biome - PowerPoint by wanghonghx

VIEWS: 390 PAGES: 39

									Deserts (Arid, Semi-Arid,
Coastal and Cold)
   Found around a belt of 30 degrees north and
    south latitude.
   North Africa (Sahara), Southwest United
    States (Mojave), Middle East (Syrian),
    Australia (Great Sandy)
Abiotic Factors
   Temperatures exhibit daily extremes because the
    atmosphere contains little humidity to block the
    Sun's rays. Desert surfaces receive a little more
    than twice the solar radiation received by humid
    regions and lose almost twice as much heat at night.
   Wind patterns carry down dry air from the upper atmosphere.
Plant and Animal Species
   Conditions force plant and animal species to adapt
    in ways that allow for their survival (water storage,
    spines, camouflage, nocturnal, estivate)
   Autotrophs: Barrel Cactus, Brittle
   Heterotrophs: Coyote, Thorny Devil, Armadillo Lizard, Desert Tortoise,
    South American gray fox, Kangaroo rats, burrowing owls
Environmental Issues Cont…
   Desertification
       The process of land once suitable for agriculture into
        desert. This process often expands preexisting desert
        land and it is currently happening, most significantly in
        the Sahel region of north Africa. The extreme drought
        that started in the 1950s has caused a significant portion
        of the Sahel to become desert land, fusing with the
        Sahara Desert. More desert = more desolate land = less
       Once again there are no true solutions because it is a
        natural occurring event.
     Environmental Concerns;
     Oil Extraction
   The desert is often destroyed for the purpose of extracting
    fossil fuels from below the earth’s surface. Switching more
    of our energy sources to renewable resources and thus
    decreasing the demand for oil would help to preserve the
    surviving desert. Furthermore, if oil is going to be taken,
    regulations should be imposed on the amount and method as
    to do so with the least amount of harm.
   Latitude and longitude
       Arctic Circle
       Most northern parts of Northern Hemisphere
       From about 60° N and above
   Countries and regions
       Arctic Circle
       Russia
       Canada
       Siberia
Abiotic Factors
   Wind patterns
       30-60 mph (48-97 km/hr)
       Forces plants to grow close to ground to survive
   Geographic features
       Ground is permanently frozen
       Permafrost underneath the ground surface
           Melts just enough during summer to allow plant
   Solar radiation
       during summer 24 hrs/day of sunlight
           Allows for additional plant growth
       Periods during the winter where no sunlight for weeks
           Major reason for how cold the arctic tundra can become
Major Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
   Autotrophs adaptations: low to ground, insulating silky
       Arctic moss, Pasque flower, bearberry

   Heterotroph adaptations: camouflage, thick fur, fat for
       Arctic fox, caribou, polar bear, snowy owl
Environmental Issues
   Global warming
       Melting the permafrost which holds thousands of
        plant remains
       Carbon is released into atmosphere from plants,
        greenhouse gas effect
       Decreases the carbon sink
   Solutions
       Increase number of fuel-efficient cars
       Increase number of forestlands
Environmental Issues continued
   Pollution from Oil Drilling
       Kills surrounding plants, disrupts herding routes of animals
        like caribou
       Tracks from oil trucks cause permafrost to melt when hit by
        sun, erode and become bigger
       Disrupts natural habitats
   Solutions
       Use different fuel options (cooking oil)
       Only buy oil from Middle East
Alpine Tundra
      Not restricted to latitude/longitude boundaries
     Location Examples: Himalayan Mountains, Andes
               Mountains, Rocky Mountains
Abiotic Factors
   Geographic features: alpine tundra begins above timberline,
    either on gentle slopes where the soil has developed large
    meadow areas or on windswept slopes
   Solar radiation: the little amount of atmosphere at high
    altitudes exposes the Alpine to UV sunlight at dangerous
   Poor soil conditions
otrophs & Heterotrophs
     Autotroph adaptations:                                 low
      to ground, dark colors,                             small
         Moss Campion, Alpine Phacelia, Bear Grass

     Heterotroph adaptions: thick fur, camouflage,
      jump and climb over rocks
         Mountain Goat, Yak, Chinchilla, Alpaca, Llama
Environmental Issues
The Alpine Tundra is very fragile and can be damaged
  very easily. About 1/3 of the world's soil-bound carbon
  is held in the frozen tundra. Global warming is a huge
  threat because if the tundra permafrost is melted, the
  carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere.
  This will create an imbalance of chemicals in the
We can prevent global warming by using compact
 fluorescent light bulbs, recycling, or using public
Environmental Issues
Hunting is another major problem in the Alpine
  Tundra. This area contains many animals that can
  not be found anywhere else in the world. Over-
  hunting has caused animals inhabiting the Alpine
  Tundra to be added to the endangered species list.
To prevent over-hunting, restrictions can be placed on
  the hunting of certain species in the tundra.
 Taiga : Scandinavian and
 Russian Taiga
Longitude and Latitude:
60°10´N 024°56´N
Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
Autotrophs adaptations: Plants are evergreens
   so that they can survive the cold weather,
   they have a waxy coating on their needle-
   like leaves
  Pine, spruce, fir

Heterotrophs adaptations: thick fur, hibernate
  Wolves, Caribou, Lynx, Arctic Fox
Environmental Issue #1: Logging

   There are many trees in this area and so
    people are cutting them down for their own
    use, which has global consequences
    because they are so important to the
    absorption of carbon dioxide and grow
    incredibly slowly in the cold climate. A
    solution to this could be for governments to
    set limits on how many trees can be cut per
    year, as well as how and when to replant.
Environmental Issue #2: Unsustainable
   This is when hunters kill animals faster than
    they can reproduce, and the numbers start to
    decrease, with greater chances of the animal
    being endangered or extinct. This can be
    solved with limits on hunting and, when the
    issue is that the animal preys on livestock, a
    fence or other form of protection around their
    farm instead of getting rid of the animals.
Deciduous Forest
   The Deciduous forest biome is general
    located between the tropics and boreal
    forests all the way up to 60 degrees
    depending on the area.
Autotroph and Heterotroph
   Autotroph adaptations:
       American beech

    Heterotroph adaptations: camouflage, migratory
     White Tailed deer, Orioles, Raccoon, Eastern grey squirrel
   Over development is one of the main issues
    facing the deciduous forests everywhere.
   In the US urban sprawl is turning thousands of
    acres of forest into suburbs, and thousands
    more into farmland.
   This problem is made worse do to the fact that
    the east cost is not only the home of the
    deciduous forest but one of the most densely
    populated area of the United States.
    The only solution being more effective zoning
    laws and more responsible building.
The new
   Diseases, and blights, have harassed the
    deciduous and other American forests for the
    last two centuries.
   Invasive Funguses destroyed the chestnut
    trees in the 1800
   Insects and fungi being introduced via
    international travel can be controlled by laws
    which prevent the importation of foreign
    invasive plants but not easily.
Tropical Rainforest
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
   Autotroph adaptations: live on tree limbs, parasitic, do not need
    soil to grow, thin bark
     Bromeliads, Orchids, Ferns, Strangler Fig

   Heterotroph adaptations: arboreal, strong/long tails, camouflage,
    long sharp beaks, poisonous
     Toucan, spider monkeys, orangutans, poison dart frogs, sloth
    Deforestation motives= timber, palm oil, rubber, pulp, and
   Problem: Rare and specialized species are vulnerable to forest
    degradation. Solution: special conservation efforts required to
    prevent extinction.
   Problem: illegal logging. Solution: more sufficient alternative
    economic developments.
   Solution to deforestation in general: more adequate laws
    should be enforced with stricter consequences.
   The Amazon exists in
    layers, each layer(ex.
    Canopy, ocean floor etc)
   30 million species of insect
   500+ mammals
   175+ lizards
   300 other reptiles
   3000 fruits
   Half the worlds species can
    be found in amazonia
   It’s the most biodiverse area
    in the world
Chaparral Biome
-The chaparral biome is found
in a little bit of most of the
-The west coast of the United
States, the west coast of South
the Cape Town area of South
Africa, the western tip of
Australia and the coastal areas   All the red areas have a chaparral
of the Mediterranean.
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
   Autotroph adaptations: waxy, waterproof coating on
    leaves, dwarf vegetation
       Coyote brush, sagebrush
   Hetertroph adaptations: camouflage, large ears
       Jack rabbit, aardwolf, golden jackal
Environmental Issues
   One environmental issue that the chaparral biome is
    facing is, the cutting down of trees. This is a huge
    problem because it is disturbing many plants and
    animals that depend on them trees for a habitat.
       Solution: One solution can be that they limit the amount
        of trees allowed to be cut down. Also, they could make a
        law that says if you cut down so man trees, you are
        required to plants some in return.

          The North American Prairie covers parts of
          Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New
          Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma,
          Texas and Wyoming
          It also cover part of several Canadian Provinces
Autotroph and Heterotrophs
   Autotroph adaptations:
     purple needle grass, buffalo grass, blue grama
      grass, and galetta grass

   Heterotroph adaptations: need little water,
    camouflage, sharp claws
       Prairie dogs, jack rabbits, coyotes, prairie
The Prairie -vs- The World

    When European settlers first arrived in the
    prairie, they overgrazed the tall grass
    areas and replaces them with agricultural
    plants, and now the shortgrass prairie
    areas are becoming overgrazed
    One potential solution to this problem
    would be reintroducing the original tall
    grass species back into the area
Geographical Locations
                            A few countries with this
                             biome include:
                            Chad
                            Somalia
                            Sudan
                            Uganda
                            Rwanda
                            Australia
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotroph   adaptations: grow quickly in the
season, lie dormant in the dry season
   red Oat Grass, Acacia Trees, Baobab

Heterotroph adaptations: migration, camouflage
  Lion, gazelle, african wild dogs, cheetah,
Increase Human Usage
   Overuse of land for agriculture
   degradation of vegetation and soil resources
   Overuse of water resources
   nutrient losses and shifts in water balance
    and availability
   Preserve the savannas, control overgrazing,
    and manage resources effectively

Located in the
USA, China,
Mongolia, Tibet,
and Siberia
                   Approximate Latitude: 45N
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
   Autotroph adaptations: low to ground,
    perennials. Tap roots
       Goldenrod, tumbleweeds, fringed sagebush
   Heterotroph adaptations: estivate, run fast,
    flat teethed herbivores, camouflage
       Prairie dogs, northern lynx, mongolian gerbils,
        mongolian gazelle
Major Environmental Issues
   Overgrazing
       Suggested Solution: Restrictions on the number of
        animals that can graze at a time

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