Chlorpyrifos - 1986 (PDF) by dd4f6d48e300e297

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Amy

L. Leaberry

United States Environmental Protection Agency Water

Office of Water Regulations and Standards Criteria and Standards Division Washington DC 20460

EPA 440/5-86-005 September 1986

EPA

Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Chlorpyrifos - 1986

AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA CHLORPYRIFOS

FOR

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES DULUTH, MINNESOTA NARRAGANSETT, RHODE ISLAND

NOTICES

This document has been reviewed by the Criteria Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. for publication. Agency, and approved Mention of trade names or commercial products endorsement or recommendation for use. This document is available Information Service (NTIS),

and Standards Environmental constitute

Division, Protection

does not

to the public through the National 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,

Technical VA 22161.

ii

FOREWORD

Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217) requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to publish water quality criteria that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare that might be expected from the presence of pollutants in any including ground water. This document is a revision of body of water, proposed criteria based upon consideration of comments received from other Federal agencies, State agencies, special interest groups, and Criteria contained in this document replace any individual scientists. previously published EPA aquatic life criteria for the same pollutant(s). quality criteria” is used in two sections of the The term “water Clean Water Act, section 304(a)(1) and section 303(c)(2). The term has a different program impact in each section. In section 304, the term represents a non-regulatory, scientific assessment of ecological effects. Criteria presented in this document are such scientific assessments. If water quality criteria associated with specific stream uses are adopted by a State as water quality standards under section 303, they become enforceable maximum acceptable pollutant concentrations in ambient waters Water quality criteria adopted in State water quality within that State. standards could have the same numerical values as criteria developed However, in many situations States might want to under section 304. adjust water quality criteria developed under section 304 to reflect local environmental conditions and human exposure patterns before incorporation into water quality standards. It is not until their adoption as part of State water quality standards that criteria become regulatory. Guidelines to assist States in the modification of criteria in this document, in the development of water quality standards, other water-related programs of this Agency, have been developed presented and in by EPA.

William A. Whittington Director Office of Water Regulations

and Standards

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Loren J. Larson (freshwater author) University of Wisconsin-Superior Superior, Wisconsin

Jeffrey L. Hyland Robert E. Hillman (saltwater authors) Battelle New England Laboratory Duxbury, Massachusetts

Charles E. Stephan (document coordinator) Environmental Research Duluth, Minnesota

Laboratory

David J. Hansen (saltwater coordinator) Environmental Research Laboratory Narragansett, Rhode Island

Clerical

Support

:

Shelley A. Heintz Nancy J. Jordan Terry L. Highland Diane L. Spehar

iv

CONTENTS Page Foreword .............................. .......................... iii iv vi 1 Animals Animals ..................... ................. ................ 4 6 7 8 9 13 15 17 41

Acknowledgments Tables

............................... ............................ to Aquatic to Aquatic Plants

Introduction Acute Chronic Toxicity Toxicity Toxicity

to Aquatic

Bioaccumulation Other Unused Summary National References Data Data

.......................... ............................. ............................

.............................. Criteria .........................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v

TABLES Page 1. 2. 3. Acute Chronic Toxicity Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos of Chlorpyrifos Values to Aquatic To Aquatic with Species Animals Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 24

Ranked Genus Mean Acute Ratios

Mean Acute-Chronic 27 30 31 33

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of Chlorpyrifos to Aquatic Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . Organisms . . . . . . . . . . .

4. 5. 6.

Toxicity

Bioaccumulation Other

of Chlorpyrifos

by Aquatic

Data on Effects

of Chlorpyrifos

on Aquatic

Organisms

vi

Introduction* Chlorpyrifos** in the the 1960s to is replace one of several organophosphorus compounds It developed is

persistent in various

organochlorine products designed

pesticides. to control plant insects,

active

ingredient including termites, States, fire

a variety mosquitos, industry pests to projects, to reviewed on

of pests cockroaches, in the cotton, aquatic but the

ants, lice,

turf

and ornamental

and hornflies.

In the

agricultural to control applied

United peanuts,

chlorpyrifos

is used primarily In the past it

and sorghum. in mosquito, states (1965)

was directly

environments current of water. label

midge, it is

and blackfly not

abatement directly (1978)

that

to be applied and Roberts

bodies its

Gray

and Marshall and chemical for pesticide

have

composition Chlorpyrifos

and physical is wettable available

properties. applications as emulsifiable

concentrates, polymers. persistence emulsifiable increase

powders,

dusts,

granules,

and controlled-release in water and its

The resulting varies

concentrations

of chlorpyrifos When applied generally after

from one form

to another. powders

to water, produce a large

concentrates in chlorpyrifos in water

and wettable concentrations rapidly

immediately declines

application. is sorbed

The concentration onto forms but sediments do not

as chlorpyrifos

and suspended produce as rapid

organics. an increase

Granules in the

and controlled-release concentration in water,

the

resulting

concentration

has a longer

duration.

* An understanding of the “Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses” (Stephan et al. 1985), hereafter referred to as the Guidelines, and the response to public comment (U.S. EPA 1985a) is necessary in order to understand the following text, tables, and calculations. ** Dursban® Midland, and Lotsban® are MI for chlorpyrifos. trade names owned by the 1 Dow Chemical Company,

The percentage considerably, over result time in both

of

active

ingredient formulations specifications

in available and within change. and possibly

formulations a single

varies

between

formulation presumably of the

as manufacturers’ large changes

Such variations the identity, inert,

in the These

amount,

unspecified technical-grade than Mulla reason, an equal 1974; the

ingredients. chlorpyrifos quantity Jarvinen effects under combined to increase toxic (Jamnback of its

ingredients

are considered been found

although

has generally ingredient 1982; Siefert

to be more toxic (Darwazeh For this and

of active and Tanner of the inert

in a formulation et al. can not the 1984).

ingredients

be discounted. commercial formulations oil and

Furthermore, are often kerosene, have

normal with

application petroleum

conditions, products, such

as No. 2 diesel have

the

rate

of dispersal. in addition

Such solvents to those 1966; associated

been shown to

significant

effects

with 1973).

chlorpyrifos

and Frempong-Boadu chlorpyrifos analogue, (e.g.,

Wallace result

et al.

The toxicity conversion inhibition to

is probably

the

of metabolic and its subsequent

oxygen

chlorpyrifos-oxon, cholinesterases, oxidative (AChE) is

of various

enzymes

carboxylases, phosphorylases). generally accepted Inhibition to be of AChE in synapes substantial to fish, the in

acetylcholinesterases, Interference the major results with

and mitochondrial acetylcholinesterase

mode of action in accumulation of normal in brain this

of organophosphorus of the neurotransmitter, transmission. have not functions

pesticides.

acetylcholine, Although always even

and disruption reductions effect nature of

neural

AChE activity on such

been fatal

condition known. enters spraying,

as feeding

and reproduction

is not Chlorpyrifos

both

freshwater

and saltwater eroded from

ecosystems treated areas.

primarily Because

as drift

from

and on particles 2

of

its

affinity

for enters

organic an aquatic

soils,

Little it

Leaching appears some is sediment

occurs.

When unbound sorbed to

chlorpyrifos suspended

system, although into several

to be rapidly removed

organics

and sediment, Its in penetration the upper

by volatilization

and degradation. with most occurring that

appears

to be shallow, Menzie of (1969) time under

millimeters. for

reported the acidic

chlorpyrifos

remained

stable

Long periods

conditions slow-release

(pH = 5 to 6) found polymers in water and duration,

in some salt probably between

marshes. in differential and pelagic probably

Use of exposure, organisms. receive organisms. still polymer toxic larger

results benthic interface than

both

in concentration inhabiting

Organisms

the water-sediment concentrations concentrations one year pond. metabolized product (Clark fishes are after

and more sustained (1977) found Larvae

free-swimming that of were

Evans

of chlorpyrifos application

to mosquito

a slow-release

formulation

to a natural is being in wild

Because trichloro-2-pyridinol 1978), 1973) al.

chlorpyrifos

rapidly the major fishes

by fish, (Marshall

with

3, 5, 6-

and Roberts Mulla 1972; et al. Siefert et

concentrations and cultured

et al. (Macek

1984; et al.

or experimental et al. 1968)

1984;

Winterlin

generally (1980),

Low. Hurlbart (1973), (1968)

Braun et al.

and Frank (1970), (1978),

(1980), Macalady Siefert

Hughes

(1977),

Hughes

et al.

and Wolfe et al.

(1985),

Nelson

and Evans et al.

Rawn et al. have reported

(1984),

and Winterlin

concentrations Unless expressed adequately site-specific

of chlorpyrifos otherwise as chlorpyrifos, justified, criterion noted, all not a national (U.S.

in natural

sediment

and water

samples. are

concentrations as the material

reported tested.

herein Whenever by a not

criterion EPA 1983a), 3

may be replaced which may include

only

site-specific specific allowed search

criterion durations of

concentrations averaging periods

(U.S.

EPA 1983b),

but

also

siteof

and site-specific The latest

frequencies literature 1986;

excursions for information

(U.S.

EPA 1985b). for this

comprehensive in July,

document

was conducted included.

some more recent Acute Toxicity Data, toxicity fish are most which

information to Aquatic are usable to

might Animals according

have been

to the animals species resistant

Guidelines,

on the for

acute seven

of chlorpyrifos species and eleven

freshwater

are available (Table 1).

invertebrate and most

Invertebrates and the are available crustacean, that nine for and is not and

among the most sensitive species, Aplexa

sensitive

species, data

species

are arthropods. are available is the only

Although for

eighteen the snail,

no data hypnorum,

a planktonic the eighteen

one of

an arthropod within between all size

or a fish. species

Within

arthropods appears

and fishes

separately,

combined,

there

to be an inverse

relationship

and sensitivity Mean Acute acute Values values,

to chlorpyrifos. (Table and then 1) were calculated Genus Mean Acute available as geometric values (Table Species means 3)

Species of the

available

were calculated Mean Acute 4,300 times

as geometric

means of the

freshwater

Values.

The most sensitive than four most

genus,

Gammarus, genera,

is more than Aplexa Carassius of

more sensitive but are the

the most sensitive

resistant genera

and Ictalurus, 4, and all

are within for

a factor

invertebrates.

Acute

values and the

are available range of of 3. Species

more than

one species Values Final within Acute

in each of

two genera, is less

Mean Acute

each genus Value for

than

a factor

The freshwater µg/L

chlorpyrifos

was calculated

to be 0.1669

4

using Values the

the

procedure 3.

described Thus the Value toxicity

in the Guidelines freshwater for Final

and the Acute Value

Genus Mean Acute is higher in the than

in Table

Species Tests

Mean Acute of the with 1). acute five

one of three of chlorpyrifos of invertebrates values

amphipods

genus Gammarus. animals of for µg/L and have

to saltwater and ten

been conducted fish adult for (Table Korean larvae 1981). were of

species

species µg/L to

The range

of acute

extends (Earnest

from 0.01 1970)

shrimp., the Four all

Palaemon

macrodactylus, Crassostrea

1,991

eastern species

oyster,

virginica,

(Borthwick

Walsh

of saltwater than for for

arthropods the fish

have been tested fish than of species. for the invertebrates, tidewater for

and they The range with

more sensitive toxicity values µg/L

most sensitive is narrower larvae 1985)

of acute

LC50s extending Menidia of the et gulf al.

from 0.4 peninsulae, toadfish, (1985)

14-day-old et al. beta, a series

silverside, juveniles

(Borthwick Opsanus conducted

to 520 µg/L 1986). tests

(Hansen

et al. acute

Borthwick under of 5.5 both static of for than tests, tests’

of 96-hr with four

and flow-through estuarine tests. newly relative for fishes

conditions (Table tests, 1).

different

ages to

larvae µg/L

three all

LC50s ranged larvae species. similar

from 0.4 were more In flowto those Atlantic

In static hatched

14-day-old larvae of all

sensitive through in static silverside,

or 28-day

sensitivities tidewater little for silverside, for which genus, resistant

of

the

ages were with

decreased

age for (Table 1).

and differed twelve the most than are genera

California saltwater Mysidopsis, genus,

grunion

Of the available, more sensitive Acute genera, values

Genus Mean Acute is about 57,000 (Table

Values times 3). two

are

sensitive the most for

Crassostrea

available range

more than

one species Values

in each of within

and the

of Species

Mean Acute 5

each genus

is

Less than

a factor µg/L,

of 5.7. which is

The saltwater lower than

Final the

Acute

Value

was calculated

to be 0.02284 Value. Chronic Toxicity

lowest

Genus Mean Acute

to Aquatic on the

Animals toxicity the of chlorpyrifos fathead minnow. are Chronic µg/L available values for

Usable for only

data

chronic species,

one freshwater

technical-grade respectively, Growth over the

and encapsulated in early 32-day Life-stage test

material tests

were 2.26 (Jarvinen

and 3.25 1982). with

µg/L,

and Tanner parameter encapsulated

was the whereas

most sensitive with the

technical-grade growth the 0.41

chlorpyrifos, were equally (Jarvinen first

formulation, test with at

and survival

sensitive. 1983),

In a life-cycle unacceptable µg/L effects in the

same species µg/L in the rather test.. is also

et al.

occurred

generation agreement

and at 0.12 the early the the effect

second tests ratio

generation, and the for et

showing life-cycle chlorpyrifos al. viable

poor

between results, with

Life-stage acute-chronic

Based on these greater estimated recruitment chronic mysid, than the 1,417

fathead

minnow.

Jarvinen on the fathead

(1983)

chronic

of chlorpyrifos of the

biomass Data

of a natural toxicity Mysidopsis

population

minnow. are

on the for test the

of chlorpyrifos bahia, and six

to saltwater fishes.

animals In the

available life-cycle 42 µg/L, of 0.004 was less likely

28-day at

with

the mysid, was significantly et al.

survival

and reproduction reduced This at a nominal nominal analytical

were

reduced

and growth µg/L than

concentration which used, test nominal is con-

(McKenney the limit of could

1981). of

concentration, method the

of detection the actual

the

representative that

concentration averaged 10 6

because

centrations

be measured

+ 2.5% of the

concentrations. early life-stage

Of the toxicity

six

saltwater tests,

fishes

exposed grunion

to chlorpyrifos was the most for this

in

the California most sensitive sheepshead et the these Ratios that the for al.

sensitive. species 1986),

Decreased (Goodman et al. and the gulf

weight

was the the

endpoint (Cripe

1985a),

minnow

et al. survival although 1985b). species minnow species

toadfish endpoint with

(Hansen with two of

1986).

Decreased

was the most growth

sensitive affected

three

species

of Menidia,

was also The Species

species for the for the

(Goodman et al. seven saltwater fathead sensitive to calculate

Mean Acute-Chronic to 228.5, 1,417. 1.374 whereas

range is only the these by the

from

1.374 than from

freshwater the five

greater range Final five. Final

However, to 12.50. Ratio of the for

ratios

Thus it

seems reasonable as the

Acute-Chronic Division

chlorpyrifos

geometric Final

mean of Values Values

freshwater of 4.064

and saltwater results

Acute Chronic

Acute-Chronic µg/L and 0.005620 a factor which of

Ratio µg/L,

in Final

of 0.04107 value fathead value sensitive Toxicity is is

respectively. lower than the

The freshwater 0.12 µg/L that affected the

about minnow, a factor

of three is an acutely

insensitive the chronic bahia.

species. value for

The saltwater the most acutely

two higher species, Plants

than

saltwater to Aquatic

Mysidopsis

Several phytoplankton Butcher al. et al.

field under

studies

have

examined natural et al. All

the

effects

of chlorpyrifos (Brown 1969; et al.

on 1976; et

more or less Hughes 1980).

conditions 1980; used Hurlbert

1975, 1977: and Boyer which trends

Hurlbert concentrate in Table of the

1972;

Papst

an emulsifiable for inclusion

of chlorpyrifos, but the general

makes them inappropriate identified are germaine 7

4,

to a discussion

effects

of chlorpyrifos (1976), all

under

natural

conditions.

With

the

exception after

of

Brown et al. application a direct relationship Papst

observed This a result

increased change

phytoplankton is generally in the

numbers accepted

of chlorpyrifos. effect, but rather by large

not

to be

of changes

herbivore-algal zooplankton hypothesis chlorophyll Although they observe populations. experimentally degradation found rapid

caused

reductions

in herbivorous this the major

and Boyer

(1980)

attempted

to substantiate

by monitoring product reductions increases after with

concentrations after

of pheopigments, chlorpyrifos the effect

of herbivory,

application. was delayed. (e.g., due to

in pheopigments, in the numbers

They did rotifers) reduced

of microzooplankton presumably studies

immediately competition

chlorpyrifos macrozooplankton.

application, Other

have also treatment Although

observed (Hughes increased

an increase Hurlbert

in et

microzooplankton al. 1970, 1972; might is

after Siefert

chlorpyrifos et al. 1984).

1977;

phytoplankton another possible of chlorpyrifos 1977). of

numbers factor

be explained

by release

from herbivory,

increased

phosphate of

concentration organisms

from decomposition (Butcher growth 138 to above criteria animals et al.

and from decomposition The concentrations six saltwater species

intoxified

of chlorpyrifos of phytoplankton concentrations animals.

reducing range from

or survival 10,000 that µg/L

(Tables acutely data also

4 and 6). lethal

These

are well Therefore, to saltwater

those

are using

to saltwater toxicity saltwater

derived will

on the protect

of chlorpyrifos plants.

probably

Bioaccumulation Although accumulation chlorpyrifos in tissues, is hydrophobic, this is offset 8 which by its would rapid suggest metabolism its (Kenaga

and Goring Jarvinen after results

1980; et al.

Marshall (1983)

and Roberts found

1978).

With

the fathead factor

minnow, (BCF) of cite fish of 450. 1,673

a mean bioconcentration Kenaga

60 days

(Table

5).

In a review, study reporting

and Goring

(1980)

of an unpublished outdoor minnow from uptake 5).

a BCF in et of al.

an unnamed reported

In an experimental BCFs for exposures Data saltwater toadfish, concentration 150 µg/L BCF with well a fathead ranging on the fish

stream,

Eaton

(1985)

average in

and a bluegill

590 and 100,

respectively,

18 to 33 days. of chlorpyrifos In two early the BCF increased in the Cripe test are available for tests 100 to five with species the as the from found 1.4 to the as gulf of

(Table beta,

life-stage from

Opsanus

5,100

of chlorpyrifos (Hansen et al. 1986).

solution

increased

et al.

(Manuscript) availability (Tables

that

the

sheepshead concentration FDA action available

minnow depended of chlorpyrifos level for or other

on the

of food 5 and 6). concentration no Final

as the No U.S.

in water

maximum acceptable and, therefore,

in tissue Value Other

is

chlorpyrifos,

Residue

can be calculated. Data Additional data on the lethal and sublethal 6. control effects both of chlorpyrifos chlorpyrifos several survival studies and Hansen A 36-hr whereas After a a and

on aquatic the have

organisms

are given

in Table

Because

mosquitofish been conducted

are used on the

in mosquito effects

programs,

of chlorpyrifos

on the

effectiveness et al. (1972)

of mosquitofish reported a 24-hr

as a predator LC50 of 4,000

of mosquito µg/L for et al.

larvae. this fish.

LC50 of 72-hr

215 to 230 µg/L

was reported µg/L

by Ferguson

(1966),

LC50 of 0.19

to 0.22

was reported 9

by Ahmed (1977).

24-hr thermal

exposure tolerance

to 5.0

µg/L,

Johnson

(1977a, 1978a) Hansen et al. a choice experiments. 1.6,

observed (1972) between

a decreased found clean that water

in mosquitofish. clean water in the

mosquitofish

chose

when given Laboratory

and 100 µg chlorpyrifos/L For rainbow and 7.1 chlorpyrifos either oxygen µg/L, trout,

96-hr (Macek

LC50s at et al.

7.2,

and 12.7°C toxicity

were

51, of of

15,

respectively with increased metabolism metabolic its

1969).

Increased

temperature producing wastes, form, salmon or

was thought lower

to be the

result

increased and higher to

concentrations

of dissolved converting

increased

enzyme activity

chlorpyrifos exposure (Peterson Eaton experimental minnows wild

more toxic Atlantic

chlorpyrifos-oxon. had a 4°C lower

In a 24-hr temperature preference

to 100 µg/L, 1976). et al.

(1985)

conducted

studies

on chlorpyrifos

in outdoor stocked fathead and were was a amounts for 0.12 100

streams

containing promelas) (Catostomus

native

invertebrates, (Lepomis

(Pimephales suckers

and bluegills commersoni).

macrochirus), strategies the equal other total

white

Two dosing exposure; so that Continuous of 0.35 on the with

used in separate pulsed exposure.

streams.

One was a continuous were adjusted each stream. concentration effect effected,

Concentrations were applied to

of chlorpyrifos days

exposure µg/L (range The in

to an average µg/L)

chlorpyrifos

to 0.83

produced community

no significant was greatly shift

fishes.

invertebrate species dominated the fathead

a decrease

diversity benthic minnow

and a strong community. and bluegill gave similar

from an amphipodwere greatly

to an isopodreduced. BCFs for Continuous measurements.

Chironomids were

590 and 100, for

respectively.

and pulsed

exposures

results

most biological

10

Because

of

the

previous have

use used

of chlorpyrifos various species

as a mosquito of mosquito followed of

larvicide, as set These for

many toxicity test forth organisms.
by the

studies

larvae guidelines

Unfortunately, World Health

many studies

have

Organization test criteria. chlorpyrifos 24-hr

on testing making

pesticides.
unusable

guidelines derivation

prescribe of water

a 24-hr quality

duration,

results

As would Rettich (1977)

be expected, reported of the et al.

is highly to 3.5

toxic dg/L

to mosquitos. for 4th not instars tested by

LCSOs oE 0.5

of 6 species Rettich, ,J~/L instars 1977; (1981) for Saleh

genus

Aedes. cited

For A. aegypt i, 24-hr

a species

(1981) instars,

LCSOs of O.r)Oll Reports from 0.41

and 0.0014 LCSOs for (Ahmed et al. 4th

2nd and 4th of various et al. a 24-hr

respectively. range 1977). ,Jg/L.

of 24-hr gg/L

Culex 1979;

species

to 2.0

Helson found

Rettich

For C_. pipiens,

Saleh

LC50 of 0.0052 used

Chlorpyrifos
and

was also Mulla

to control

noxious 1969; various Mulla

midge Mulla

populations 1971;

(Ali

Mulla

1978a,1980; et al. 1970).

and Khasawinah LC5Os for

et al.

Thompson from 0.5 1969) (Ali

The 24-hr and Mulla of 1,470

midges

range

to 40 Jg/L

(Ali

1978a,1980; was reported

and Khasawinah Cricotoous -Idedorus ---

although
and

a value 1980).

$g/L

for

MulLa

Ahmed (1977) and observed the delayed

determined of 4.6 of 24-hr over

24-hr to

LC5Os with Levy to They

6 species and Miller

of

aquatic

coleoptera
observed

a range effects

52 Jg/L.

(1978) gg/L

exposures 108 hr.

1.0 and 4.0 reported

on a planarian, effects

Dugesia at either

dorotocephala, concent rat ion.

no significant

11

Winner concentrate mosquito parasitic, the effect of

et al.

(1978) of

used

a single effects toxicity the

concentration on a mermithid to infectious,

of an emulsifiable nematode parasite postinvestigated to larvae and Lower ponds study contents, of of of

in a study
larvae.

the

They examined stages of

parasitic, (1978)

and embryo of various

nematode. toxicity found

Rawn et al. of chlorpyrifos lower toxicity
CO

sediments

on the

a mosquito

in artificial in water

ponds. in sod-lined

They

concentrations
at equal

ponds

compared (1972)

sand-lined a field stomach and numbers

application analyses

rates. of fish

Macek et al. brain

conducted fish

that

included

AChE activity,
oE larval

residues emerging changes employed water studies.

in fish insects. within by pest

and water, Siefert a natural control fish

numbers

insects,

et al. pond after authorities.

(1984)

conducted

an extensive was applied

survey using

chlorpyrifos Their study

methods of

included

analysis

quality,

and invertebrate

populations,

and associated

Laboratory

Schaefer the stability the

and Dupras of chlorpyrifos effect of algae El-Refai

(1970)

examined in the field.

the

effect

of polluted

waters

on

Zepp and Schlotzhauer of chlorpyrifos. tested the As part

(1983) oE a

studied laboratory

on photolysis et al. (1976)

study,

effectiveness toxicity of Nile in toxicity filtration. (19811, short and exposures. River

of a simulated water with spiked

water with

treatment

facility They

-in found

lowering

chlorpyrifos.

a 33% decrease with sand

alum treatment, Jamnback

and no significant (79661,

change

and Frempang-Boadu (1978,1979) species, with 1965;

Mohsen and Hulla effects shrimp, after

Muirhead-Thomson

observed juvenile a 48-hr Lowe et al.

delayed brown

Among saltwater were the most sensitive

Penaeus

aztecus, Bureau of 1.5

EC50 of 0.32 1970).

erg/L (U.S. 48-hr

Commercial

Fisheries

Other

ECSOs are

12

µg/L shrimp,

for

juvenile Penaeus eastern

grass duorarum, oyster

shrimp,

Palaemonetes µg/L for

pugio, the blue

2.4 crab,

µg/L

for

the

pink sapidus.

and 5.2 the 96-hr

Callinectes range

For the

EC50s based

on shell

deposition

from 270 to 340 µg/L. The 48-hr killifish, Cyprinodon reduction to 0.62 activity inhibited LC50s for similis, fish ranged to over from 3.2 1,000 µg/L for for the the longnose minnow, was a exposed

Fundulus variegatus. in growth µg/L for

µg/L effect

sheepshead species tenuis,

The most sensitive of the California

on a fish Leuresthes

grunion, 1985a).

26 days brain µg/L

(Goodman et al. mummichogs,

Acetylcholinesterase heteroclitus, was

in the by 2.1

of adult

Fundulus 1977).

(Thirugnanam

and Forgash on benthic

The effect by Tagatz et al.

of chlorpyrifos (1982).

communities exposed species in the richness

was investigated laboratory and the for 8

In communities total were fauna1 reduced

weeks during of arthropods µg/L.

colonization, and molluscs

abundance to 8.5

by concentrations in the field,

from 0.1 the

For communities was reduced

previously by 5.9 µg/L,

colonized but not

number of

arthropods Unused Data

by 1.0 µg/L.

Some data not used because

on the the

effects studies

of chlorpyrifos were conducted

on aquatic with species 1982). Naqvi

organisms that Results (1973), probably Chiou are of

were not tests and

resident reported Evans

in North by Ali (1973)

America (1981), not

(e.g., Ferguson

Moorthy et al. the

et al. (1966), test

and Nelson had been et al.

were exposed

used because

organisms pollutants. Marshall

previously

to pesticides (1985),

or other (1980),

(1977),

Dean and Ballantyne

Kenaga

and Roberts

(1978),

13

Ramke (1969), contain data

Yoshioka that

et al.

(1986),

and Zaroogian elsewhere.

et

al.

(1985)

only

have been published used 1971; 1970; if the test

Data were not Atallah Hurlbert 1973; Siefert was not Rathburn 1965; Ruber Zboray exposed al. and Ishak et al. Rettich et al.

was on a commercial and Colman 1977;

formulation

(e.g., 1967;

Birmingham 1978;

Chang and Lange 1970; Mulla

Ledieu

Muirhead-Thomson 1971; or if Scirocchi the

et al. 1980;

1979; 1984;

Roberts Smith

and Miller et al. (e.g., 1974; 1966) Ali

and D’Erme of the

source

chlorpyrifos and

adequately 1969;

described et al. 1977;

and Mulla

1976, 1977;

Boike

Gillies

Johnson

1977b, 1978b;

Kenaga et al. 1969; 1969: were Herin of a in et

Micks

and Rougeau 1976;

Muirhead-Thomson and Ruber 1976;

and Merryweather Wilder and Schaefer the organisms (e.g.,

and Kocor

Thayer 1979).

and Gutierrez to chlorpyrifos Wilton (Meyer term tests

Data were not

used

if

by injection 1973), or if the if

or gavage chlorpyrifos

or in

food

1978;

et al. 1981),

was a component were fed during

mixture short

organisms 1974). was too Barton

exposure

(Karnak of

and Collins solvent

The concentration (1985) test et al. and Davey et al. with mosquito Hughes test

high

in the

tests

of Al-Khatib chronic (Brown

(1976).

(1970)

conducted sorbs toxicity the

a static chlorpyrifos tests

larvae. 1977;

Because

polyethylene 1980), used if

1976;

Hughes et al. were not

conducted of chlorand Mulla Roberts et the of

in polyethylene pyrifos 1974; al. tests was not Dixon 1973a, b).

chambers (e.g.,

concentration Darwazeh al. not 1973;

measured

Brown and Chow 1975; 1977; Miller tests et

and Brust Results

1971; of

Hughes

some laboratory

were water

used because addition 1973; mortalities

were conducted salts et al.

in distilled (e.g., 1968; Jones Steelman

or deionized et al. et al. 14 1976;

without and Evans control

appropriate Rongsriyam

Nelson

1969).

High

occurred inadequately

in

tests

reported

by Khudairi

and Ruber

(1974). (1985)

Test

procedures and Baskar

were (1969).

described

by Mellon

and Georghiou or model

and Ruber studies

BCFs obtained used if if the

from microcosm

ecosystem in water

were not with from field if Ali time or studies the and Mulla

concentration was too

of chlorpyrifos short (e.g., Metcalf

decreased Data were not measured Campbell

the

exposure

1974).

and measurements concentrations

of chlorpyrifos of chlorpyrifos Axtell 1972: 1974; 1978; et al.

in wild in water 1979;

organisms were Best 1967; not 1969;

used

(e.g.,

1976, 1977, 1978a, b; Carter and Graves

and Denno 1976; 1979; 1978;

Chang and Lange Evans et al. Hazeleur 1971; 1968;

Chatterji

et al.

Cooney and Pickard Frank 1972; McNeill 1969; et al. Taylor et al. and Sjogren Jamnback et al. Mulla 1984:

1975;

Fitzpatrick

and Sutherland

Holbrook 1968; 1967; 1976a, b; 1977;

and Agun 1984; Marganian

Hoy et al. 1972;

1964; 1968;

Lembright

Linn

and Wall

Moore and Breeland 1971: et Nelson al. et al.

Mulla Polls

and Khasawinah et al. 1975; Roberts 1970: Washino Yap

et al.

Steelman

1969;

Stewart

Tawfik

and Gooding et al. et al. uniform 1973; 1968.

and Schoof

1971;

Thompson

et al.

1970; 1971;

Wallace

1968, 1972a, b; or if

Wilkinson the

et al.

Winterlin was not

and Ho 1977) (e.g., Summary The acute range fishes species from

concentration

in water

enough

Macek et al.

1972).

values µg/L

for for

eighteen an amphipod

freshwater to greater

species than

in

fifteen for

genera two fish genera are than

0.11

806 µg/L sensitive

and a snail. with an acute

The bluegill value of 10

is

the most acutely but seven

µg/L,

invertebrate

more sensitive. larger ones.

Smaller

organisms

seem to be more acutely

sensitive

15

Chronic fathead larvae resulting Little freshwater

toxicity

data

are available effects was the

for occurred

one freshwater in second

species, generation

the

minnow. at 0.12

Unacceptable µg/L, which

lowest

concentration than 1,417.

tested.

The

acute-chronic information plants,

ratio is

was greater available algal

on the blooms

toxicity

of chlorpyrifos follow test field

to applications

although The only species factor of

frequently

of chlorpyrifos. with a freshwater

available was with 1,673.

bioconcentration the fathead minnow

on chlorpyrifos in a

and resulted

bioconcentration The acute species from 0.01 µg/L for

toxicity

of chlorpyrifos animals in

has been determined and the acute

with values to

15 ranged 1,911

of saltwater µg/L larvae for

12 genera,

the Korean eastern

shrimp, oyster,

Palaemon

macrodactylus, virginica.

of the sensitive

Crassostrea

Arthropods of fish

are particularly tested, for gulf of the 96-hr

to chlorpyrifos. from 0.58 µg/L

Among the for than striped other

10 species bass life

LC50s range larvae

to 520 µg/L stages.

toadfish; the mysid, test. tenuis,

are more sensitive bahia,

Growth life-cycle

Mysidopsis

was reduced tests, of the the

at 0.004 California six fishes, ratios range

µg/L

in a

In early

life-stage

grunion, with that growth have

Leuresthes being

was the most sensitive µg/L. saltwater Of the seven

reduced

at 0.30 with

acute-chronic five lowest

been determined to 12.50, whereas

species, is 228.5.

the

from 2.388

the highest

Concentrations phytoplankton 5,100 1.4 to fishes when the 150 µg/L. exposed range gulf

of chlorpyrifos from 138 to

affecting 10,000 µg/L.

six

species

of

saltwater 100 to from

BCFs ranged

from

toadfish Steady-state

was exposed

to concentrations from

increasing five

BCFs averaged tests. 16

100 to 757 for

in early

life-stage

National

Criteria described Criteria that, in the for except “Guidelines the Protection for Deriving Numerical Organisms important uses

The procedures National and Their species should of Water Uses” is very not Quality

of Aquatic where a locally

indicate sensitive,

possibly aquatic if the µg/L

freshwater unacceptably exceed 0.041

organisms four-day more than concentration on the for

and their

be affected

average

concentration three years

chlorpyrifos average µg/L

does not and if the

once every

on the 0.083

one-hour

average three years

does not

exceed

more than

once every described Criteria that, in

average. Deriving of Aquatic a locally and their Numerical Organisms important uses

The procedures National and Their species should Water Uses” is very not Quality

the for

“Guidelines the Protection

indicate sensitive,

except

possibly aquatic if the µg/L

where organisms

saltwater unacceptably exceed

be affected

four-day more than

average

concentration three years

of chlorpyrifos on the 0.011 average µg/L Three amount (U.S. recover frequencies of

does not and if the

0.0056

once every does not

one-hour

average years

concentration on the average.

exceed

more than years time is aquatic

once every the Agency’s ecosystems

three best

scientific

judgment

of

the

average

should

be provided

between

excursions abilities excursion to

EPA 1985b). differ

The resiliences however, if

of ecosystems and site-specific adequate water

and their allowed is

greatly,

may be established for

justification quality-based requires selection

provided. limits and

Use of criteria for designing waste

developing facilities Dynamic

permit

treatment model. (U.S.

of an appropriate for the application

wasteload

allocation

models Limited

are preferred data or other

of these criteria might state make their model (U.S.

EPA 1985b).

considerations rely on a steady-

use impractical, EPA 1986).

in which

case one must

17

Table

1.

Acute

Toxlclty

of

Ch.lorpyrlfos

to

AquatIc Specles (&j/L)

Anlrsls Mean Reference

spec 10s

LC50 or EC50
Method*
Ch-Ical(lag/L)*@* FRESHWATER SPECIES

Acut. Veluo

Snail (adult), Ap lexa hypnorum AmphlPd, Gamfnarus knph1pod Gammarus

F, M s, u

Techn Ical (98.7$) Techn lcal

MO6

a806

Phlpps 1985a,b Sanders

and

tiolcombe

0.32

0.32

1972

fasclatus (2 mo. I acustr old), Is

s, u F, M

Techn lcal (97s) Encapscr lated*“** Techn lcal (98.7s) Techn lcal (971) Techn lcal (97%) Techn lcal (971) EncapsuI ate+*** Encaps* iated**** Dlcapsulated****

0.11

0.11

Sanders 1969; Johnson and Fjnley 1980 SIelert et al. 1984

Awh 1pod, Gammarus pseudo1 Craytlsh Orconectes Stonefly Pteronarcel Stonefly Pteronarcys Stonefly Claassenla

0.18

0.18

lmnaeus

(1.8 91, tmmunls (natad), la badla (nalad), cdl I torn (naiad), sabulosa

F, M s, u s, u
Ica

6

4

Phlpps 1985a,b Sanders

and Holcombe

0.38

0.38

and Cope

1%8

IO

10

Sanders Johnson Sanders Johnson Slefert

and Cope 1968; and Finley 1980 and Cope 1968; and Finley 1980 et al. 1984

s, u s, M s, M 5. M s, u

0.57

0.57

Tr lchopter an, Leptocer tdae sp. Pyqmy backs* lmmer , Neoplea str lola Pygmy bat ksw lmmer , Neoplea str lola Crawl Inq water sp. (1.4 g),

0.77

0.77

1.22

Slefert

et

al.

1984

I.56

l.JB

Sletert

et

al.

1984

beetle

(adult),
Peltodytes Cutthroat trout Salmo clarkl r

0.8

0.8

Federle 1976

and Col I Ins

s, u

Techn Ica I (970

18

18

Johnson

and Fin IeY

I980

18

Table

1.

(continued) LC50 or EC50 (ug/L)‘** 7.1 Species Mean Acute Value ( rg/L 1

Species Ralnbow trout Salmo galrdnerl Ralnbow trout Salmo qalrdnerl -. Ralnbow trout Salmo qalrdner Lake trout Salvellnus Goldfish Carasslus (0.6-1.5 g),

Method* s. 11

Chenlcal** Techn lcal

Ret et-ence Macek et al. 1969; Johnson and Finley Holcanbe et al.

1980

(juvenile),

F,

M

Techn lcal (99.9%) Tee hn Ica I (98.7%) lechn lcal (97%) Techn lcal (98.7%) Techn lcal (98.7s) Techn lcal (99.91) Techn Ica I (9tl.71) Techn lcal (971) Techn Ica I (98.7s 1 Techn lcal (971) Techn lcal (98.79)

8.0 9

1982

(3.0 I

g),

F,

M

8.485

Phlpps 1985a,b Johnson

and Holconbe

(2.3 g), namaycush (10.7 g). auratus

s.

IJ

98

98

and Finley

1980

F,

M

‘806 170

,806

Phlpps 1985a,b Jarvinen 1982 Holcanbe

and tiolcombe

Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas Fathead minnow (Juvenile), P lmephales promelas Fathead minnow (0.5 Plmephales prcwnelas Channel I ctnlurus Channel lctalurus t3lueqlll Lepomls Slueqll Lepomls catf 1sh (0.8 punctatus catflsh (7.9 punctatus (0.6 q), macrochlrus I (0.8 g), macrochlrus g),

s, F,

M H

and Tanner

203

et

al.

19d2

F,

M

542

331.7

Phlpps 1985a,b Johnson

and Holconbe

g),

5,

u

280

and Finley

I980

g),

F.

H

806

806

Phlpps 1985a,b Johnson

and Holcabe

5.

u

2.4 10

and Finley

1980

F,

M

10

Phlpps 1985a,b

and Holcanbe

19

Table

1.

tcont

lnued) LC50 or EC50 (rq/Ll*“’ Species Mean Acute VSIW (@4/L )

speckls

J4ethod*

ChemIcaJ”‘

Sal lnlty ( g/kg 1

Ref ertmce

SALTWATER SPECIES Eastern oyster ( larva), Crassostrea vlrglnlca Mysld (juvenile), Hysldopsls hahla Mysld (juvenIleI, Hysldopsls bahla mph)@, Amps1 lsca MphJwd, Hhepoxynlus Amph I pod, Hhepoxynlus 5. u
Tachn

lcal (9221

20

1,991

1,991

Borthulck

and Walsh

1981

s.

u

Techn lcal (92%) Techn jcal (92%) Tech lcal (925) Techn lcal (92s) Techn kdl r92gJ (99% 1

20

0.056

t3orthwlck

and

Walsh

1981

F,

M

26.7

0.035

o.o3!l

Schlmmel

et

al.

1W3

R, Ik abdlta R, abronius R, abronlus u U

32

0.16

0.16

Scott

and Redmond

1986a

32

0.07

Scott

and Redmond

1986b

32

0.14

0.0990

Scott

and Redmond

1986b

Korean shr Imp (adult), Palaemon macrodactylus Korean shr Imp 4 adult) Palaemon macrodactylus Gult toadtlsh Opsanus beta Sheepshead (Juvenile), Cypr lnodon Sheepshead (Juventte), Cypr lnodon t juvenile), , F. v

0.25

Earnest

1970

(99% 1 Techn lcal (92%) Techn lcal (92% ) Techn Ica I (922 1

24

0.01

0.05

Earnest

1970

R,

M

29-30

520

520

Hansen

et

al . 1986

minnow var leqatus minnow var legatus

5,

u

20

270

Borthulck

and

Walsh

1981

F,

M

10.3

I36

I36

Schfnhnel

et al.

I9t13

Mummlchoq (adult), Fundulus heteroclltus

s,

u

Techn lcal (99.5s)

20-25

4.65

4.65

Thliuqnanan 1977

ana

forgasn

20

Table

1.

(Continued)

spec les Lonqnose (juvenile), Fundulus kl I I I f I sh slml I Is

Method* F, M

Chamlcal** Technical (92a) Techn lcal (92s)

Sal lnlty (g/kg) 25.9

LCSO or EC50 (l&L)+“’ 4.1

Species MBan Acute Va I ue ( rg/L 1 4. I

Retwwrce Schlmmel et al. 1983

Cal ltonla qrunlon (day 0 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Cal 1torn la qrun Ion (day 7 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Cal lfornla qrun Ion (day I4 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Cal I forn la qrun lon (day 28 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Cal lfornla qrunlon (day 0 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Cal lfornla grunlon (day 7 I arva) , Leuresthes tenuls Cal I torn (day I4 Lbresthes la qrun Ion larva), tenuls

s,

II

25

5.5

borthwlck

et

al.

1985

s*

u

Techn lcal (925) Tecnn lcal (92%)

25

2.7

tiorthwlck

et

al.

1985

s,

u

25

I.8

Borthulck

et

al.

1985

5.

u

Techn lcal (92% 1 Techn lcal (92%)

25

2.6

tbrthwlck

et

al.

19ti5

F,

H

25

1 .o

Eorthwlck

et

al.

1985

F,

M

Techn lcal (92%) Techn lcal (Y21)

25

I .o

EWthwlck

et

al.

I985

F,

M

25

1.0

Borthwlck

et

al.

IYH5

Cal Iforn la qrun Ion (day 28 larva), Leuresthes tenuls Inland sl lverslde (juvenIleI, Menldla beryl I Ina Atlantic (day 0 Menldla sllverslde larva), menldla F, M

Techn lcal (92j) Techn lcal

25

1.3

I .068

Eiorthwlck

et

al.

I985

5.0

4.2

4.2

Clark

et

al.

19Bf,

s,

u

Techn lcal (923)

20

4.5

Borthwlck

et

al.

lY8-1

21

Table

1.

(Cant

lnued) LC50 or EC50 (@J/L)*** 2.B Specla I&HI Acutm Value ( pq/L )

spec10s Atlantic sl lverslde (day 7 larva), Menldla menldla Atlantic (day I4 Menldla slIversIde larva), menldla

Mathod* 5, IJ

Chrlcal** Techn lcal (92%) Techn lcal (923)

Sal lnlty (g/kg) 20

Ref uenco Borthwlck et al. 1985

s.

u

20

2.4

Borthwlck

et

al.

1985

Atlantic sl lverslde (day 28 larva), Menldla menldla At l ant Ic s1 lverslde (juvenile) Menldla menldla Atl antlc sl Iverslde (day 0 I arva) , Men Id la men Id la Atlantic sllverslde (day 7 larva), Henldla menldla Atlantic sl lverslde (day 14 larva), Henldla menldla At I antlc sl lverslde (day 28 larva), Menldla menldla Tldewater sl lvefslde (day 0 larva), Menldla oenlnsulae Tldewater sl lverside (day 7 larva), Menldla penlnsulae Tldewater (day I4 Wenldla sl lverslde larva), penlnsulae

s,

u

Techn lcal (Y2I)

20

4.1

BrothwIck

et

al . I985

F, M

Techn lcal (92%)

24.3

1.7

Schlmmel

et

al.

1983

F, M

Techn Ica I (92s)

20

0.5

Rorthwick

et

al.

lY85

F, M

Techn Ica I (92%)

20

I .o

Ebrthwlck

et

al.

1985

F, M

Techn lcal (921) Techn lcal (92%)

20

I.1

borthwlck

et

al.

1985

20

3.0

I .229

Rorthwlck

et

al.

IY85

s.

u

Techn lcal (92X) Techn lcal (92%) Techn lcal (YZS)

20

4.2

tbrthwlck

et

al.

1985

20

2.0

Borthwlck

et

al.

lY85

5,

u

20

I.8

tbrthwlck

et

al.

lY85

22

Table

I.

(Cant

Inued) LC50 or EC50 (US/L)*‘* 3.9 Species Mean Acut. Value (*g/L)

!ipeclGBS Tldewater (day 28 Menldln sl lverslde larva), penlnsulae s, u

Chenlcsl”’ Techn lcal (92%)

Sal lrlty (g/kg) 20

Ref mence Bar hwlck et al. 1985

Tldewater si lverslde (day 0 larva), Henldla penlnsulae Tldewater sl lverslde (day 7 larval, Henldla penlnsulae Tldewater (day I4 Menldla TIdewater (day 28 Menldla Tldewater (juvenIleI, Menldla Strlped Morone sl lverslde larva), penlnsulae sl Iverslde larva), penlnsulae sllverslde penlnsulae bass (juvenile), saxat I I 1 s (juvenlle),

Techn Ical (921)

20

I .o

Bar

hwlck

et

al.

1985

F, M F, M F, M F, M F, U
F, M

Techn lcal (92%) Techn Ica I (92s I

20

0.5

Borthwlck

et

al.

1985

20

0.4

tiorthwlck

et

al.

1985

Techn Ica I (92s)

20

0.9

@orthwlck

et

al . 1985

Techn Ical

19.3

I.3

0.7479

Clark

et

al . 1985

(99Z 1 Techn Ica I (92s)

30 24.7

0.58 5.4

0.58 5.4

Earnest Earnest Schhnmel

1970; 1974 et al.

Korn

and

StrIped mullet Muql I cephalus

1983

*
*t *It*

S = static; Percent purity

R = renewal; Is qlven

F = flow-through; In parentheses when

U = unseasured; ava!lable.

14 = measured.

If the concentrations publlshed results The test material

were

were not measured and the multlpl led by the purlty from

publlshed results It It was reported form of

were not reported to be less than

t0 be adjusted 97s.

for

pulty,

the

****

was dissolved

an encapsulated

chlorpyrlfos.

23

Table

2.

Chronk

Toxlclty

of

Chlwpyrltor

to

Aquatic

Animals

Species

Test*

Chemical**

L Irlts (“g/L)*** FRESHWATER SPECIES

Chron Ic Val uo ( vg/L 1

Ret erence

fathead mlnnow, P lmephales promelas Fathead minnow, P lmephales promelas Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas

ELS

TechnIcal (98.11, Encapsulatedt -

I .6-3.2

2.263

Jarv lnen 1982 Jarvlnen 1982 Ja’rv lnen 1983

and

Tanner

ELS

2.2-4.0

3.250

and Tanner

LC

Encapsulatedt

-

<0.12tt

co.12

et

al.

SALTWATER SPECIES Mysld, Mysldopsls LC bahla ELS Techn lcal (92s) Techn lcal (92s) Techn lcal (YZS) Techn lcal (92% 1 Techn lea I (92s ) Techn lcal (921) Techn kal (92%) Techn lcal (92%) 19-28 0.002-0.004 0.0028 McKenney et al. IYtll

Gulf toadf Ish, Opsanus beta Sheepshead Cypr lnodon Sheepshead Cyprlnodon Sheepshead Cypr lnodon Cal lfornla Leuresthes Inland Menldla Atlantic Menldla minnow, var leqatus minnow, varlegatus m lnnow, var leqatus qrunlon, tenuls sllverslde, beryll Ina sllverslde, menldla

25-34

I .4-3.7

2.276

Hansen

et

al.

1986

ELS

9-28

1.7-3.0

2.258

Crlpe

et

al.

1986

ELS ELS

9-28

I .7-3.0

2.258

Cr Ipe Cr fpe

et et

al.

1986

3-28

1.7-3.0

2.258

al . 1986

ELS

24.5-34.0

0.14-0.30

0.2049

Goodman

et

al.

1985a

ELS

4-6

0.75-l

.8

I.162

Goodman

et

al.

19tlSb

ELS

18-27

0.26-0.48

0.3666

Goodman

et

al.

1985b

24

Table

2.

(Continued)

Specler TIdewater Menldla sl Iverslde, penlnsulae

Test’ EL5

Chemical** Techn lcal (92%)

Sal lnlty (g/kg) 18-25

Llmlts I pg/L I*** 0.38-0.78

Chronic Value (rg/L) 0.5444

Reference Goodman et al . 1985b

il
** *** t tt

LC = llfecycle Percent Results The test purity are

OT partial Is given based

I lfe-cycle; In parentheses concentrat from at

ELS = early when Ions avallable. of

Ilf4stage.

on measured was dissolved occurred

chlorpyrl torm

fos. of chlorpyrlfos.

material effects

an encapsulated

unacceptable

al I tested

concentrations.

25

Table

2.

(Comtlnuedd)

AcutsChronIc Acuto Val ua ( us/L 1 170

Ratlo Chrcmlc Value (rcJ/L) <0.12’

sPuIes Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas Mys Id, Mysldopsls Gulf toadflsh, Opsanus beta Sheepshead Cypr lnodon Sheepshead Cypr Inodon Sheepshead Cyprlnodon Cal I torn Leurestbes Inland Menldla Atlantic Menldla TIdewater Henldla la mlnnow, var leqatus minnow, var leqatus mlnnou, varlegatus qrun Ion, tenuls

Rat lo >I,417

0.035 bahla 520

0.0028

12.50

2.276

228.5 60.23

136

2.258

136

2.258

60.23

136

2.258

60.23

1.068

0.2049

5.212

sllverslde, beryl I Ina sllverslde, menldla sllverslde, penlnsulae

4.2

1.162

3.614

1.229

0.3666

3.352

0.7479

0.5444

1.374

* Results of the of a Ilfe-cycle

early test

I Ifestage are wallable.

tests

are

not

used

because

results

26

Table

3.

Ranked

Genus

Mean Acute

Values

with

Species

Mem

Acute-Chronic

Ratlos Species Mean Acutschroll Ic Rat lo***

Rank@

Gauls Mmn Acute Va I ue ( rg/L I

spec les FRESHWATER SPECIES

Species Mean Acute Value (@/LP’

I5

>806

Snail, Ap I exa

hypnorum >8O6 auratus catf lsh, punctatus 806

I4

,806

Goldf lsh, Carasslus Channel I ctalurus

13

806

I2

331.7

Fat head m lnnow, Plmephales promelas Lake trout, Salvel lnus

331.7

>I ,417

II

98

98 namaycush I8

IO

12.36

Cutthroat trout, Salmo clarkl -Aa lnbow trout, Salmo Qalrdnerl

8.485

IO

Stonef ly, Pteronarcys Alueqll Lepomls

IO izal lfornlca IO

IO

I, macrochlrus

6

Crayf lsh, Orconectes

6 lmmun Is 1.38

1.38

Pyqmy backsw lmmer , Neoplea strlola Crawl InQ water Peltodytes sp. Tr lchoptera Leptocer ldae beetle,

0.8

0.8

0.77

0.77 sp.

27

Tablo

3.

(contlnwd) emuswwr Acut. Vdu Cl&L) 0.57

RMlP 3

Souler Stonef I y, Claasenla Stonefl y, Pteronarcel AwhJpod, Gsmnarus AwhJpod, Gaannarus AWhJpod, Gawsrus sabulosa

Sp8cln Ma88 %lt!~ (
0.57

2

0.38

0.38 la bad la 0.32 fasclatus 0. I I lacustrls 0.18 pseudollnnaeus

I

0.1850

SALTWTER 12 1,991 Eastern oyster, Crassostrea vlrqlnlca GUI f toad f lsh, Opsanus beta Sheepshead Cvpr Inodon nlnnow, var leqatur

SPECIES 1,991 228.5

II

520

520

10

136

I36

60.23

9

5.4 4.366

Str lped Aul let, Muqll cephalus
MMmlChog,

5.4 4.65

8

Fundulus Longno Fundulus 7 I.569 Inlmd Menldla Atlmtlc Menldla Tidewater Menldla

heteroclltus kllllflsh, slml I lo rllvwslde, berylllna sllvwslde, -Idle sllverslde, penlnsulae 4.1

4.2
1.229

3.614 3.352

0.7479

I.374

28

Table

3.

(contlnuud) Genus Mean Acute Value ( US/L 1 I .068 Species Mimn Acuto Value (pg/LI** qrun Ion, tenuls I .068 spocles MMn Acute-chron 1c Ret lo@” 5.212

Rank* 6

Spec les Cal lfornla Leuresthes

0.58 0.16

Str lped bass, Morone saxat 1 I 1 s N)hlw’, Ampel lsca Avhlpd, Rhephoxynius

0.58

0.16 abdlta 0.0990 abronlus 0.05

0.0990

0.05

Korean shr Imp, Palaemon macrodactylus Hys td, Mysldopsls

1

0.035

0.035 bahla

12.50

*

*u ***

Ranked fran most reslstant to most sensltlve values does not I nc I us Ion of **qreater than” does al low use of al I qenera for which data Value Is not unnecessar Ily lowered. From Table I. Fran Table 2.

based on Genus Mean Acute Value. necessarily Imply a true ranklng, but are avallable so that the Flnal Acute

Fresh

water Flnal Cr lter Acute Ion Flnal Flnal Chronic Value = 0.1669 &L Ion = (0.1669 (see pg/L) text) =‘0.04107 rg/L / 2 = 0.08345 &L

Max lmum Concentrat Acute-Chrpnlc Value . =

Rat lo = 4.064 (0.1649 “4/L)

/4.064

Salt

water Final Acute Value = 0.02284 “g/L = (0.02284 = 4.064 r9/1) (see / 4.064 &Lb text) = 0.005620 ,&L / 2 = OA1142 r&.

Cr lterlon Flnal Flnal

Max lmum Concentration Acute-Chronic Value Ratlo = (0.02284

Chronic

29

*Table

4.

Toxlclty

ot

Chlorpyrlfos

to

AquatIc

Plants

Species

Chemical*

Durat ton (days)

Sal lnlty 4 g/kq)

Ettect

Cumxntratlm (ra/L)**

Retwmce

SALTWATER SfECI ES Golden-brown I sochrysls Olatcnn, Skeletonema Olatom, Thalassloslra alga, gaibena Trchn lcal (92s) Techn lcal (921) Techn lcal (92s) 30 EC50 (poplEF tat Ion growth) EC50 (populalat Ion growth) EC50 (pop111 b lat !on growth) I38 6ortt-w lY6l Borthwlck 1981 E3orthwIck 1981 tck and Wat Sh

30

297.8***

and

Walsh

costatum

30

148

and

Wal sn

pseudonana

l

Percent

pur Ity

1s given

In parentheses were were

when

ava I lable. results were was report& not reported to be less to be adjusted than 972. for purity,

**

If the concentrations the pub1 Ished results Geometr Ic mean of five

not measured and the publlshed muttlpl led by the purity If It

***

values.

30

Table

5.

Bloconcentratlon Concentrat lam In Water (rg/L)**

of

ChIorpyrJfos Durat Ion (days)

by AquatIc

Organlms

spec10s

Chalcal*

1 issue

BCF or

BAF+**

Rof erenco

FRESHWATER SPECIES Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas Fathead minnow, Plmeohales oromelas Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas Fathead minnow, Plmephales promelas Fathead mlnnow, P lmephales promelas elufqll Lepomjs I, macrochlrus Encapsu I ated t 0.1 Z-2.68 60 Whole b&y Whole b&y Whole ba’v whole body Whole body Whole b&y 1,673 Jarv lnen et al . 1983

0.14

21

570

Eaton

et

al.

1985

0.15

I8

260

Eaton

et

al.

1985

0.32

21

780

Eaton Eaton

et et

al. al.

1985 1985

0.46

33

760

0.41

33

100

Eaton

et

al.

1965

SALTWATER SPECIES Gulf toadflsh, Opsanus beta Sheepshead Cypr lnodon minnow, var leqatus Techn lcal (92%) Techn lcal (92s) Techn lcal (92s) I .4 49 Whole MY Whole b&y (n=6) Whole body (Tr3) Whole b‘N (Ip3) Whole “o“y (n=4) 100 Hansen et al. 1986

0.41 0.78 0.14-0.63

28

I lStt

Crlpe

et

al . 1986

Cal lfornla Leuresthes

grunlon, tenuls

35

757tt ( from ELS test) 153tt (fron try test1 l86tt

Goodman

et

al.

1983a

Cal lfornla Leuresthes

qrunlon, tenuls

Techn lcal (92%)

0.28-I

.3

26

Goodman

et

al.

13U>a

Inland Menldla

slIversIde, beryl I Ina

Techn lcal (92%)

0.18-1.8

28

Goodman

et

al . 1985b

31

Table

5.

(continuedd)

SPoclas
Ttdewater Menldla Stfb’M51d8, penlnsulae

ChemIcala Techn lea I (92s)

Come&rat In Water 0.093-0.38

Ion (Ma/L)**

Ourat lo41 (days) 26

Tissue lJhole body (l-3)

BCF or

BAF*‘*

Ref ubnco Goodman et al. 1985b

456tt

a
l *

Percent Measurd

pwlty

!s given Ion factors of

In parentheses chlorpyr (BCFs) and I fos.

when

mallable.

concentrat

*** t tt

Bioconcentratlon and tissue. The test Ic material mean of

bloaccumulatlon

factors

(BAFs)

are

based

on measured

concentrations

of

chlorpyrlfos

In water

was values

dissolved fran the

from

an encapsulated concentrations

form

of

chlorpyrlfos.

Geometr

1 lsted

In uater.

32

Tablo

6.

othmr

Data

on Ettutr

of

mrlorpyrltor

On AqwtIc

OrgrIm8

SpUlW

ChICd*

lwat

h

Ettoct FRESHMATER SPECIES

Retwance

Dlatuns, Un ldentl PI mar Dugesla

IO doys f led lm, dorotocephala Encapsulated*** 24 kr

Reduced grout h Mono

400

Roberts

and WI I ler

1970

4.0

Lwy

and Wlller

1978

Cl adaxran, Daphn la sp. AmphI@, Hyalel la Wf 1 Y# Ephanerel azteca

4 hr

Lc50

0.88 1.28

SLefert

l t al.
et al.

1984

Encapsulated***

24 hr

Lc50

Slefert

1964

Encapsulated*** Is sp. Encapsulated’**

72 hr

IDO

0.33

SLafert

et

al.

1984

Pygrry backsulmer, Neoplea str lola Glant titer Belostomo Predacoous (adult), Hyprotus bug sp. dlvlng sp. beetlo (adult),

144

hr

Lc50

0.97

Slefert

et

al.

1984

Techn lcal

24 hr

Lc50

Ahned

1977

Tectm lcal

24 hr

Lc50

40

Ahmed 1977

Predaceous d Iv Ing beet1 e (adult), Laccophl Ius declplens Pralaceous (adult), Therllonectus dlvlng baslllarlr beetle beetle

Techn lcal

24 nr

4.6

Ahred

1977

Techn lcal

24 hr

Lo50

6

Ahmd

1977

Water scavenger (adult), Berosus styllforus

Techn lcal

24 hr

I250

9

Ahmd

1977

Water scavenger beetlo ( I arval , Hydrophl lus trlanqular

Techn lcal Is

24 hr

lmo

20

AhRed

1977

33

To610

6.

~0mtInu.d)

Souhs Water scavenger beetle f adult), Hydrophllus trlangularls Water ravmga (Iarvo), Troplstefnus beet10 lateral Is

ChUIuI* Techn lcal

Our,tlon

Ettut Lc50

coumtr8tIoa lrph)'.

aotYeu* Ahnd 1977

24 nr

30

Techn lcal

24 hr

Lc50

52

Ahad

1977

Water scavenger beetlo (adult), Troplstefnus laterells Mosquito (3rd and 4th In star) , Aedes aegypt I Mosquito (2nd Aedos aegypt I Instar),

Tech

kal

24 hr

Lc50

8

Ahned

1977

Techn lcal

18 lu

LTU)

IO

Veraa

and Rotnan

1984

Techn lcal (96% 1 Techn lcal twj 1 Techn lcal

24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr

mo lmo Lc50 Lc50 Lcso uxl u3l u30 Lmo

0.0011

Saleh

et

al.

1981

Mosquito (4th Instar), Aedes aeqypt b Mosquito (4th Aedes cantans l4osquIto (4th Aedos -1s bbsqulto (4th Aedes excruclans Mosquito (4th Aedes punctor instar),

0.0014
1.1

Saleh

et

al.

1981

Rettlch

I977

Instar),

Techn lcal

3.5 3.3 2.7 0.5
1.0

Rettlch

1977

Instar),

Tecl-m lcal

Rettkh

1977

Instar),

Techn rcal

Rettkh

1977

Mosquito (4th Instar), Aedos st Ict lcus Mosquito (4th Aedos vexans -Mosquito Anopheles Instar),

Techn kat

24 hr
24 hr 24 hr

Rettlch

1977

Techn Jcal

Rettlch

1977
1977

( larva), freeborn1

Techn lcal

3

Ahaed

34

Table

6.

(continued)

Specii3S
Mosquito Anopheies (4th instar), freeborni

Chemical” Technical

Duration 24 hr

Ef fed LC50

Concentrat qJg/LP 1.3 0.9 2.5 I.2 I .2 I .9 I .3 1.2 2.8 ;:(:

Ion

Aef erence
Womeldwf et al. 1970

Mosquito instar), Ancpheies

(3rd

and 4th

Techn lcai

6.5

hr

LT50

25

Verma

and Rahman

1984

stephensi Encapsulated’** IH hr 42 IN114 hr 24 hr LC50 LC50 LC50 EC50 2.36 1.29 0.85 0.46 Siefert et al. 19d4

Phantom midge, Chaoborus sp.

Mosquito (4th Cuiex plplens

instar),

Techn lcal (991 Technical (96%)

Helson

et

al.

1979

Mosquito (2nd Instar; DDT suscept ib ie), Culex pipiens Mosquito (4th ODT susceptible), Culex pipians Mosquito (4th Cuiex pipians Mosquito (4th Culex pipiens Instar;

24 hr

LC50

0.0022

Saieh

et

al.

1981

Techn (%i)

icdi

24 hr

LC50

0.0052

Saleh

et

al.

1981

Instar),

Technical

24 hr

LC50

1.2

Rettich

1977

instar),

Technical

24 hr

LC50

I .6

Rettich

1977

Mosquito (31-d and 4th instar), Culex quinquefasciatus

Technical

5 hr

LT50

IO

Verma

and Rahman

1984

35

Tablo

6.

(contInudJ Corcutrat ("QAJ0.41

Ion
Rofreaca Hal sm et al . 1979

SDUI8S Mosquito (4th Cuiex rastuans uosqu t to ( Isrva) Culex tsrsal Is t4osquIto Cullsota Midge (4th Chlronomus MIdgo (4th Ch k-us Wtdge (4th Ch1rommus t4ldge (4th Cr lcotopus t4Idge 0th DkroteedIpes Instar),

ChcIC81~
Techn lcal (991) Techn kal

owat
24 hr

Isa

Effut lc50
lC50

,

2

Ahned

1977

(4th Instar), annulata Instar), sp. Instar), decorus Instar), utahensls Instar), decorus Instar), cailfornlcus

Ted-m lcal

24 hr

Lc50

5.5

Rettlch

1977

Tochn lcal

24 hr

ILM

0.42

Mul la

md

Khasarlnah

1969

Techn kal

24 hr

lc50

7.0

Al 1 and Mulls

1970s

Techn lcal

24 hr

u50

I.2
I.470

Al 1 and Mui la

i978a

Techn kai

24 hr

Lcso

Al 1 and Wul Is

1980

Techn Lcal

24 hr

lmD

40.0

Al 1 and Uui la

I960

Midge (4th Instar), Goeldlchlronmus hofoprass lnus Midge 0th Procladlus Instar), spp.

Techn lcsl

24 hr

u.30

0.97

t4ul is

md

Khasawlnah

1969

Techn lcai

24 hr

um

0.5
29.0

Al I and Mul La 19788

Midge (4th Instar), Tanypus qrodhaus 1 Midge (4th Instar), Tanypus grodhaus I Mtdge (4th Instar), Tanvaus qrodhausl Ra Inbou trout, Salmo qalrdner

Techn lcal

24 hr

l.cM mo
If30

Al I and ekrlla

1980

Techn kal

24 hr

0.5

Mul Is

snd Khasaulnah

1969

Techn lcsl

24 hr

5.7

Mui la

and Khassulnah

I%9

Techn lcal 1

%

hr

Lc50

(7.2W

Uacdt ::

et

al.

1969

4 1.6-C)

36

Toblo

4.

[cant IruedJ comcwtrnt tDQAJ100
45

baa Refwanca
Peterson 1976

+cIoa
Atlantic salmon Salma saiar -(.luvenlle), -

CbUkd* TYz;“’
Techn kal (991) Tochn lcal (991) Tectm kai
l

Ourat bon
24 hr

Effect Tenpsrature selection Lcw

Golden’ shiner, Notenlqonus crysoleuces Goldshlner, Notwlgonus crysoleucas Fathead nlnnow, P Imphales prac#las Fathead Plmph8les n Innou, proulas

36 hr

Ferguson

et

al.

1966

36 hr

l.cM Lc50

35

Fwgusoon

et

al.

I%6

.**

96 hr

150

Jarvlnen

md

Tanner

1982

Encapsulated***

96 hr

LCW

130

Jarv

lnsn

and Tanner

1982

Fathead n Jnnou, Plmephales prorelas Fathead nlnnou ( lava), P lwphales prorslas MosquItotlsh, Gsnbusla aftlnls Mosqu1totlsh UIDT suscept I bl e) , Gambusla atflnls Mosqultotlsh IDOT rerl stant), Gambusla at f InIs MosquItotlsh, Gambusla afflnls Mosqultotlsh Garbusla atf (adult), lnls

Encapsrr
lat&*S, l ***

95 hr

u.30

280

Jarv~nen

and Tanner

1982

7 day

Reduced

grotith

5.2

Norberg

md

Wount

I985

Avoidance

loo

Hansen

et

al . 1972

Techn kal

48

hr

Lmo

1,010

Cuiley

and

Forguron

1%9

Techn lcal

48

hr

Lc!iD

1,291

Culley

and

Ferguson

I969

24 hr

Decreased the4wal tolerance um

5

Johnson

1978s

Techn kal

72 hr

0.22 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.20 230 215

Ahmaf

1977

uosqultotlsh, Gambusls attlnls

Techn kal (991)

36 hr

lc50

Ferguson

et

al.

1966

37

Tabla

6.

(cantlnud)

SpOC IOS Mosqultof Gambusla Guppy, Poecllla fsh, afflnls

Chamlcal*

ourat

Ion

Ettect LC50

caecantrat (&l/L)** 4,000 220 37.5 22.5 comamtrat (ug/L)‘*

loa
Refrenco Hansen et al.

24 hr
Techn ical

1972
al. 1968

24 hr 36 hr

LC50

Ronqsrlyam

et

retlculata Techn lcal (99s) LC50 Ferguson et al . I%6

Green suntlsh, Lepomls cyanel

lus

spa

les

CblCSl*

Sal lnlty (g/kq)

loa
Rot wence

Ourat

Ion

Effect

SALTWATER SPECIES Green alqa, C h I orococcum D latom, S ke I etonema Olatom, Amph I prora

27
sp. TechnIcal costatum

48

h

Reduced qrowt h 100s mortal Ity

10,000

Maly

and Ruber

1983

30 27

48

l-r

5,000
10,000

Walsh

1981,1983

(92X ) 40 hr 40 hr
8 wk Reduced qrowth Reduced growth Slqn I t lcant reductlon In total fauna1 species richness and In abundance of arthropods and mol Lusts for I aboratory-colonlzed benttos Slgnlf lcant reductlon In abundance of arthropods for t leld-colonized benthos Mal y and Ruber 1983

sp .

Dlnof laqel late, Gonyau I ax sp . Benthlc macrofauna Techn lcal

27 26.5 (14.5-34.0)

10,000

Hal y and Ruber

1983

0.1

Tagatz

et

al . 1982

(92s)

Benth

Ic macrofauna

Tachn lcal

(92%)

27.5 (18.0-32.5)

1 wk

5.9

Tagatz

et

al.

‘1982

38

Table

6.

(continued)

Specki Eastern oyster (juvenllel, Crassostrea vlrgtnlca Eastern oyster (juvenile), Crassostrea vlrglnlca Nhlpod, Ampellsca

Chmlcal*

Sal lnlty (q/kg)

Ourat

Ion

Ef feet EC50 (she1 I deposit Ion)

Concentrat (rg/L)**

1041 Reference U.S. 8ureau of Cunmerclal FIsherles 1965; Lowe et al.

(99% I

24

96 hr

270

1970

(99s)

28

%tV

LOO (she1 deposItIon)

I

34

U.S. Bureau of Fisher les I%7

Carmerclal

1921)
abdlta

32 26

96 hr

EC50 (with sed Iment)
EC50 (mortal lty and loss ot equ I I Ibr lum) EC50

0.34 0.20

Scott

and Redmond

1966a

Brown shr Imp (juvenile), Penaeus aztecus P tnk shr Imp (juvenile) , Penaeus duorarum Grass shr Imp (juvenile), Pslaemonetes pugto Grass shr Imp ( adu I tl , Pa I aemonetes 9uq lo Blue crab Calltnectes (juvenIleI, sapldus

(99g,

48 hr

U.S. bureau of Commercial F Isher Ies 1965; LOW et al .

1970

(99s)

26

48 t-r

2.4

U.S. Bureau of Canmerclal Fisher les 1967

(99s 1

26

48 hr

EC50 (mortal and loss ot equll Ibrlum) No avo Idance of pest Ic Ide EC50

1ty

I.5

U.S. &reau of Ftshales 1%7)

Ccmmerclal

(99s)

20 20

Itu

0.01 -I l o

Hansen

et

al.

1973

(99%) (,95$)

48 IN24 IN-

5.2 loo-2%

U.S. Bureau of Fisheries I%7 Peterson 1976

Carmerclal

Atlantic salmon (juvenile), Salmo salar -Sheepshead (juvenile), Cypr lnodon mlnnow var leqatus

Altered preferred temperature

Techn lcal (92%)

9-W

2R days

BCF = 42-660 (low food); 69-l ,000 (med. food); IZO-1,830 (high food1 Avo Idance pest Ic Ide of

0.4 l-52

Crfpe

et

at.

1986

Sheepshead (adult), Cyprlnodon

m Innow varleqatus

(99s 1

20

I tr

IO-250

Hansen

1%9,1970

39

Table

6.

tcontlnued)

Sal lnlty species Sheepshead (juvenile), Cypr lnodon Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta Mummlchog (adult), Fundulus heteroclltus minnow var legatus (9211) 24-34 49 days l3cF = loo5,100 100% Inhlbltlon of acetylchol inesterase actlv Ity In braln LC50 Chernlcal* (991)

(g/kQ)
24

Ourat

Ion

Effect LC50

Concmtrst (rg/L)*’ >I ,000

Ion Reference U.S. Llureau of Fisher Ies I%7 Canmerclal

48 hr

1.4-150

Hansen

et

al . 1986

Techn lcal (99.5%)

20-25

24 hr

a2.1

Th lrugnanm, I977

and Forgash

Lonqnose (juvenile), Fundulus Cal I forn Leuresthes

kllllflsh slmllls la qrun Ion, tenu I s

(991)

24

48

hr

3.2

U.S. Bureau of Fisheries l%7; 1970 Goodman et

Canmerclal Lowe et

al.

Techn Ical (92X)

24.531.5

26 days

Slqnlflcantly reduced growth of fry LC50

0.62

al . 1985a

Spot (Juvenile), Lelostomus xanthurus

(99%)

26

48

hr

7

U.S. Bureau of Flsherles I%5

Commercial

l

Percent

purity

1s qlven

In parentheses

rhen

avallable. publlshed results If It was reported form of were not reported to be less than to be adjusted 971. for pur Ity, the

*a

If the concentratfons publIshed results The Aqed test material

were was

were not measured and the multipl led by the purity dissolved from

l l

** ***

an encapsulated

chlorpyrlfos.

I I weeks.

40

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The potentiating

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22:858-859. 1969. midges. D.M. Fanara, midges Laboratory J. Econ. H.A. and field Entomol. Darwazeh evaluation of

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Nelson, Meisch. with

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Arkansas

25:9. T.J. and D.I. Mount. toxicity Boyer. chlorophyll 1985. test. 1980. A new fathead Environ. Effects minnow (Pimephales

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Temperature

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oE 10 chemicals (Series
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Phipps, to C.E.

G.L.

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U.S.

EPA, Duluth, 22.)

MN. (Memorandum

Stephan,

MN. October

Polls,

I.,

6. Greenberg receiving

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1975. sewage.

Control Mosq. resistant

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midges

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Ramke, D. 1969. in the Mosq. Tulane Control

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G.R.

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Effect

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bottom larvae of

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and bioactivity Culicidae).

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Rettich, insecticides Rettich, with

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The susceptibility Mosq. and field

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News 37:252-257. investigations temephos in Czechoslovakia organophosphorus molestus and

fenitrothion, applied

pirimiphos-methyl, as sprays
News

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Aedes cantans.

Mosq.

39:

320-328. 1970. The effects 1970. VA. of polymer formulations of 1970. VA. of diatoms AD-724647. on the National larvicidal

Roberts, activity Technical Roberts, Dursban

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Miller. November Service, Miller.

1969-March Springfield, 1971.

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Roberts, 1973a.

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D.R.

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polyethylene naturally

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artificial

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Mosq.

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57

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Mosq. Effects fish

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Rongsriyam, on the
Bull.

Y.,

S. Prownebon activity

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of a guppy,

a mosquito-eating

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39:977-980.

Ruber, to eight
Assoc.

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Saleh, of three pipiens Sanders, lacustris. Sanders,

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No.

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Gammarus Service, species Columbia, of MO.

Technical H.O. 1912.

25. U.S. of

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malacostracan Service, Sanders, pesticides 13:112-117.

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1968.

The relative of stoneflies.

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Redmond.

RI.

Hansen, J.

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B.S.

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The metabolism

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Taylor, larvicides Econ. Thayer, the effect

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Experimental Aedes,

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Injection

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R.K., Rice

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64


								
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