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					 AS Module 1

A: Voting Culture & Behavior
B: Electoral Systems
    Typical Exam Questions:
   Section A: Voting Behavior
Part a) consists of an 8 Mark Question that asks you to define terms
      such as:
Volatility , Extremists , Apathy , Core Values
Opinion Polls , Class-Based , political culture.
Part b) consists of a 22 Mark Question that asks you to discuss
      evidence of voting patterns:
- Voting behavior is influenced more by political factors than by social
      ones, like class, age or gender.
- Has Britain a ‘political culture’ or several distinctive political
      ‘cultures’?
- How far can Campaigns or the Media win elections?
- How can turnout influence the outcome of an election?
    Typical Exam Questions:
      Section B: Electoral
            Systems
Part a) consists of an 8 Mark Question that asks you to define terms
   such as:
Tactical Voting , Popular Vote , Threshold , Mandate ,
Proportional Representation , Referendum , Swing
Part b) consists of a 22 Mark Question that asks you to discuss electoral
   systems or electoral reform:
- Despite its unfairness, First-Past-The-Post voting produces strong and
   popular governments. Discuss.
- How far do referendums make governments more responsive to
   popular opinion?
- Assess the case in favor of electoral reform
- Assess the advantages & disadvantages of PR
 AS Module 1: Unit One
  What is Politics? 1
Key Questions:
• What is ‘political activity’?
• How do the people participate in politics?
• What are the different levels of
  participation?
    AS Module 1: Unit One
     What is Politics? 2

•   Reading Ch1-P1 : What is politics?
•   Activity 1-1: What is politics?
•   Reading Ch1-P2: Political Activity
•   Activity 1-2: Political Activity
•   Reading Ch1-P3: Politics in the UK
•   Activity 1-3: The British political system
•   Activity 1-4: The Battle of Twyford Down
  AS Module 1: Unit One
   What is Politics? 3
Key Ideas:

Politics                  Sovereignty
Participatory Democracy   Liberal Democracy
Power : Authority         Executive
Charisma                  Legislative
Civil Disobedience        Judicial
Conflict Resolution       Constitutional Monarchy
Activism                  Adversarial
Apathy                    Pluralism
 AS Module 1: Unit One
  What is Politics? 4

Elitism
Establishment
Marxism
Lobby
Non-Violent Direct Action
Direct Action
Protest
Pressure Group
   AS Module 1 : Unit Two
Participation in a Democracy 1
  Key Questions:
  • What is a democracy?
  • What different kinds of democracy are
    there?
  • How does the British electoral system
    work?
   AS Module 1 : Unit Two
Participation in a Democracy 2
  •   Reading Ch7-P1: Democracy
  •   Activity 7-1: Different forms of democracy
  •   Activity 7-2: Evolution of democracy
  •   Reading Ch7-P2: Political participation
  •   Activity 7-3: Political participation in the UK
  •   Reading Ch7-P3: The electoral system
  •   Activity 7-4: Elections in the UK
 AS Module 1 : Unit Two
     Participation in a
        Democracy 3
Key Ideas:

Democracy                  Constituent Constituency
Oligarchy                  Civil Liberties
Patriarchy                 Parliamentary Dem.
Monarchy                   Presidential Dem.
Suffragists/Suffragettes   Tele-Democracy
Citizen                    Franchise
Direct Democracy           Non-registration
Representative Dem.        Boundary Commission
Accountability
     AS Module 1 : Unit Two
        Participation in a
         Democracy 4
Dissolution of Parliament   Level Playing Field
Nomination Papers           Neill Report 1998
Polling Station             Spending Limits
General Election            Procedural Rules
By-Election                 MP
Local Election              MEP
Regional Elections          MWA
Euro-Elections              MSP
Ballot                      MNIA
Devolution                  Councilors
    AS Module 1 : Unit Three
 Elections, Referenda & Reform
Key Questions:
                1
• How did the country vote in 1997?
• How strong is the case for electoral reform?
• What are the advantages & disadvantages of Majority &
  PR Systems of election?
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of the leading
  systems, proposed for electoral reform?     [ Majority:
  First Past Post AV, SV, 2nd Ballot. PR: Party List, Closed
  List, STV, Quota. Hybrid: AMS, AV+/ Top Up]
• What are the advantages & disadvantages of Referenda?
       Module 1: Unit Three
Elections, Referenda & Reform 2

  •   Activity 7-5: 1997 Election campaign
  •   Ch7-P4: Electoral Reform
  •   Activity 7-7: Different Voting Systems
  •   Activity 7-8: Electoral Reform
  •   Reading Ch7-P3-7: Referendums
  •   Activity 7-6: Referendums in the UK
  •   Reference Activity 6-3: Voting in EU
       Module 1: Unit Three
Elections, Referenda & Reform
               3
    Key ideas:

Pre-modern Elections    Share of Popular Vote
Modern Elections        Constituency Vote
Post-modern Elections   Marginal Constituency
Policy Issues           Safe seats
Momentum                Majority Systems
Soapbox                 First Past the Post
The stump               Alternative Vote S.
Morale                  Supplementary Vote S.
Mandate                 Second Ballot S.
        Module 1: Unit Three
        Elections, Referenda &
               Reform4
Proportional representation   Electoral Reform Society
Party List                    Plant Report 1993
Closed List                   Essex Study of 1997
Single Transferable Votes     Jenkins Report 1998
Quota System                  2001 Electoral Commission
Hybrid Systems                Referendum/a
Additional Member System
Alternative Vote Plus
Top-up
  AS Module 1: Unit Four
Political Culture & Social Class
                1
   Key Questions:
   • What is the Political Culture, into which electors are
     socialised?
   • What socio-economic factors govern the composition of
     the electorate?
   • How far are patterns in voting behavior still aligned with
     social class?
AS Module 1 : Unit Four
Political Culture and Social
           Class 2
•   Reading Ch5-P1: Social context &
•                     political culture
•   Activity 5-1: Socialisation & culture
•   Reading Ch5-P2-1: Social factors
•   Activity 5-2: A classless society?
•   Reading Ch9-P1-1/2: Structures Model
•   Activity 9-1: Social class & Voting
   AS Module 1: Unit Four
Political Culture & Social Class
                3
  Key Ideas:

Social Context           Cultural Diversity
Socialisation            Cool Britannia
Primary/Regency Models   Re-branding of Britain
Political Culture        Floral Revolution
Sub-cultures             Tradition
Multicultural            Social Class
Minorities               Capitalist/ Bourgeois
Civic Culture            Worker/Proletarian
Deference                Aristocrat
      AS Module 1: Unit Four
Political Culture & Social Class 4

Communism                    Embourgeoisement
Socialism                    Proletarianisation
Class Conflict               Status
Registrar General’s Class.   Class Mobility
IPA Classification           Class Stability
Class De-alignment           De-industrialisation
Classlessness                Production Cleavage
Meritocracy                  Consumption Cleavage
Equality
Heath Thesis 4 Alignment
    AS Module 1: Unit Four
Political Culture & Social Class 5
   Registrar General’s Classification 2001:
   • 1: Higher Managerial & Professional
      1.1: Corporate Managers & Entrepreneurs
      1.2: Higher Professionals
   • 2: Lower Managerial & Professional
   • 3: Intermediate White Collar & Supervisory
   • 4: Small employers & Own-Account workers
   • 5: Lower Supervisory, Non-Manual & Craft/Skilled
   • 6: Semi-Routine / Skilled, Low Paid & Public Service
   • 7: Routine / Unskilled manual, near minimum wage
   • 8: Never worked / Long term unemployed
     AS Module 1: Unit Four
Political Culture & Social Class 6

Institute of Practitioners in Advertising:
Class A : Higher managerial, administrative & professional
Class B : Intermediate managerial, administrative or
   professional
Class C1: Supervisory or clerical & Junior managerial,
   administrative & professional
Class C2: Skilled manual workers
Class D : Semi-skilled / unskilled manual
Class E : Unemployed, widows,state pensioners, part-time,
   minimum earners
  AS Module 1 : Unit Five
North & South, Home & Abroad
 Key Questions:
                1
 • What are the regional variations in voting patterns?
 • What has been the effect of de-industrialisation on voting
   patterns?
 • How has the political role and influence of Trade Unions
   changed, in recent years?
 • What impact has membership of the EU had on voting
   patterns?
 • How does Britain’s wider role in the world impact on
   political issues and attitudes?
      AS Module 1: Unit Five
North & South, Home & Abroad 2
  •   Reading Ch5-P3: Social impact of
  •                     Economic change
  •   Reading Ch9-P1-3: North/South divide
  •   Activity 5-5: De-industrialisation
  •   Activity 5-6: Unions in the 1900’s
  •   Reading Ch6-P12 & 3: E. Union Context
  •   Reading Ch6-P4: Globalisation
   AS Module 1: Unit Five
North & South, Home & Abroad
              3
  Key Ideas:
 De-industrialisation   New Right
 Part-time working      New Labour
 Hot-desking & 24x7     Social Exclusion
 Job-sharing            Poverty Trap
 Flexible working       Welfare Trap
 Home-working           Workfare
 30[un]-30[pt]-40[ft]   Relative ~Poverty
 Target Model           Trade Unions
 Underclass             Corporatism
     AS Module 1: Unit Five
North & South, Home & Abroad 4
New Working Practices     European Monetary Union
Trades Union Congress     Euro
Flying Pickets            Federalism
European Economic Com.    Social Chapter
Treaty of Rome 1957       Subsidiarity
Membership 1973           Two Speed/Two-Tier Eur.
Referendum 1975           Enlargement
European Union            Globalisation
Maastricht 1991           Multinational Corporations
Amsterdam Treaty 1997     Commonwealth , UN
Exchange Rate Mechanism   NATO
     AS Module 1: Unit Six
Age, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity 1
Key Questions:
• What social factors, other than class, might
  influence the behavior of voters?
• How far do the voting habits of [any one of four]
  reflect those of the electorate generally?
• What are the political and social factors
  influencing the voting habits of [any of the four]?
• Explain why, in researching voting behavior, it is
  difficult to be sure which of the variables is
  determinative.
      AS Module 1: Unit Six
Age, Gender, Religion &Ethnicity 2
  •   Reading Ch5-P2: Gender
  •   Activity 5-3: Women in the late 1900’s
  •   Reading Ch5-P2-3: Ethnicity
  •   Activity 5-4: Racism in Britain
  •   Reading Ch9-P1-3: Age, Religion and
  •                       Ethnicity
  •   Reading Page 205 Youth
  •   Reference: Ch11-P1 & Ch11-P2-3/4/5:
      Black/Female Councillors/MPs
        AS Module 1: Unit Six
  Age, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity 3
Key Ideas:
Ageism : Grey Power   Sexual Liberation
Youth subcultures     Female Eunuch
Sex : Gender          Feminine Mystique
Discrimination        Is this All?
Feminism              NOW
First Wave Feminism   Women’s Liberation Move.
Suffrage              Equal Pay Act 1975
2nd Wave              Sex Discrimination A. 1975
Sexism                Glass Ceiling
Chauvinism            Family Symmetry
      AS Module 1: Unit Six
Age, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity 4
Childcare                  Racialism
Superwoman                 ‘Swamping’ - Thatcher
Race : Ethnicity           ‘Rivers of Blood’ - Powell
Minorities                 Racial Harassment
Diversity / Plurality      Tolerance
Homogeneity / Uniformity   Multiculturalism
Commonwealth               Integration
Immigration                Assimilation
Asylum                     Exclusion
Racism                     Incitement to racial or
                           religious hatred
 AS Module 1: Unit Seven
Party Loyalty and Choice 1
 Key Questions:
 • Are political or social factors more important in
   determining voting behavior?
 • Why do people identify themselves as supporters of a
   political party?
 • Has De-alignment led to an increased volatility in the
   electorate?
 • Do people vote according to rational criteria [issues,
   ideology, perceptions of competence or the appeal of a
   leader] do they act from loyalty to a particular class or
   party?
AS Module 1: Unit Seven
Party Loyalty & Choice 2
•   Reading Ch9-P2: Party Identification
•                       Model
•   Activity 9-3: Party Identification Model
•   Reading Ch9-3: Rational Choice Model
•   Activity 9-4: Rational Choice Model
 AS Module 1: Unit Seven
Party Loyalty and Choice 3
   Key Ideas:

Party Identification Model   Volatility
Political Socialisation      Core Voters
Party De-alignment           Floating voters
Share of the Vote            Swing / Churn
Disaffection                 Safe seats
Cynicism                     Marginal seats
Apathy                       Intra-Election Volatility
Ideological Disjuncture      Inter-Election Volatility
Protest Voting               Pederson Index - Volatility
 AS Module 1: Unit Seven
Party Loyalty and Choice 4
Rational Choice Model        Black Wednesday
Instrumental Voting :        Symbolic Images
Expressive Voting            Retrospective Model
Issue Voting Model or        Record
Policy Preference Model      Performance Factors
Ideological or Value Model   Leadership Model
Prospective or               Personality
Investment Model             Voter Perception
Sociology of Aspirations     Presidential Election
                             Dumbing down
   AS Module 1: Unit Eight
Influence of Media & Polls 1
  Key Questions:
  • Evaluate the Dominant Ideology Model of voting
    behavior.
  • To what extent can the Media be shown to have
    affected the short term or long term voting
    behavior of the British electorate?
  • How useful are opinion polls in predicting the
    outcome of an election?
  • How far can opinion polls actually influence the
    outcome of an election?
AS Module One : Unit Eight
Influence of Media & Polls
 •   Reading Ch9-P4-1/2: Dominant
 •                         Ideology Model
 •   Activity 9-5: Dominant ideology Model
 •   Extension Ch19: Political Information
 •                   and the Media
 •   Activity 19-2: Press and 1997 Election
 •   Reading CH9-P4-3: Opinion Polls
 •   Activity 9-6: Opinion Polls
   AS Module 1: Unit Eight
Influence of Media & Polls 3
  Key Ideas:

Dominant Ideology Model   Under-reporting Ommision
Privileged Discourses     Over-exposure
Cultural Capital          Reinforcement
Insider Closure           Spin-Doctoring
Quality Press             Lobby System
Tabloid Press             Negative Campaigning
Mass Circulation          Media Manipulation
Opinion Forming           Party Political Broadcast
Balanced Reporting
   AS Module 1: Unit Eight
Influence of Media & Polls 4
Media Moghuls              Psephology
Press Regulation           Reliability / Validity
Misinformation             Pre-Election
Media Moral Panics         Exit Polls
Political Agenda           Voting Intention
Depoliticisation of News   Margin of Error
Freedom of Information     Market Research Soc. ‘92
Opinion Poll               Party Commissioned Poll
ICM , Gallup, NOP,         Phone-ins/ Texts/E-Mails
Harris and MORI            Canvassing Returns
  AS Module 1: Unit Nine
Voting Context & General Model 1
 Key Questions:
 • What are the causes and significance of variations in
   turnout and abstention at general elections?
 • What are the causes and significance of Third Party or
   Tactical voting?
 • How far does the effectiveness of a party’s election
   campaign determine the outcome of the election?
 • Evaluate Miller’s General Model of voting behavior.
     AS Module 1 : Unit Nine
Voting Context & General Model 2
 •   Reading Ch9-P5: Voting Context Model
 •   Activity 9-7: The Voting Context
 •   Reading Ch9-P6: General Model
 •   Activity 9-8: A General Model of Voting
    AS Module 1: Unit Nine
Voting Context & General Model 3
   Key Ideas:

Voting Context Model       Tactical
Turnout                    Protest Voting
Abstention                 Mid-term Protest Voting
Non-registration           Late-Deciders
Apathy / Passivity Abst.   Waverers
Disillusionment Abst.      Floating Voters
Cynicism / Protest Abst.   Core Voters
Campaign Fatigue           Getting Voters Out
Differential Turnout       Marginals : Heartlands

				
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