rivera captured the luminosity of the
                                   fresco, which is augmented by the paintings large
                                   size.
                               •    The solid, monumental forms within the
                                   composition, that includes the cubist foliage and
                                   banana plants forming a canopy over the dancers
                                   heads, by giving the image both an organic
                                   character. Echoing a serene folk classicism of the
                                   dancers and their costumes, the entirety of the
                                   painting is classical in design values which originate
                                   in Greco-Roman antiquity and sense. Scene is
                                   archetypical, defining a class of cultural experience.
Dance at Tehuantepec 1928,
Diego Rivera (1887-1957) oil
on canvas. 78x 63 ¾ in.
 Juan O’ Gorman                               •   Juan O’ Gorman was born in Coyoacan
                                                  in 1905, the son of an Irish immigrant
                                                  engineer and portraitist and his Mexican
                                                  born wife, herself also of Irish decent.
                                              •   Its about Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he
                                                  was called the father of Mexican
                                                  independence. He fought for the
                                                  independence of liberals who didn’t want
                                                  to be ruled under the Spanish.
                                              •   On September 16, 1810 a plot among
                                                  Hidalgo and other liberals was
                                                  discovered so they were forced to start a
                                                  revolution. Which Hidalgo called Grito
                                                  De Dolores( Cry of Pain.) Became the
                                                  first of several declarations from Spain.
                                              •   Hidalgo was unable to control the
                                                  revolutionary movement, and his radical
                                                  polices on returning land to native
Padre Hidalgo from the Retablo de la              Mexicans and other economic changes
Independencia (Altar of Independence) 1959-       lead to their union with Spain. He was
1961) Juan O’ Gorman (1905-1982) Mural,
                                                  later caught, stripped of his priestly
fresco and tempera Chapultepec Castle,
Mexico City.
                                                  powers and, executed in 1811.
                                    •He was hired to make copies of pre
Saturnino Herran                    Hispanic art at Teotihuacan for the
                                    archeological survey in 1907.Giving him
                                    the interest to do ancient murals.
                                    •Our gods project began in 1914 with a
                                    competition at the academy for mural to
                                    be entered at the national theater.
                                    •Herran decided to paint a large mural of
                                    pre Hispanic Indians doing sacrifice to the
                                    gods, it was an Aztec statue of Coatlicue
                                    with a crucified Christ.
                                    •Our Gods displayed Herran’s virtues: a
                                    facile, command of human anatomy, fluid
                                    handling of paint, a fascinating handling
                                    of light, vivid presentation of human
Our Gods 1914-1918                  interaction, and a surprisingly abstract
Saturnino Herran (1887-19180        overall that places him in the ranks of
Oil on canvas 5ft 9in.x17ft 5in.    proto modernists.
Found out of a private collection   •Our gods project provides a bridge from
                                    the Romanized pre Hispanic subjects of
                                    the 19th century academics to the muralist
                                    movement in the next decade. If Herran
                                    was alive he would make great
                                    contributions to muralism and Mexican
                                    art in general.
David Alfaro Siqueiros
                          Echo of a Scream has a similar meaning like
                             Picasso’s Guernica, a high level of
                             propaganda against facist aggression , it also
                             achieves a universal affect : condemnation
                             of war in general.
                          We see that Siqueiros created this piece the
                             same year Picasso created his in 1937,
                             shared strong feelings about war.
                             Eventhough their expositions are competely
                             different, in both show death, desperation,
                             anguish. It chooses to communicate in a
                             symbolic, dream like terms. Abandoned child
                             is sitting screaming on top of war
                             instruments, in a landscape filled of
                             desperation and tribulation. Either the child
                             has lost its parents in the war, or has been
                             taken against will by rhe enemy. The child’s
                             image is doubled to be seen as an
Echo of a Scream 1937        “echo”,giving a scene of isolation. The red
David Alfaro Siqueiros       cloth that serves as clothing for the child
Enamel on Wood 48x36in.      represents the blood shed, in war affecting
Museum of Modern Art NY      children by leaving some orphans.
  Ekchuah
Ek Chuah is the Mayan God of cocoa, merchants
and travellers, and appears in the Dresden Codex.
Ek Chuah (ek means "star" and chuah means
"black" in Yucatec Maya), who was also the god of
cacao. The connection lies in the fact that cacao
seeds were used as currency throughout Meso-
America. Ek Chuah was the patron of cacao, and
the owners of plantations of this crop conducted a
ceremony in his honor in the month of Muán. The
travelers or merchants they carried incense trough
out their journey. When they reached a mountain
top at night getting three stones with several
grains of incense accompanied by three flat
stones, in front of the first three. Praying to Ek
chuah to give them good fortune and bring them
back safely to their homes.
               Modern life in Mexico
•   Spaniards came to Mexico in the           •   More than 5 million Mexican Indians
    1500’s and conquered the Indians              will primarily us Indian language in
    that had lived there for centuries (the       daily life which includes the Mayan
    Incas the Aztecs and the Mayans)              Mixtecs the Otumi the Irescan and
•   The majority of people in Mexico are          the Zapatec.
    ancestors to the ancient Indians that     •   Daily life in Mexico includes many old
    once ruled over Mexico.                       customs from there Indian past and
•   Maya and Zaputec are the major                Spanish colonial period.
    Indian languages spoken in Mexico.        •   Many households consist on an
•   75% of all Mexicans now live in cities        average of 5 to 6 people.
    or towns.                                 •   Women now have jobs outside of the
•   Mexico changed quite rapidly, Mexico          home an women living on farms will
    now has 10 million population.                work on the fields as will the boys.
•   Cities are so largely populated life in       Whereas the city boys will have part
    many ways mirrors life in the U.S.            time jobs while in school.
•   Families live in rows of homes built in
    Spanish colonial style and suburban
    live in apartment buildings and
    houses.

				
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