Culture

					         Culture
• What is it?
• How does it change?
• Globalizing popular culture
    vs. traditional culture
Parsing Homework Questions
Before answering each question:
• Underline or circle all important parts.
• Carry each part out.
• Check each question part off when done.
After you finish all questions:
• Repeat the same procedure.
Remember:
• Question parts are often connected.
• Different questions have related information.
• Use your head.
 Reference Book: Cyclopedia Atlas
• Date:
  – Time snapshot
• Perspective: Anglo-European, United States
• Countries
  – Austro-Hungarian Empire
  – Colonies
  – Poland (history)
  – Countries cobbled together
  – Countries that no longer exist
  – New countries
  – Countries with name changes
    Back to the Present (and Future?):




•   Source: CIA http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/mapspub/maps/802980.jpg
• Examples:
  – Migration
  – Shopping
                                      Distance
• Dependent on                         decay
  – Mobility
  – Desirability
  – Knowledge
  – Distribution of desirable destinations
  – Cost of mobility
  – Individual willingness to travel
• Later, connection to Central Place Theory
     Folk and Popular Culture
• Folk Culture
  – (culture) traditionally practiced by a small
    homogeneous groups living in isolated rural
    areas.
• Popular Culture
  – (culture) found in large, heterogeneous
    societies that share certain habits despite
    differences in other personal characteristics.
     Folk Culture: Components
• Artifacts
  – Clothing, housing, furniture, belongings
• Activities
  – Local festivals (Japanese: Omatsuri),
  – culturally unique social, religious, & political
    activities
  – Change over time: Iceland: Althing  Parliament
• Beliefs
  – Common to the culture, but not to larger groups
     • Representative of the culture
    Folk and Popular Culture Artifacts
• My artifacts: with me
  – What cultures do they come from?
  – When was the last time you saw them?
  – Are they common?
  – (Cities homogenize these artifacts over time.)


• Your artifacts:
  – what you wear, drive, live in, use, etc.
     Folk and Popular Culture
• P. 117, First sentence
  – Change the words „political institutions‟ to
    social activities.
     • Why?
        – Politics is a subset of social forms (activities).


  – Culture (Rubenstein, p. 24)
     • The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and
       social forms that together constitute the distinct
       tradition of a group of people.
        Folk and Popular Culture

                    Folk          Popular
    Scale           Smaller       Larger

    Communication Limited         Global
    Diffusion       Relocation    hierarchical

                    Compare and Contrast:
More comparisons: change, utility, others?
Look at the core/periphery handout from Day 1:
Is it helpful in explaining this?
                    Homogenization:
• Mixing paint

• Must exercise use barriers to keep colors
  separate, unique.
• Otherwise, they run together, and become
  one. Variations are lost.
• This happens with cultures.

•   (bring and use paints in a clear container.)
Culture, Globalization, and Environment
• Globalization  strong diffusion
  – Popular culture dominance threatens folk cultures
  – Threatens the traditional values. (student examples?)
• Folk Traditions
  – Unique identity
  – Disappearance reduces local diversity
• Popular culture
  – Less sensitive to local environment
  – Not adapted to local conditions
  – Tendency to modify environment to fit the culture
     • “Popular culture is less likely to reflect the diversity of local
       physical conditions and is more likely to modify the environment
       in accordance with global values.” (p. 117)
     Folk and Popular Culture
• P. 117, First sentence
  – Change political institutions to social activities.
     • Why?
        – Politics is a subset of social forms (activities).


  – Culture (Rubenstein, p. 24)
     • The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and
       social forms that together constitute the distinct
       tradition of a group of people.
 Comparing Habits and Customs:
                        Habit            Custom
Action                       Repetitive Act
# of People          Individual           Group
                 Characteristic of Characteristic of
Characteristic
                   the individual       the group
Common to        Individual          Group
                       (yours)       Blue jeans, sari,
Examples
                                     Goth clothing

              Compare and contrast
        Folk and popular culture
Culture:       Folk                Popular
territory      Small               Large
Groups         Small               Large
Diversity      Homogeneous         Diverse
Diffusion      Relocation          Expansion
Distribution   Local (rural?)      More widespread
Dispersion     Limited, slow       Global, fast
Origin         Hearths, anonymous Often traceable
Examples       Folk music, folk   Rap, rock, country,
               dance,             soccer, baseball
• Compare and contrast
   Taboo: a restriction on social
behavior imposed by social custom


         Your list of Examples:
      Some Taboo Examples
• Don‟t kill the King‟s deer. Who? Why?
• Don‟t eat pork. Who? Why? Where?
• Don‟t kill cows. Where? Why?

Taboos often make sense in the context of
 their cultures, locations, and situations.
      Popular Culture: Foods
• McDonalds
  – Food quality
  – Food uniformity
  – Sources: 3rd world imports
  – Highly Processed
  – High waste generation
  – Health issues
    • (Supersize Me, Chapter 24, Body Breaking Down)
                  Housing
• Materials:
  – Availability, use
  – Adaptation to climate: snow, flood, dry, hot, cold
  – Variety, local patterns
  – Consistent local patterns, customary for some
• Placement of houses, activities within:
  – Feng Shui
  – Floods
  – Buddhism
        Housing examples:
Folk Housing
• New England: (Witches of Eastwick intro)
• Japan: (Seven Samurai intro)
              Clothing:
• Kimono: (Seven Samurai)
               Clothing
Folk Culture
• Seven Samurai: Samurai, Farmers
Modern Culture
• Suit
• Blue Collar
• Student
• Goth
• Etc.
             Communication
• Oral
• Written
  – Longhand
  – Type-printing press
• Radio
• Television
  – Control? (e.g. BBC, US, China)
  – Satellite dishes (private use banned in China)
• Internet
  – Control? (Trying very hard.)
         Television
• Most popular leisure activity
• Most important popular culture
  dissemination means
• Globalization dissemination
• Globalization example
          Media and Trust:
• “Eastern European countries have
  allocated some of their channels to such
  foreign broadcasters as CNN and MTV,
  because after many years under
  communist control, citizens still do not
  trust the accuracy of locally produced
  television programs.”
• Question: How accurate and complete is
  the news you watch or receive?
Culture, Globalization, and Environment
• Globalization  strong diffusion
  – Popular culture dominance threatens folk cultures
  – Threatens the traditional values. (student examples)
• Folk Traditions
  – Unique identity
  – Disappearance reduces local diversity
• Popular culture
  – Less sensitive to local environment
  – Not adapted to local conditions
  – Tendency to modify environment to fit the culture
     • “Popular culture is less likely to reflect the diversity of local
       physical conditions and is more likely to modify the environment
       in accordance with global values.” (p. 117)
     • Do you buy this? Why, Why not? Where? Where not?
            Globalization
• Network Chapter 28
• Beale visits Jensen
       Transition from Folk to Popular Culture
• Examples:
   – Folk music  Country  Country& Western
        • C&W across the US
        • England
        • Japan?
   –   Blues Music
   –   Soccer (diffusion type? Read the chapter.)
   –   Karate
   –   Skiing
• An aspect of folk culture becomes „popular‟.
• It expands outside the boundaries of the culture
• Diffusion changes from relocation to expansion
   – The social activity takes off, developing a life of it‟s own.
• Mixture of folk and popular versions can infuse new life, add
  variety.
 Why is Folk Culture Clustered?
• Isolation promotes cultural diversity
• Influence of the physical environment

• Examples:
  – Himalayan art (why?)
• Appalachia
  – Foxfire Book, etc.
  – shows local artifacts, methods, beliefs
  – (Why local?)
     Why do cultures diffuse?
• Pressure (population, land, freedom, etc.)
• Examples:
  – Amish: Why relocating now?
Questions?
    •
        Office Hour:
• This time is for you.
     »Questions
     »Study skills
     »Time management
     »College planning
     »Anything professional
          End
• Stop.
           How to study:
• A work in progress…
          Learning  Research
• Grade school
  – Recitation and repetition. (boring)
• Community College
  – Transition to self-directed learning,
  – University preparation
• University level courses
  – Transition to active research
• Graduate School
  – Transition to independent research
    Define pull factor, and list the three
     major push (push = pull) factors
             listed in the text.

•   Straight from text and outline (class)
•   I need to know if you know why people move.
 Define net migration. Use text and
  a short formula using two other
          migration terms.

• Net migration is total migration. Some
  were confused on this, and gave poor
  answers.
• Insisting on a formula helped many.
• Net migration = immigration – emigration
• (One part gives you the other)
    Specify the two dominant types of
     intraregional migration, and the
    most common reason for each type
         of intraregional migration.
•   Jobs  go to the city
•   (or go to the city  jobs)
•   Why gives where, and where gives why.
•   This is a repeated periphery  core pattern.
•   (same thing for suburbanization, a.k.a. ...)
•   Counterurbanization  lifestyle
              Combine Concepts
• Growth = Births – Deaths + Net Migration
• Net Migration = Immigration – Emigration
• Growth = Births – Deaths + Immigration – Emigration

• Now, combine population and migration
  – (Is this all? No.)
• Reviewed, helps understand folk culture.
• Each concept builds upon the others,
  – Making a richer, more complete, more informative story.
  – Each part weaves itself into a rich pattern of knowledge.
        Population and Migration
 • Graph things out.

Demographic stage     International           Internal
                        migration             migration
1 low growth        (nearby moves)     (slow diffusion)

2 high growth       Migration source

3 medium growth     destination        Source & destination
                                       (jobs, lifestyle)
4 low growth        destination        Source & destination
                                       (jobs, lifestyle)

				
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