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Art and Architecture of the Renaissance

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									Art and Architecture
 of the Renaissance
         Art and Patronage
• Italians willing to spend a lot of money on art.

  – Italian banking and international trade
    interests had money

  – Art = social, political, and spiritual values

  – Art = form of competition for social and
    political status.
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
        and Architecture
   Emphasizes Greek and Roman characteristics in style
   and spirit, which include:
        – Reason            - Order
        – Objectivity       - Balance
        – Discipline        - Restraint



 These characteristics can be summed up in one term:
                        Harmony
    •
   The essential conditions that
        encourage art are:

-- Pride in the past
-- Peace in the present
-- Confidence in the future
     Specific Features of
       Renaissance Art
• Realism
• Perspective
• Classicism: harmony and symmetry
  – Especially architecture
• Emphasis on the Individual
  – Accomplishments, intelligence, uniqueness, beauty
• Geometrical Arrangement of figures
• Use of Light vs. Dark, Shadowing
• Human expression: suffering and joy
Realism &
Expression
 Expulsion from
  the Garden
 Masaccio
 1427
 First nudes since
  classical times.
                     Perspective

                                   The Trinity
Perspective!                       Masaccio
Perspective!
 Perspective!
  Perspective!                     1427
   Perspective!
    Perspective!
      Perspective!




 First use
 of linear                         What you are,
perspective                         I once was;
                                    what I am,
                                      you will
                                      become.
                       Classicism

                        Greco-Roman
                         influence.
                        Secularism.
                        Humanism.
                        Individualism  free
                         standing figures.
                        Symmetry/Balance

The “Classical Pose”
Medici “Venus” (1c)
  Emphasis on Individualism
 The Duke & Duchess of Urbino
 Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
 Portraits in profile are inspired by Roman coins
An extraordinary individual:

      Isabella d’Este

            1474-1539
            “First Lady of the Italian
             Renaissance.”
            Great patroness of the
             arts in Mantua.


             This was drawn by da Vinci in 1499
  Biography of Isabella d’Este
• Exception to the “Renaissance Woman”

• Born 1474 into the ruling family of Ferrara.

• Isabella's father believed in the equality of men and women.
  She was very well-educated.

• Spoke Greek and Latin; studied lute, music, dance and debate.

• School for young women -- strict code of morals.

• Over two thousand letters, commenting on politics, war
Geometrical Arrangement of Figures


                       The Dreyfus
                        Madonna
                        with the
                        Pomegranate
                       Leonardo da
                        Vinci
                       1469
                       The figure as
                        architecture
Light and Shadowing/Softening Edges

                            Sfumato is
                            the process
                            of blending
                            lines to
Chiaroscuro                 create a
is the bold                 smoky,
  contrast                  smudged,
  between                   seamless
 light and                  appearance
    dark
Artists as Personalities/Celebrities

                   As artists gained status,
                    the public became
                    extremely interested in
                    learning more about
                    them


                   “Lives of the Most
                    Excellent Painters,
                    Sculptors, and
                    Architects”

                   Published by Giorgio
                    Vasari in 1550
 Filippo Brunelleschi
  1377 - 1436


 Architect: Best known for the
  dome on the Duomo in Florence
  (St. Maria del Fiore, constructed
  between 1420-1436)
The Church’s Facade
A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral:
      Sacrifice of Isaac Panels
   Brunelleschi          Ghiberti
      Ghiberti – Gates of Paradise
Baptistry Door, Florence – 1425 - 1452
             Dome Comparisons
Il Duomo      St. Peter’s   St. Paul’s    US capital
(Florence)     (Rome)       (London)     (Washington)

1420-1436      1546-1593    1675-1708        1850s
              The Ideal City
      Piero della Francesca,
               1470




Renaissance architecture seeks harmony of all parts with
symmetry and order of geometric proportions and designs
using Classical architectural elements
     Andrea Palladio 1508-1580
• Most influence over European
  architecture

• Emphasized balance and
  geometrical symmetry.

• Made private houses =
  grandeur of public buildings
  and churches.

• Wealthy and powerful were
  just as much the center of
  civic life public buildings and
  churches were.
 Renaissance Architecture
• Architecture symbolized “rebirth” more than the
  other arts.

• The Renaissance architecture emphasized:
   – Roman Architecture
      • Symmetry
      • mathematical proportions
      • geometrically-perfect designs
      • regularity of parts.
      • Orderly arrangements of columns and lintels
      • regularly divided surfaces
      • semicircular arches and hemispherical domes
  Renaissance Sculpture
• Medieval sculpture religious in nature

• Medieval sculpture was highly stylized

• Italian sculpture seeks the continuation of Classic
  tradition

• 15th century brings mastery of stonecutting
  techniques

• Humanism and a nurturing environment of the arts,
  allows sculpture to become highly developed
     The Liberation
       of Sculpture
 David by Donatello -- 1430
 Greatest achievement
 First free-form nude statue
  since Roman times
 First major Renaissance
  sculpture
 Depicted admiring his own
  body, as if he were suddenly
  aware of his power and the
  beauty of the human form.
    Characteristics of Renaissance
              Sculpture
• Contrapposto: the head and
  shoulders face in a different
  direction from the hips and legs
  -- a spiral twist


• Systematic study of anatomy

• Finest form of art because it
  mimics a divine creation

• Free-standing monumental
  statues
           David

Verrocchio     1473 - 1475

Youthful

“Bragging” pose

Suggests man’s power,
strength

The human form is
accurate, but still
somewhat stylized
David
 Michelangelo
  Buonarotti
 1504
 Marble
 Extremely
  detailed –
  even
  disheveled hair


   Extremely evocative of the
   Greek style of statues
            The Baptism of Christ
      Verrocchio, 1472 - 1475




Leonardo
 da Vinci
 Leonardo da
  Vinci is the
  enduring
  example of


     The
    L’uomo
  universale
 (the “universal
     man”)
 The Renaissance “Man”
• Broad knowledge about many things in
  different fields.

• Deep knowledge/skill in one area.

• Able to link information from different
  areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.

• The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was
  at the heart of Renaissance education.
Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512

                   Artist
                   Sculptor
                   Architect
                   Scientist
                   Engineer
                   Inventor

    1452 - 1519
Leonardo,
the Artist

 The Virgin of
  the Rocks
 Leonardo da
  Vinci
 1483-1486
     Leonardo, the Artist:
From hisNotebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519)
Mona Lisa –
 da Vinci,
 1503-4
Notice the use of
sfumato and
chiaroscuro.
A Picasso Mona
An Andy Warhol Mona
The Last Supper and Geometry-
       da Vinci, 1498
 The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498




                 vertical
horizontal




             Perspective!
   A Da Vinci “Code”:
St. John or Mary Magdalene?
Leonardo, the Sculptor


                 A
                  freestanding
                  Statue


                  1516-1518
Leonardo, the Architect:
   Pages from his Notebook




Plan of the city of Imola, 1502.
Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):
Pages from his Notebook




  An example of
   the humanist
   desire to unlock
   the secrets of
   nature.
Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy):
     Pages from his Notebook
Leonardo, the Inventor:
Pages from his Notebook
              Leonardo, the Engineer:
                             Pages from his Notebook




                              Studies of water-lifting
A study of siege defenses.            devices.
St. Peter’s Basilica/The Vatican
• The work of architecture that represents the Italian
  Renaissance in its fullest sense is St. Peter's and the Vatican in
  Rome.

• Julius II intended St. Peter's to be the largest church in the
  world. He succeeded. It is considered the largest church in
  Christendom.

• Several artists worked on the Vatican:
   – Donato Bramante designed the Vatican on the epic scale that it
     assumes today
   – Raphael, the painter and architect, studied architecture under
     Bramante. But Raphael never really took to the project.
   – The commission passed to Antonio Sangallo and then to
     Michelangelo. (He painted the Sistine Chapel.)
   Inside St.
     Peter’s
• Completed 1506 –
  1626
   – Michelangelo
     began work in
     1546

• Covers 5.7 acres and
  can hold 60,000
  people

• The lettering on the
  piers supporting the
  dome is 6.5 feet tall!
Pieta by Michelangelo -- 1498
                  • Incorporates the
                    Renaissance ideal of
                    classical harmony, beauty
                    and restraint

                  • The figures are quite out
                    of proportion, owing to
                    the difficulty of
                    depicting a fully-grown
                    man cradled full-length in
                    a woman's lap.

                  • If Christ were to be
                    human scale, the Virgin,
                    standing, would be nearly
                    25 feet tall.

                  • The detail in the
                    sculpture is exceptional
                    and shows amazing
                    emotion from Mary
This photo from September 11 is
sometimes referred to as the
“American Pieta”
Michelangelo Buonorrati

               1475 – 1564
             What
               a
          difference
               a
            century
15th        makes!               16th
century                          Century




           Use of contrapposto
The Popes as Patrons of the Arts

                      The Pieta,
                       commissioned
                       by
                      Michelangelo
                       Buonarroti

                      1499

                      marble
The Sistine
  Chapel

Michelangelo
 Buonarroti

1508 - 1512
The Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
   Michelangelo Buonarroti
        1508 - 1512
     The Sistine Chapel Details


  The
Creation
 of the
Heavens
   The Sistine Chapel Details




Creation of Man
A Modern “Adaptation”




 Joe Gallo in the New York Daily News, 2004
The Sistine Chapel Details


                    The Fall
                     from
                     Grace
The Sistine Chapel Details
               The Last Judgment
Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael,
           1514-1515

                     Castiglione
                      represented the
                      humanist
                      “gentleman” as
                      a man of
                      refinement and
                      self-control.
            Perspective!

Betrothal
 of the
 Virgin
Raphael
  1504
Raphael’s Canagiani Madonna, 1507
    Raphael’s Madonnas




Sistine Madonna   Cowpepper Madonna
     Raphael’s Madonnas




Madonna della Sedia   Alba Madonna
    The School of Athens – Raphael,
                             1510 -11
•   One point perspective.

•   All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are
    included  all of the great personalities of the Seven
    Liberal Arts.

•   A great variety of poses.

•   Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as
    Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel.

•   No Christian themes here.
The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11




                 Da Vinci

                                Raphael

             Michelangelo
The School of Athens – Raphael, details



    Plato:
looks to the
heavens [or                     Aristotle:
 the IDEAL                    looks to this
   realm].                     earth [the
                                here and
                                  now].
                       • Hypatia of Alexandria
                         (370 - 415) Egyptian
                         philosopher,
             Hypatia     mathematician,
                         astronomer/astrologer,
                         and teacher.

                       • Pythagoras of Samos
                         (582 BC–507 BC)
                         mathematician and
                         philosopher.

                       • Averroes (1126 – 1198),
                         was a Spanish-Arab
                         philosopher and
Pythagoras               physician, philosophy
                         and Islamic law,
                         mathematics, and
                         medicine.
                                        Zoroaster
Zoroaster: ancient Iranian
prophet

Ptolemy (90 – 168): was a
Greek-speaking
geographer, astronomer,                     Ptolemy
and astrologer

Euclid ( 325 – 265 BC):
Greek mathematician, who
lived in is often considered   Euclid
to be the "father of
geometry
Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485




        An attempt to depict perfect beauty.
Her pose symbolizes her lack of shame – she is sinless
                    and innocent.
2002 Euro Coin




 Botticelli’s Venus Motif.
  10¢ Italian Euro coin.
     A Portrait of Savonarola
 By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498.
 Dominican friar who decried
  money and power.
 Anti-humanist  he saw
  humanism as too secular,
  hedonistic, and corrupting.
 The “Bonfire of the
  Vanities,” 1497.
   / Burned books, artwork,
     jewelry, and other luxury
     goods in public.
   / Even Botticelli put some of
     his paintings on the fire!!
The Execution of Savonarola, 1552

                        Excommunicated
                        by the Pope in
                        1497.

                        Pope calls for his
                        execution.

                        Charged with
                        heresy,
                        confessed under
                        torture.

                        Executed 1498
Venus of Urbino – Titian, 1558
Titian: from
Venice

1487-1576

Vibrant color

Dramatic
style
Why are figures depicted nude?
• To present a realistic image of man

• But also to present an idealized image of man

• Figures are presented nude to symbolize they face
  the world without shame .
               Mannerism
• Mannerism is a reaction
  to the High Renaissance.
  It emerged after 1527.

• Mannerism disturbed
  Renaissance confidence,
  humanism and rationality.

• The world was rapidly
  changing. Even religion
  had split apart.

• Mannerism features
  elongated proportions,
  affected poses, and
  eerie perspective

								
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