Siemens turns focus to gasoline injection

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					                                                  Siemens turns focus
                                                  to gasoline injection
                                                  Though diesel engines have been getting          One key enabling technology is
                                                  the lion’s share of automotive press         gasoline injection, and Siemens VDO
                                                  recently, two-thirds of the world’s          Automotive is one of the leaders in this
                                                  automobiles are still powered by             area. Its global engineering network is
                                                  gasoline engines. Recent gasoline engine     developing the latest injection systems
                                                  engineering and development efforts by       for gasoline engines by focusing both on
                                                  many OEMs and suppliers have focused         conventional and direct-injection
                                                  on closing the efficiency gap with diesel    technology.
                                                  while enabling further improvements in           The heart of Siemens VDO
                                                  efficiency and emissions.                    Automotive’s European gasoline injector
                                                                                               production lies in Pisa, Italy. The San
                                                                                               Piero and Fauglia facilities, which
                                                                                               produce approximately 15 million fuel
                                                                                               injectors annually, have helped the
                                                                                               company secure close to 30% of the
                                                                                               European market. The company’s newest
                                                                                               product for indirect injection, called the
                                                                                               DEKA VII, has been in production in Italy
                                                                                               since November of last year, and by 2006
                                                                                               Siemens VDO Automotive expects that
                                                                                               more than half of its global 16-million-
                                                                                               injector-a-year production to be made at
                                                                                               its Italian facilities.
                                                                                                   The new line of DEKA VII fuel injectors
                                                                                               give spark-injection engine developers
                Siemens VDO Automotive’s new DEKA VII injector for port injection gasoline     more freedom by offering a modular
                engines comes in five variants.                                                design and the ability to combine
                                                                                               standardized injector components. Given
                                                                                               the high performance of even the
                                                                                               shortest body length, a single injector size
                                                                                               can work for an entire family of engines.
                                                                                               One injector in the line can have the
                                                                                               capability of delivering minimal fuel
                                                                                               quantities for small engines, yet its
                                                                                               maximum flow could meet the demands
                                                                                               of larger-displacement engines. Engine
                                                                                               developers can integrate the injectors into
                                                                                               both compact and complex engine
                                                                                               geometries with less effort while simulta-
                                                                                               neously ensuring very fine fuel atomiza-
                                                                                               tion for reduced untreated exhaust
                                                                                               emissions. The same nozzle needle
                                                                                               actuator is used for 34.5-, 48.4-, and
                                                                                               60.4-mm (1.36-, 1.91-, and 2.38-in)
                                                                                               injector lengths. The modular approach
                                                                                               allows each basic body length to be
                                                                                               combined with each nozzle length.
                                                                                               And the DEKA VII’s performance charac-
                                                                                               teristics enable engine developers to
                                                The assembly of DEKA injection valves is       combine the shortest body length with
                                                completely automated in Siemens’ Pisa plant.   the longest nozzle without a drop in

52 JULY 2004   aei
Briefs

Gentex Corp. has begun shipping
interior rear-view mirrors for Volvo Car
Corp.’s new V50 sports wagon. Gentex
auto-dimming mirrors automatically
darken to reduce glare from the
headlamps of vehicles approaching from
the rear. V50 vehicles sold in the U.S. will
be equipped with a Gentex auto-
dimming interior mirror that features a
built-in electronic compass display using
Johnson Controls’ PathPoint digital
compass system. Gentex will supply a
similar mirror for the Hyundai Tucson
compact SUV.

ArvinMeritor, Inc., has announced a
new contract for a large roof-opening
module with a European OEM. The rail-
to-rail module features a full-glass
appearance, and uses the ArvinMeritor
long-fiber-injected process. A large,
integrated spoiler sunroof is included,
with a tubeless water management
                                               The key components of Siemens’ piezo gasoline injection system are the engine control unit,
system. A separate contract for a three-       high-pressure pump, and injector (shown in cutaway).
panel sunroof, also with an unidentified
European OEM, has been awarded.
                                               performance—an advantage when                   manufactured components, one of the
Magna International, Inc., has signed          installation space between the fuel rail and    most important of which is the orifice disk.
an agreement with DaimlerChrysler              intake manifold is small and the jet origin     Its 0.1-0.5 mm (0.004-0.020 in) wide fuel
Corp. to acquire the worldwide opera-          is required to extend far into the intake       multichannels are delivered just-in-time to
tions of New Venture Gear, Inc., a             manifold. The design flexibility reduces the    the six assembly lines. A new injector is
supplier of transfer cases and other           risk of fuel wetting on the intake manifold     produced about every 1.5 s, which equates
drivetrain products. U.S. operations will      wall after a cold start, which increases        to more than 40 fuel injectors per minute,
be taken over by a joint venture named         unburned hydrocarbon emissions.                 or 2500 per hour. Siemens VDO Automo-
New Process Gear, Inc., which will                 One of the injector’s performance           tive has satisfied the demand for 15,000
initially be owed 80% by Magna and             features is optimized jet preparation,          four-cylinder engines per day by
20% by DaimlerChrysler. The European           with options running from single jets           producing 60,000 units.
operation will be acquired directly by         with cone angles of 10-30° to double                To improve the quality and efficiency
Magna. Closing of the transaction is           jets with a spread angle of 15 to 30° in        of the DEKA injector, engineers substan-
subject to various conditions.                 between, or a combination of both               tially reduced the number of compo-
                                               geometries with an additional bent angle        nents and changed the injector’s design
Calty Design Research, Inc., has               between 5 and 25°. Sophisticated dual-          to eliminate interior seals. Clean-room
opened a design studio adjacent to the         cone jet and bent angle solutions also          assembly ensures that contaminants do
headquarters of the Toyota Technical           help reduce intake manifold wall                not hinder fuel flow through the seal-
Center in Ann Arbor, MI. Calty’s first         wetting. To keep untreated exhaust              less design, which ensures long-lasting
project at the new location will be to         emissions low and satisfy stricter              reliability since there are no rubber seals
collaborate with the Technical Center          emissions standards such as Euro V, the         and plastic washers to age and wear.
on Toyota’s next-generation Tundra             DEKA VII injects finely atomized fuel with      Although quality control inspection
pickup truck.                                  average particle sizes of less than 70 µm       occurs after each assembly step,
                                               (0.003 in), depending on injection              employees perform additional quality
Delphi has announced nine new                  pressure and other conditions, and              checks at the end of production and test
contracts for steering columns. The            typical operating pressure of 3 to 5 bar        each injector on an automated bench
contracts feature Delphi’s standard, rake,     (44 to 73 psi).                                 before it is packaged and delivered to a
tilt, and telescopic columns in both floor-        The Pisa operations’ manufacturing          customer’s engine manufacturing plant.
and column-shift models. Each of the           process is a high-speed exercise produc-            Further injection research will be
columns incorporates Delphi’s energy-          ing nearly one injector every three             required so that European Automobile
absorbing technology.                          seconds. DEKA injectors are assembled in        Manufacturers Association (ACEA)
                                               clean rooms using mostly in-house               members can fulfill their commitment
54 JULY 2004   aei
to lower their vehicle fleets’ CO2            the range of stratified operation. How-          Clean combustion is ensured by an
emissions to a maximum average of             ever, the spray-guided combustion            extremely fine atomization of fuel. At a
140 g/km by 2008. Although the                processes place much greater demands         high gasoline injection pressure of
growing market share of increasingly          on injection pressure, dynamics, jet         about 200 bar (2.9 ksi), average fuel-
efficient next-generation diesel engines      preparation, and feed precision, hence       droplet diameter is only 15 µm (590
will help, the ACEA target can be             the need for further development.            µin). Together with injector nozzles
reached only by lowering gasoline                 The core components of the PDI           that open into the cylinder, the
engine fuel consumption, with one             system are the innovative piezo-injector,    atomization results in an optimally
solution being direct injection. However,     newly developed high-pressure fuel           prepared mixture cloud at the spark
the promise of direct fuel injection’s        pump, and a new engine control unit.         plug under nearly all conditions. The
fuel-saving benefits has yet to be fully          Fitting a piezo-actuator directly on     high injection pressure is enabled by a
realized, according to Siemens VDO            the nozzle needle improves injector          new axial piston pump with extremely
Automotive, primarily due to the              dynamics, allowing a nozzle needle to        efficient dose control. Pump friction is
technology’s current air- and wall-           complete its full stroke in only 0.2 ms.     reduced by thorough lubrication and
guided combustion processes. In               Piezo injectors allow multiple injections    bearing technology to ensure low
addition, stratified-charge can only be       in the light and medium load range to        pump drive power requirements and
employed in certain driving situations.       ensure stable combustion with little         high overall drive efficiency.
    San Piero is a part of the development    fluctuation. In stratified operation, fuel       The 32-bit engine control unit (ECU)
network working on the next generation        feed precision is enhanced by the piezo      that manages the overall system has
of direct gasoline injection, including       element’s ability to partially or com-       among its expanded functions a freely
injectors that will enable the reduction of   pletely open and close the injector.         definable needle stroke length and
fuel consumption by up to 20% starting        Precision is improved even with short        speed and multiple-injection control
around 2006. The Piezo Direct Injection       injection pulses, the maximum deviation      with up to three injection pulses per
(PDI) system is based on piezoelectric        between individual injected quantities of    cylinder and working cycle. If an engine
actuation technology and enables the          fuel being just 2%. The combination of       is equipped with appropriate sensors,
first-ever spray-guided combustion            injector switching speed and precision is    the ECU can individually adjust the
procedure. Fuel can be injected directly in   the key to improved control of injection     injector’s needle for each cylinder.
front of the spark plug more of the time      and enables late ignition timing in                                          Kevin Jost
with the new system, greatly expanding        stratified-charge mode without misfiring.



Sound design from Boysen
It used to be that sound was merely a            “In an ideal case, the acoustics of a     exhaust system has to be tuned to
by-product of engine and vehicle              car are just as unmistakable as its          various frequency bands.
development. Car makers and exhaust           appearance,” said Björn Koch, Acoustic           “The target specification for the BMW
system suppliers confined themselves to       Engineer at Boysen, a German exhaust         645Ci was to create a completely new
meeting the legal noise limits and            system specialist. “Sound design             sound image that matches the character
eliminating undesired noise. Those days       includes all those measures that modify      of the luxury sports coupe,” said Koch.
are over. For today’s luxury and sports       the sound of a vehicle in a targeted         There was to be a conscious effort to
cars, a sound that is typical of the brand    manner by emphasizing the desired            disregard the engine sound of the old
and the model is now an essential part        frequency ranges and suppressing the         6-Series and vehicles of other brands.
of the car’s character. The sound of the      undesired frequencies,” he added. Since      “The aim was to achieve a subjectively
BMW 645Ci is the result of a systematic       engine noise frequencies change their        pleasant, sporty, V8 sound that is also
design process.                               composition with the engine speed, the       clearly audible inside the car.”




The exhaust system of the BMW 645Ci, with twin asymmetrical rear     Boysen engineers measured the BMW 645Ci tailpipe noise on an
silencers, was tuned by Boysen to create a desired sound image.      acoustic rolling test stand.

56 JULY 2004   aei
                                            two front silencers, one middle silencer,        designing source noises in such a way
                                            and two rear silencers. For the sound            that the driver has appropriate acoustic
                                            design, the acoustic engineers concen-           feedback without the noise becoming
                                            trated on the middle silencer and the            irritating for the other vehicle occu-
                                            two rear silencers. The front part from          pants,” said Koch.
                                            the manifold to the front silencers is                To give the sound of the BMW 645Ci
                                            identical to the system in the 545i              the desired “sporty” quality, the acoustic
                                            and 745i vehicles.                               engineers from Boysen raised the sound
                                                “The firing order and ignition timing        level compared to the luxury models. The
                                            determine the low-frequency composi-             separation of the exhaust flows from the
                                            tion of the tailpipe noise, and the              left- and right-hand cylinder banks, the
                                            manifold and catalytic converters have           reduction of the middle silencer volume,
                                            only a minor influence,” said Koch. The          and the expansion of the pipe cross
                                            two front silencers also function                sections, particularly for the internal
                                            primarily as pipe interruptions to               pipes in the rear silencers, all contributed
                                            prevent resonances.                              to making the coupe noticeably louder.
    Acoustic engineers at Boysen use a          Throughout the development project,               The developers tuned the characteris-
    dummy head to make realistic
    recordings for subjective evaluation
                                            two different front silencers and around         tic sound image of the V8 engine by
    of the noise inside a vehicle.          ten different middle silencers were              giving each of the two parallel rear
                                            designed, built, and tested. For the rear        silencers a slightly different interior
    The raw noise is provided by a 4.4-L    silencers alone, about two dozen                 structure. This asymmetrical design results
V8 engine, the same power unit installed    variants were tested. “In this project,          in a targeted phase displacement of the
in the BMW 545i and 745i models. “But       more than half of the variants were built        noise from each tailpipe. “Due to their
it doesn’t sound anywhere near as           on the basis of subjective fine-tuning. An       firing order, the two cylinder banks—1 to
powerful in those cars,” said Koch. “In     important role was played by effects that        4 and 5 to 8—sometimes produce noise
keeping with the specifications at the      we are not yet able to measure on the            in antiphase,” said Koch. “So our aim in
time, we tuned the exhaust systems for      computer,” said Koch.                            designing the rear silencers was to
those two cars with the emphasis more           The acoustic engineers measured the          emphasize the differences without
on comfort than on sportiness.”             exterior noise, composed of tailpipe and         reinforcing the undesirable side effects.”
    Koch’s colleagues from the computa-     surface-borne sound, at precisely defined             Koch is convinced that sound design
tion department used computer tailpipe      positions behind the vehicle. To measure         will become increasingly important in the
simulations to develop the concept for      interior noise, the engineers used what is       future, and he is sure that the subject of
the exhaust system of the coupe. The        called “dummy head” measuring                    sound design still has a long way to go.
system has a dual-line design, consisting   technology. Realistic recordings with the        “People will hear about it much more in
of two air-gap-insulated steel manifolds,   dummy head allow a subjective evalua-            the future,” he said.
two close-coupled catalytic converters,     tion of the interior noise. “The skill lies in                                David Alexander


New Hyundai tech center to support growth
“Up to now, we have been concentrat-        technical support. “At the moment,
ing on EPA certification testing and        we are thinking vehicle development,”
vehicle validation, but this is not         said Cho.
enough for us to increase our sales in         An additional 85 people will be
the United States,” said Won Suk Cho,       hired when the new technical center
President of the Hyundai Kia America        opens. And the 125-person staff for
Technical Center, during ground-            2005 is projected to more than triple
breaking ceremonies for a new               by decade’s end. “In 2010, we are
technical center that will be more          going to have 400 people, primarily
than five times the size of the             design and test engineers,” said Cho,
existing facility.                          who noted that one of the reasons for
   The current 33,000-ft2 (3000-m2)         remaining in Michigan is the availability
Michigan technical center will be           of “very well experienced engineers.”            Superior Township becomes the new
                                                                                             Michigan home to the Hyundai technical
replaced in June 2005 by a 190,000-ft2         The two-stage, $117 million project           center in 2005 as a replacement for an
(18,000-m2) center in a nearby commu-       will facilitate the company reaching its         existing facility in nearby Pittsfield
nity to support the development—            goal of selling one million units in the         Township.
namely competitive analysis, emissions,     U.S. by 2010. “Hyundai Motor Com-
and durability testing—of current and       pany has high aspirations for the U.S.           for this country,” said S.K. Kim,
new Hyundai and Kia vehicles for the        market, and this facility will play a vital      President of Research and Develop-
U.S. market. But the long-term vision       role in supporting the development,              ment for Hyundai Motor Co.
may mean powertrain and platform            design, and manufacture of vehicles                                         Kami Buchholz
58 JULY 2004   aei
Keeping it clean and smooth
The rear-screen wiper is an essential
feature on many types of vehicle. The
wiper must function in all weather
conditions and with any number of
materials that might be thrown onto
the glass, including liquids, dirt, and
ice. Smooth, quiet operation is
also desirable.
    The typical rear-wiper system is a
device consisting of a unidirectional
electric motor with a shaft-mounted
worm gear, a mating helical gear, and a
mechanical crank mechanism. The crank
mechanism creates reciprocating motion                                                       The second-generation rear wiper system
at the balance link, which translates into                                                   from Johnson Electric has electronic control
a bidirectional, limited-angle rotation of                                                   and was developed for a passenger vehicle
the output shaft. This electromechanical                                                     scheduled for 2004 production.
design has many limitations, with its
high mechanical complexity, multiple
wear points, and inflexible performance:                                                     design provides additional flexibility in
wipe angles and park positions are fixed                                                     program timing with the ability to
by the linkage design.                                                                       simultaneously adjust to system design
    Johnson Electric began develop-          A typical current rear wiper is a complicated   changes and market trends. The
ment of a rear wiper without a me-           device consisting of an electric motor with a   advanced electronic control system
                                             shaft-mounted worm gear, a mating helical
chanical mechanism in 1990, and the                                                          makes it possible to offer changeable
                                             gear, and a mechanical crank mechanism.
first-generation product was launched                                                        systems to enhance customer value and
on a 1994 production vehicle. This                                                           adjust to environmental and vehicle
design proved the technical feasibility of                                                   conditions. The performance and
an electronic wiper system, and resulted     motion profile. However, the sinusoidal         reliability of the technology has been
in a 15% reduction in mass over the          motion profile required a more                  proven through rigorous testing.
traditional mechanical system. The           sophisticated sensing system. To meet               The new wiper system is completely
microprocessor electronic control unit       this need for the second-generation             programmable for optimum perfor-
directed four power MOSFETs (metal-          system, new sensing technology was              mance on different vehicles and for
oxide-semiconductor field-effect-            designed using a 16-pole magnet                 different customer requirements.
transistors) controlling power to the        attached to the motor shaft, and two            Disruptions on the wipe surface, or at
gear motor. Ramping up the voltage to        Hall sensors that send rotor position           the end of the wipe angle, are auto-
the motor at the start of a wipe cycle       signals to a microprocessor.                    matically handled. The motor starts
and down at the end of the cycle                The final development step was the           softly with smoothly increasing speed
provided soft start/stop capability. The     integration of the electronics into the         and reaches peak speed at the glass
general operation relied on the micro-       gear motor assembly. In order to                mid position. The motor then deceler-
processor to optimize the system             accomplish this, the electronics package        ates smoothly until it reaches the end
motion by precisely controlling the          size had to be drastically reduced. The         of travel, where motor reversal occurs.
motor. Bidirectional wiping action was       final design reduced the part count to          The advanced sensing system allows
achieved without linkages by electrically    just 14—six active and eight passive—a          absolute precision during wiping
reversing the direct-drive gear motor.       reduction of 80% from the original 68.          of 0.2°.
    The first-generation system used a       Reliability was also enhanced with the              In addition to improved perfor-
control method that resulted in sudden       integration of 52 components into the           mance, the second-generation rear
speed and direction changes at each          mixed signal (analog/digital) ASIC              wiper gives a 40% reduction in mass
end of the wiper travel. Analysis            (application-specific integrated circuit).      and a 20% reduction in size over the
showed that substantial improvements            The ability to use one motor for             old mechanical system.
in noise and end-of-travel position          many vehicle platforms and still provide                                   David Alexander
accuracy could be achieved by using a        vehicle-specific performance features
sinusoidal, rather than trapezoidal,         provides real cost advantages. The new




60 JULY 2004   aei
    >>Concept to Reality


         CAN oe                                    Independence for pickup trucks
                 For CAN, LIN
                 MOST, FlexRay
                              TM                   Historically, the leaf-sprung solid axle has
                                                   been the untouchable symbol of
                                                   ruggedness and load-carrying ability for
                                                   working trucks. However, a small
                                        New        engineering team at Dana Automotive
                                    Version
                                            5.0!
                                                   Systems Group has developed a full-
                                                   perimeter rear frame section with an
                                                   independent axle, double A-arms, and
                                                   coil springs. The objective: provide an
                                                   assembly-line exchange independent
                                                   rear suspension (IRS) option that would
                                                   give a smoother ride and better han-
                                                   dling, such as for those pickups that will
                                                   be mainly for personal use.
                                                       “As developed, the IRS module has
                                                   the Dana Model 44 independent axle,”
                                                   said Aaron Stange, the engineering
       Enterprise Wide                             leader, who worked with six engineers
                                                   part-time and finished the job in under a
       Solution from                               year. The module is not limited to light-
                                                                                                  The Dana IRS module uses tubular aluminum
                                                   duty operation. If necessary, a larger axle
       OEM thru Supplier                           could be installed to increase towing
                                                                                                  crossmembers over the rear differential,
                                                                                                  which are joined to the steel frame rails by
                                                   capacity, and changes in shocks, springs,      magnetic-pulse welding.
         Model and Simulate                        and sway-bar bushings could be made to
         Network Behavior                          increase load capacity, he added. The              An additional potential application
                                                   module was designed to adapt to                would be those SUVs built on pickup
         Verify the Module                         locking differentials and even four-           truck frames. Although such models as
         Performance (In-                          wheel-steering.                                the Ford Explorer and Expedition,
         the-Loop) Against                                                                        originally built on pickup frames, now
                                                                                                  have frames and IRS, other SUVs do not.
         the Model                                                                                The Ford IRS is built up on the assembly
                                                                                                  line, not installed as a bolt-in module.
   Specific module and network                                                                    For SUVs built on the same assembly line
   behavior problems are identified,                                                              as pickup trucks, a bolt-in IRS module as
   without question, and with ease in                                                             an alternative would provide great
   the early build stages. Reduces cost                                                           flexibility to the manufacturer.
   and time delays at 'crunch time'!                                                                  The Dana module is a lightweight
                                                                                                  design, using aluminum for upper and
                                                                                                  lower control arms, knuckles, differential
                                                                                                  housing, and two crossmembers. The
                                                                                                  aluminum crossmembers are joined to
                                                                                                  the steel frame rails with Dana’s mag-
                                                                                                  netic-pulse welding, a cold-welding
                                                                                                  process that uses an electromagnetic
                         USED BY                                                                  field to force one metal into another. The
                        THOUSANDS                                                                 amperage used is very high, but because
                        WORLDWIDE!                                                                the process is instantaneous, there is no
                                                                                                  temperature buildup. Magnetic-pulse
                                                                                                  welding lends itself to tubular parts, and
                                                   The Dana IRS module for pickup trucks and      this process for aluminum-to-steel is also
                                                   truck-based SUVs has the Dana Axle Model       used by Dana for aluminum-tube/steel-
                                                   44 independent axle, and includes vented-
                                                   rotor disc brakes, aluminum control arms,      end driveshafts.
           www.vector-cantech.com                  and knuckles.                                                                  Paul Weissler
                Vector CANtech, Inc.
                39500 Orchard Hill Pl. Ste 550
                Novi, MI 48375 USA
                (248) 449-9290
                     Circle 262
62 JULY 2004   aei
Optis gets the LEDs out
The Audi Le Mans quattro concept car               LEDs, and the simulated results had to be   with the company’s CAD software CATIA
was first shown at the 2003 Frankfurt              presented so as to correspond to the        V5, from Dassault Systemes.
Auto Show. A showcase for new technol-             automotive industry lighting standards in      The Speos software from the French
ogy, one of the features was the use of            force, thereby ensuring the immediate       company Optis was chosen. The
LED (light-emitting diode) headlamps. LEDs         validity of the headlight. The software     training carried out in Optis’s
have been around for some time, but not            needed to be easy to learn and integrated   consultancy offices in Stuttgart lasted
used in production for automotive lighting.
Known for long life, robust construction,
and low power consumption, the design
issue has traditionally been brightness.
    Audi turned to Ruetz, an engineering
company specializing in the design and
building of prototypes. “We got a
development request from Audi concern-
ing the feasibility of a low-beam headlamp
in LED technology using the design space
of an A6 headlight,” said Clemens Stöberl,
Project Engineer at Ruetz.
    The Le Mans quattro concept car was
to be designed with the traditional front
headlight bulb replaced by a series of LEDs
for improved driver visibility. The new
headlight design had to meet European
standards in order to be approved. Given
the timeframe and the limited number of
cars to be produced, the manufacturer
wouldn’t have either the time or the
budget necessary to make multiple
prototypes before approval. Use of a
virtual prototype and simulation software
therefore was essential.
    The choice of software was guided by
several criteria. It had to include a library of




                                                          At Akebono, world-class brake NVH engineering results in innovative,
The Audi Le Mans quattro concept car                    dependable friction materials and foundation brakes of superior quality
features the use of LED headlamps
developed by Ruetz with the help of SPEOS               and performance. Call us to see how our engineers are working to
software from OPTIS.
                                                        solve your next braking challenge.


                                                        Quiet. Dependable. Braking Solutions.
                                                        Satisfied Customers. The Essence of Braking.™

                                                                                          ™
For the concept car, the low-beam has nine                                                                 akebonobrakes.com
and the high-beam eight LED modules in the
design space of an Audi A6 headlight.

                                                                     See our Capabilities pg 116-153       Circle 263    aei   JULY 2004 63
     We can help you
     flow faster.
                                      three days and was followed by a two-          few possibilities in assembling and
                                  ®   day practical session during which work        arranging the lighting modules. We tested
     EnkaFusion                       was started on the project.                    this with Speos.”
     Flow Medium                         ”With Speos we tested a variety of              The first test prototype of the headlight
                                      optical principles for one lighting mod-       used 24 LED modules, and had only low-
                                      ule—reflector, lenses, and different           beam functionality. For the concept car the
                                      arrangements of the LED,” said Stöberl.        low-beam used nine and the high-beam
                                      The preliminary studies were the base for      eight modules, thereby eliminating
                                      further development. “We decided to            numerous problems linked to mounting
                                      continue with a lens-based solution. Optis     and space restrictions, and also reduced
                                      supported the LED-coding and re-               purchasing costs. Approval was obtained
                                      engineering of the FRAEN-Lens. In the next     after building a single prototype.
                                      step we created an illumination for the                                     David Alexander
                                      complete headlight. Here again we had a



    • Promotes complete wet           Red Dot keeps cool
      out by creating an open         A new air conditioning (A/C) refrigerant       rugged environment, and the applica-
      channel to flow resins          will begin to replace R-134a by the start      tions offer good test conditions,
      and foams.                      of the next decade, as part of efforts to      explained James Shevlin of AGO. Up to
                                      reduce global-warming emissions, but           50 rooftop units will be installed on
                                      which one? The U.S. EPA and the                logging and mining vehicles, according
    • Acts as a spring and            Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO)             to Rachel Clarke of AGO.
      pushes fiberglass to outer      want to give advocates of R-152a the               Off-road equipment operates at low
                                      chance to demonstrate that it should be        speed, which reduces ram airflow and
      edges of mold walls.
                                      the choice.                                    places a premium on efficient system
                                          The system supplier is Red Dot, U.S.       operation. For the test, the Red Dot 9727,
    • Low cost solution for           manufacturer of systems and parts for          a rooftop unit, was selected and is being
      increased productivity.         off-road equipment and heavy-duty              modified to resolve R-152a safety issues,
                                      trucks, and the AGO is lining up Austra-       which aren’t severe but can’t be ignored.
                                      lian fleet operators to equip the demon-           R-152a offers some inherent effi-
    • Ensures a repeatable,
                                      stration vehicles for testing this year. The   ciency advantages over R-134a thanks to
      high-quality part.              U.S. and Australia, although not signato-      its much lower molecular weight, but is
                                      ries to the Kyoto Protocol on global           very mildly flammable (it will burn with a
    • Fastest flow medium on          warming, promote voluntary projects in         flame but not with a spark). In fact, it’s
                                      their countries and have forged an active      rated as non-flammable when used in
      the market today.                                                              aerosols and as a computer dust-off
                                      partnership. Stephen Andersen of EPA,
                                      Ward Atkinson, chair of the SAE Interior       product. The Red Dot 9727 needs only
                                      Climate Control Committee, and Gary            10 oz (280 g) of R-152a, vs. 16 oz
                                      Hansen, Engineering Vice President of          (450 g) of R-134a.
                                      Red Dot, developed the program.                    However, EPA is cautious, so Red
                                      Andersen brought the proposal to the           Dot’s rooftop unit uses an intelligent
                                      U.S.-Australian partnership.                   temperature-sensing system to evacuate
                                          Australia was chosen because, for          all refrigerant from the evaporator (the
                                      openers, it has a hot climate and              only part in the passenger cabin) to
                                                                                     provide a safe system shutdown in case
                                                                                     of a major leak.
   We’re The Thin Line Between                                                           There’s a “superheat” temperature
                                                                                     sensor in the evaporator outlet—low-
     Comfort and Catastrophe                                                         pressure—line to the compressor. If the
                                                                                     sensor measures high refrigerant tempera-
                                                                                     tures for the operating conditions,
                                                                                     indicating a leak, it signals a control
                                                                                     module to turn on a low-refrigerant
                                                                                     indicator. If the temperatures go still
        1.800.365.7391                                                               higher, indicating a severe leak, the system
      www.colbond-usa.com             Red Dot’s Gary Hansen shows Rachel             logs a trouble code and goes into the safe
                                      Clarke of the Australian Greenhouse
                                      Office the rooftop unit developed for          shutdown. The A/C won’t come on until
                                      testing of off-road Australian vehicles.       the code is cleared.
                     Circle 264
64 JULY 2004   aei
 Red Dot No. 9727 rooftop unit,
 converted to run on R-152a, has an
 electronic thermostatic expansion
 valve and a check valve in the
 discharge line to trap refrigerant in
 the condenser and receiver-dryer for a
 safe system shutdown. An “intelligent
 superheat sensor” used to determine
 refrigerant charge level also enables a
 control module to determine when the
 evaporator has been emptied on
 shutdown.

     The system has an electronic thermo-
static expansion valve in the refrigerant
liquid line and a check valve in the discharge
line between compressor and condenser. So
all refrigerant (including what is drawn out
of the evaporator) is trapped on shutdown
between those two points (primarily in the
condenser and receiver-dryer).
     The safe shutdown also is used for
normal system turnoff, so no refrigerant
remains in the evaporator in case a leak
develops later. If the condition of the system
remains normal, it turns on again.
     Red Dot and AGO also plan to install
secondary-loop R-152a systems in heavy-
duty trucks. The refrigerant loop (the
primary) chills liquid coolant (anti-freeze and
water) in a secondary loop, within a dual
heat exchanger. Because that dual heat
exchanger—and the rest of the refrigerant
loop—is outside the passenger cabin, no
safety systems are needed in case of a leak.
     The chilled coolant is circulated by a
pump to in-cabin heater core-like cooling
coils. Aside from the in-cabin cooling coils
and underhood compressor (and possibly an
accumulator), the Red Dot system is in a
single box.
     Although the secondary loop has a slight
operating lag and some efficiency loss
through the dual heat exchanger, it permits
multiple cooling points in the cabin without
additional refrigerant lines. The over-the-
road trucks with sleeper units will be the
ones to use the feature.
                                    Paul Weissler

                                                    aei   JULY 2004 65
TI pumps it up
The industry’s first dual-channel,                                                                                 (48 gal/h) with an
single-stage (DCSS) fuel pump employs                                                                              operation efficiency rate
two rows of turbine blades to provide                                                                             of about 20%. “What
two parallel pumping paths, compared                                                                          we’re going to is a 150 to 250
to a conventional single-stage pump                                                                      liter per hour flow rate at four to
with an impeller and a single row of                                                                six bar of pressure at an efficiency of
outer edge blades. That difference                                                                25 to 30%. This combination is a
essentially makes the product line an                                                             quantum leap for a turbine pump,” said
on-target match for the high fuel                                                                 Manouchehr Kambakhsh, Vice President
pressure needs of advanced direct-                                                                of Global Advanced Engineering at the
injection gasoline engines.                                                                       TI Automotive Technology Center
   TI Automotive currently produces                                                               GmbH in Germany.
about seven million gasoline fuel                                                                     With parallel pumping paths and an
pumps annually, but the company’s                   The use of two parallel pumping channels in   impeller with unique curved-leaning
executive responsible for worldwide                 the new fuel pump from TI Automotive          blades, the DCSS fuel pump helps
                                                    improves pumping efficiency by 50% over a
commercial activity believes that DCSS              single-channel turbine pump.                  reduce fuel turbulence and increase
fuel pumps—entering production in                                                                 pump output. “We worked with
2005 for 2006 vehicle model year                                                                  computational fluid dynamics models to
applications—will shake up the status               TI Automotive. Lindsay thinks the DCSS        find geometry that creates the least
quo. “We expect this product line to                family of fuel pumps will claim that          amount of flow disturbances as the fluid
replace our existing gasoline fuel                  feat by 2010.                                 particles are accelerated through the
pumps 100%,” said Brian Lindsay,                       A typical single-stage turbine provides    high-pressure flow channels,”
Managing Director, Commercial and                   a maximum pressure of approximately           Kambakhsh said, referencing more than
Purchasing, Global Fuel Systems Group,              5 bar (72 psi) and flow rates of 180 L/h      nine months of development time spent
                                                                                                  addressing that issue.
                                                                                                      Use of a 39-mm motor, which also
               LOW PROFILE, FATIGUE RATED, S-BEAM, ROD, & SPECIALTY STYLES                        powers the company’s single-stage
                                                                                                  family of pumps, gave the two-year



                     Load Cells.
                                                                                                  program a time advantage. “We already
                                                                                                  had a reliable pump motor, so we were
                                                                                                  able to shave development time right
                                                                                                  there,” said David Ford, Director of
                                                                                                  Advanced Fuel Delivery and Application
                                                                                                  Engineering. The pump motor is mated
  s   High accuracy and stiffness
                                                                                                  to a 50-mm inlet housing.
  s   Capacities from 25 to 100,000 pounds                                                            In hot fuel testing, the DCSS showed
                                                                                                  an 8% flow loss, compared to single-
  s   Fatigue-rated models guaranteed for                                                         stage turbine pumps that typically show
      100 million fully-reversed cycles                                                           flow losses ranging from 12 to 32%.
                                                                                                  “Not only do we need to deliver a cooler
  s   NIST traceable calibration;                                                                 fuel, but engine-mounted, direct-injection
      A2LA accredited to ISO 17025                                                                pumps hold high tolerances, and if they
                                                                                                  are exposed to high temperatures, the
  s   New low cost signal conditioners                                                            varying coefficients of thermal expansion
                                                                                                  in the pump material can create lockup,”
  Call for information on our strain,                                                             said Ford. In a durability payback, the
  torque, and dynamic force sensors!                                                              pump runs at lower speeds—meaning
                                                                                                  less motor brush wear—because the new
                                                                                                  design provides increased fuel flow.
                                                                                                      Production of the DCSS pump will
                                                                                                  take place in the U.S. and Germany. The
                                                                                                  company is investing $16 million for
                                                                                                  automated assembly lines and equip-
                                                                                                  ment. Initial users of the new product,
                          Satisfaction Guaranteed or Your Money Refunded                          according to TI Automotive, include
                     Toll Free 888-684-0004 • 24-hour SensorLineSM 716-684-0001                   DaimlerChrysler, Nissan, and BMW.
                            E-mail force@pcb.com • Web site www.pcb.com                                                         Kami Buchholz

66 JULY 2004   aei
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