Reviewing a Reading Program PowerPoint by xiangpeng

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									Reviewing a Reading Program
Professional Development
 This publication was adapted by the Center on Instruction from multiple products as shown in
    acknowledgments and cited in references. The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC
  Research Corporation in partnership with the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida
  State University; RG Research Group; the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and
Statistics at the University of Houston; and the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk
   at the University of Texas at Austin. The contents of this publication were developed under
 cooperative agreement S283B050034 with the U.S. Department of Education. However, these
contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should
                      not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

                        To download a copy of this document, visit
                              www.centeroninstruction.org

                                             2008
               Goal


To become familiar with the Guidelines
for Reviewing a Reading Program in
order to inform the selection of high-
quality reading programs.
                     Objectives
Participants will:
 Complete activities that clarify the meaning of key
  questions and terms in the Guidelines;
 Apply the common language of the Guidelines;
 Use the Guidelines to review reading programs; and
 Return to their own state/district/school and use the
  Guidelines to make informed decisions.
Guidelines
              Abbreviations
       ID         Instructional Design
       PA         Phonological/Phonemic
                  Awareness
       P          Phonics
       F          Fluency
       V          Vocabulary
       C          Comprehension
       M&E        Motivation and Engagement
       A          Assessment
       PD         Professional Development
Key found here:


                        F 16, PA 9
            Review Process

               Organize Materials



               Preview Materials


Scope and        Instructional      Sample Lessons
Sequence          Approach



                 Review Entire
                   Program
   Reading Program Preview Activity
Locate, tab, label, and preview:
     Table of Contents
     Scope and Sequence
     3 lessons from Teacher’s Edition (TE)
        • One from the beginning, middle and end
        • Week of instruction-at-a-glance and/or unit overview
     Index
     Instructional organization of the program
        • e.g., Teaching/Instructional Routines, Appendix, or
          Overview
Instructional Design

Scientifically Based
 Reading Research




        ID 1
      Instructional Design:
       Why is it Important?


Good design:
 Makes content accessible;
 Enables content to be remembered over
  time; and
 Increases probability of students’ success.
       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:
THE FRAMEWORK OF A READING PROGRAM
                                   Scope and Sequence
                                   Goals and Objectives
                                   Lesson Organization
                                     Aligned Materials


                             Content              Instruction
                           What is taught        How it is taught


 Phonological/Phonemic Awareness                            Explicit
 Phonics                                                    Systematic
 Fluency                                                    Coordinated Instructional
                                                            Sequences and Routines
 Vocabulary
                                                            Scaffolded
 Comprehension
                                                            Feedback
 Spelling
                                                            Differentiated Instruction
 Writing
                                                            Assessment
 Oral Language
 Listening Comprehension

            ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:
THE FRAMEWORK OF A READING PROGRAM
                                   Scope and Sequence
                                   Goals and Objectives
                                   Lesson Organization
                                     Aligned Materials


                             Content              Instruction
                           What is taught        How it is taught


 Phonological/Phonemic Awareness                            Explicit
 Phonics                                                    Systematic
 Fluency                                                    Coordinated Instructional
 Vocabulary                                                 Sequences and Routines

 Comprehension                                              Scaffolded

 Spelling                                                   Feedback

 Writing                                                    Differentiated Instruction

 Oral Language                                              Assessment

 Listening Comprehension

                 ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:
THE FRAMEWORK OF A READING PROGRAM
                                    Scope and Sequence
                                    Goals and Objectives
                                    Lesson Organization
                                      Aligned Materials


                             Content                Instruction
                           What is taught          How it is taught


 Phonological/Phonemic Awareness                           Explicit
 Phonics                                                   Systematic
 Fluency                                                   Coordinated Instructional
                                                           Sequences and Routines
 Vocabulary
                                                           Scaffolded
 Comprehension
                                                           Feedback
 Spelling
                                                           Differentiated Instruction
 Writing
                                                           Assessment
 Oral Language
 Listening Comprehension

                 ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:
THE FRAMEWORK OF A READING PROGRAM
                                     Scope and Sequence
                                     Goals and Objectives
                                     Lesson Organization
                                       Aligned Materials


                              Content               Instruction
                            What is taught        How it is taught


 Phonological/Phonemic Awareness                    Explicit
 Phonics                                            Systematic
 Fluency                                            Coordinated Instructional
                                                    Sequences and Routines
 Vocabulary
                                                    Scaffolded
 Comprehension
                                                    Feedback
 Spelling
                                                    Differentiated Instruction
 Writing
                                                    Assessment
 Oral Language
 Listening Comprehension

              ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
Supplemental/Intervention
     (S/I) Programs


 Who is the target audience?
 Who implements instruction?
 What is the instructional setting?




                ID 30, 31, 32
         Instructional Design
               Activity

Open the Guidelines to the Phonological/ Phonemic
Awareness section. Read questions 1-6.

Now read questions 1-6 for each section: Phonics,
Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension.
  Phonological Awareness


The awareness that language is made up of
units of sound.
        Phonemic Awareness


Phonemic awareness is knowledge of the smallest
unit of speech—the phoneme.
          Phonological vs. Phonemic
                 Awareness

 Phonological Awareness: the understanding of the different
  ways that spoken language can be broken down into smaller
  units (sentences to words, words to syllables, syllables to
  phonemes).

 Phonemic Awareness: a more specific term; the ability to
  hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken
  language (blending, segmenting, manipulating).
         Why Teach Phonological
              Awareness?

 Accelerate reading growth of ALL children.

 20% to 30% of children will remain poor readers
  without it.

 Coarticulation makes it difficult for some students to
  hear individual sounds.
Phonological Awareness Continuum
     Phonological Awareness
      Framework Questions
1. Is instruction explicit?
2. Is instruction systematic?
3. Does instruction include coordinated
   instructional sequences and routines?
4. Is instruction scaffolded?
5. Does instruction include cumulative review?
6. Are assessments included to measure and
   monitor progress?

          PA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ID 12, 15, 16, 20; A 1
Phonological Awareness
      Instruction


  Small portion of daily lesson
  Limited to one or two skills
  Evaluate student readiness to
   advance




          PA 7, 8, 9
Phonological Awareness Instruction

      Auditory work only—no print
      From larger to smaller units of sound
      Skills taught sequentially:
        • Rhyming
        • Isolation
        • Blending
        • Segmenting
        • Manipulation
              PA 10, 11, 12
    Phonological Awareness
          Instruction

 Count words heard in sentences.
 Recognize and produce rhyme.
 Demonstrate alliteration.
 Counting, blending, and segmenting
  syllables.
 Blend onsets and rimes.

             PA 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
        Phonological Awareness
          Guidelines Activity

Open your TE. Review PA lessons from the beginning, middle,
and end of the kindergarten or first grade TE.
Review PA 7-18:
  Make notes in the comments column.
  Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or group.


                           PA 7-18
Continuum of Word Types




       PA 19
  Phonemic Awareness
      Instruction


Physical representations for sounds




              PA 20
Phonemic Awareness
Instructional Example




     Elkonin Box
Phonemic Awareness
Instructional Example
           Phonemic Awareness
           Corrective Feedback




Teacher: “What word do these sounds make?”
             /k/          /a/        /t/
Student: “/k/ /o/ /t/ cot”

                   ID 16, 22; PA 3
Phonemic Awareness Instruction


  Students identify first, last, then middle
  sound in words.




                     PA 21
        Phonemic Awareness
            Instruction


 Oral blending
 Oral segmenting
 Manipulation (deletion, addition, substitution) and
 Oral activities precede print activities



                     PA 22, 23, 24
           Phonemic Awareness
               Instruction

 Early phonemic awareness skills are linked to
  phonics instruction.
 Program offers guidance on when to phase out oral
  phonological awareness activities.
 Words used in PA activities occur in subsequent
  word lists and text readings.


                     PA 25, 26, 27
          Phonemic Awareness
              Instruction

 Program includes a sound pronunciation guide that
  addresses the various features of sound production.
 Computer-based and other audio-enhanced
  programs pronounce sounds distinctly, correctly,
  and without distortion.




                      PA 28, 29
        Phonemic Awareness
         Guidelines Activity
Open your TE. Review PA lessons from the
beginning, middle, and end of the kindergarten or
first grade TE.
Review PA 19-29 in the Guidelines:
• Make notes in the comments column.
• Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or group.


                      PA 19-29
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
       Summary Activity

 Read your notes in the comments and grade-level
  columns of the Guidelines.
 Answer questions or record notes about PA 1-6.
 Which areas do you need to further investigate?
 Discuss with the large group.


                   PA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Phonemic Awareness Is Linked to
      Phonics Instruction




   s          i        p
           Phonics


Phonics is the relationship between
graphemes (letters) and the phonemes
(sounds) they represent.
         Why Teach Phonics?


Because learning to read is not a natural process
(Liberman, 1999).
Explicit and systematic instruction in phonics
gives readers the tools they need to become
skilled readers.
             Phonics
         Summary Questions
 Is instruction explicit?
 Is instruction systematic?
 Does instruction include coordinated instructional
  sequences and routines?
 Is instruction scaffolded?
 Does instruction include cumulative review?
 Are assessments included to measure and
  monitor progress?
          P 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ID 12, 15, 16, 20; A 1
             Phonics Instruction

 Vowels and consonants are taught.
 Short vowels are taught before long vowels.
 Individual letter-sounds are taught before digraphs,
  blends, and word families.
 High utility letter-sounds (/a/, /m/, /s/) are taught
  before low utility ones (/x/, /y/, /z/).


                        P 7, 8, 9, 10
             Phonics Instruction

 Digraphs are taught as units of sound (/sh/, /ch/, /th/,
  /ai/, /ea/).
 Individual sounds in a blend are taught
  (bl =/b/ + /l/, br = /b/ + /r/).
 Letter-sound correspondences are taught to mastery
  and cumulatively reviewed.



                    P 11, 12, 13; ID 16
            Phonics Instruction

 Explicit strategies to teach students how to decode
  words.
 Practice decoding words using only letter-sounds
  that have been previously taught.
 Apply mastered letter-sound correspondences to
  read decodable text.



                   P 14, 15, 16; ID 12
              Phonics
       Instructional Example


Letter-sound correspondences previously taught:
a, t, p, b

 The silly fat man sat on the tiny seat.
 Pat at bat.
             Phonics Instruction


 Symbol to sound (decoding) and the sound to
  symbol association (spelling) are taught explicitly.
 Spelling instruction (encoding) is aligned with
  decoding (phonics) instruction.




                     P 17, 18; ID 12
                  Phonics
          Continuum of Word Types
 VC and CVC begin with a continuous sound      at, am, mop, man
 VCC; CVCC begin with a continuous sound       end, its; sack, fill
 CVC begin with a stop sound                   dog, tan
 CVCC begin with a stop sound                  tent, jump
 CCVC begin with a consonant blend (continuous) frog, slap
 CCVC begin with a consonant blend (stop)       crab, plug
 CCVCC; CCCVC; CCCVCC                       clamp; scrap; scrimp

                            P 19, 20
             Phonics Instruction

 Concepts and words are frequently and
  cumulatively reviewed.
 Each component of phonics is emphasized for
  fluency practice.
 There is ample decodable text for practice.
 Students read decodable text before trade books.

                  P 21, 22, 23, 24; ID 16
                  Phonics
             Guidelines Activity
Open your TE. Review phonics lessons from the
beginning, middle, and end of the TE.

Review P 7-24 in the Guidelines:
• Make notes in the comments column.
• Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.

Discuss findings with partner or group.

                          P 7-24
               Phonics
Four Word Types in English Orthography




                P 25, 26, 27   Hook (2006)
     Phonics Instruction

  Regular and Irregular Words

Regular—A word containing letters that
make their most common sounds (e.g.,
sip, mat).
Irregular—A word that contains letters
that stray from the most common sound
pronunciation (e.g., come, said).

          P 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30
             Phonics Instruction

 Ample practice with letter-sounds before instruction
  in larger orthographic units;
 Chunking explicitly taught for decoding multisyllabic
  words;
 Modeling think-aloud strategy to aid multisyllabic
  word analysis;
 Strategy instruction in using prefixes, suffixes, and
  known word parts.
                     P 31, 32, 33, 34
   Phonics
Syllable Types




    P 35
              Advanced Phonics
                 Instruction


 Section of program is devoted to advanced phonics
  skills (structural analysis).
 Advanced phonics skills are taught explicitly, first in
  isolation and then in words and connected text.




                         P 36, 37
  Phonics Instruction

Spelling strategies include:
    Word sorts
    Categorization activities
    Word-building activities
    Word analogies


              P 38
          Advanced Phonics
             Instruction


 Explicit instruction in the meanings of roots
  and affixes.
 Student activities to analyze the relationship
  of spelling to the meaning of complex words.




                       P 39
Phonics Instruction Example

port is a Latin root meaning “to carry”


                   transportation


       report                           export


                        port



         portage                    important
               Advanced Phonics
                  Instruction
 High frequency word parts (e.g., un-, re-, in-, -ful)
  taught rather than low frequency ones.
 Activities for distinguishing and interpreting words
  with multiple meanings are included.
 Once mastered, advanced phonics strategies are
  immediately applied to reading and interpreting
  familiar and unfamiliar connected texts.
 Words used in advanced phonics activities are also
  found in the student texts.
                        P 40, 41, 42, 43
             Phonics
        Guidelines Activity
Open your TE.
Review phonics lessons from the beginning,
middle, and end of the TE.
Review P 25-43 in the Guidelines:
 Make notes in the comments column.
 Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with partner or group.
                  P 25-43
                 Phonics
              Summary Activity

 Consider your notes in the comments and grade-level
  columns on your Guidelines.
 Answer questions or record notes about P 1-6.
 Which areas would you need to further investigate?
 Discuss with the large group.



                     P 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
             Fluency


    Fluency is the ability to read text
quickly, accurately, and with appropriate
          expression (prosody).
       Why Teach Fluency?

 Fluency is a bridge between word recognition
  and comprehension.
 A fluent reader can concentrate on
  comprehending the text rather than decoding
  the words.
             Fluency
         Summary Questions
 Is instruction explicit?
 Is instruction systematic?
 Does instruction include coordinated instructional
  sequences and routines?
 Is instruction scaffolded?
 Does instruction include cumulative review?
 Are assessments included to measure and monitor
  progress?
            F 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ID 12, 15, 16, 20; A 1
          Fluency Instruction


Addresses all dimensions of fluency:
    Speed—the ability to read words quickly.
    Accuracy—the ability to correctly read
     words.
    Prosody—the ability to read the words with
     expression, proper intonation, and phrasing.


                       F7
          Fluency Instruction


 Teacher models speed, accuracy, and prosody.
 Teacher provides feedback to students during
  fluency practice.
 Fluency instruction integrated into the daily
  lesson.



                     F 8, 10, 11
          Fluency Instruction

 Skills taught to mastery and practiced
  frequently to promote automaticity with:
    • decoding strategies
    • irregular words
    • multisyllabic words
 Explicit strategies taught to transition from
  reading words in lists to connected text.
             F 9, 12, 13, 14, 15; P 22, 42
               Fluency
          Guidelines Activity
Open your reading program TE or ancillary materials.
Review fluency lessons from the beginning, middle,
and end.
Review F 7-15 in the Guidelines:
   Make notes in the comments column.
   Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings in your small group.

                     F 7-15
            Fluency Instruction
 Program uses research-based fluency strategies:
      • Partner readings
      • Repeated readings
      • Timed readings
      • Audio-assisted readings
 Program introduces fluency practice after students
  are proficient at reading words accurately.


                           F 16, 17
          Fluency Instruction


Fluency practice occurs with decodable text at the
appropriate level—text that includes phonic
elements and word types that students have
previously been taught and can read with 90% to
95% accuracy.




                     F 18
            Fluency Instruction

 Narrative and expository texts are provided for
  students to read aloud
 Teacher encourages students to read aloud to
  determine skill application and accuracy.
 Error corrections procedures include asking the
  students to reread the word/ sentence/ passage.



                  F 19, 20, 21; ID 14, 16, 22
            Fluency Instruction

 Ample opportunities for students to practice reading
  text at their independent or instructional levels.
 Enough texts at each level to provide adequate
  practice opportunities.




                    F 22, 23; ID 17
Fluency Instruction
    Text Levels




        F 24
        Fluency Example

To calculate reading level:
Correct number of words read ÷
Total number of words read x 100 =
Percent Accurate

Example:
52 ÷ 57 =.91 x 100 = 91% (Instructional Level)


                   F 24
              Fluency Instruction


 Program provides directions on how to pair students
  for partner readings.
 Program specifies an error correction procedure for
  partner readings.




                    F 27, 28; ID 13, 18, 27
                  Fluency Rate

Calculate the number of words read correctly in a one-minute
reading of appropriate text:
Total Number of Words Read
- Total Number of Errors
Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)
Example:
If a student reads 75 words in one minute with 8 errors, she
reads 67 words correct per minute (75-8 = 67 WCPM).


                          F 25; A 1
     Fluency Instruction Example

 In partner reading, students read aloud with a
  partner, taking turns to provide word identification
  help and feedback.
 Teacher guidance should include:
   • Identifying instructional level for each student
   • Pairing students
   • Routines for preparation, determining words read
     correctly, and error correction
Fluency Instructional Example
  Timed, Repeated Reading



                   Can be used with
                   partner reading as
                   a way to measure
                   progress.
                    Fluency
        Partner Reading Feedback Record
                    Example
                First Reading                             Second Reading

                 Very Slow                                Very Slow
Speed            Just Right                               Just Right
                 Very Fast                                Very Fast




                 Misread or skipped word                  Misread or skipped word
                 All words read correctly                 All words read correctly
Accuracy         Self-corrected incorrectly read words    Self-corrected incorrectly read words




                 Used end markings correctly              Used end markings correctly
                 Paused and phrased correctly             Paused and phrased correctly
Expression       Read with feeling                        Read with feeling
          Fluency Instruction

 Opportunities to time and graph results after
  rereading the same text.
 Continuous progress monitoring of oral reading
  fluency.
 End-of-year fluency goal for each grade.




                F 26, 29, 30; ID 13, 18, 27
                Fluency
           Guidelines Activity
Open your reading program TE or ancillary materials.
Review fluency lessons from the beginning, middle, and
end.
Review F 16-30:
   Make notes in the comments column.
   Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or group.


                     F 16-30
              Fluency
           Summary Activity

 Consider your notes in the comments and
  grade-level columns on your Guidelines.
 Answer questions or record notes about F 1-6.
 Which areas do you need to further
  investigate?
 Discuss with the large group.


                   F 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Comments/Questions?
      Welcome Back

Materials for today:
 Participant’s Guide
 Reading Program
    • Teacher’s Editions
    • Assessment Materials
 Sticky notes, tabs, and pencils.
Reflections on Day 1

Introduction
Instructional Design (Part 1)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
     Today’s Agenda

 Vocabulary
 Comprehension
 Motivation and Engagement
 Assessment
 Professional Development
 Instructional Design (Part 2)
 Conclusion
             Vocabulary

The knowledge of words and of word meanings.
  Word knowledge is complex and
   multidimensional.
  Word knowledge involves word
   consciousness.
     Why Teach Vocabulary?

 Strong link to reading comprehension
 Affects students’ success in school
 Understanding text requires knowledge of
  word meanings
           Vocabulary
       Framework Questions
 Is instruction explicit?
 Is instruction systematic?
 Does instruction include coordinated instructional
  sequences and routines?
 Is instruction scaffolded?
 Does instruction include cumulative review?
 Are assessments included to measure and
  monitor progress?
            V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ID 12, 15, 16, 20; A 1
  Vocabulary Instruction


 Emphasis on listening and speaking
  vocabulary.
 Emphasis on reading and writing
  vocabulary.




                V 7, 8
       Vocabulary Instruction

Students have ample opportunities to engage in
oral vocabulary activities that encourage:
 repeated exposure to words in multiple contexts;
 using everyday language to explain word
  meanings; and
 connecting word meanings to prior knowledge.



                   V 16; ID 17
          Vocabulary Instruction

 Students are exposed to diverse vocabulary by
  reading and listening to narrative and expository text.
 Frequent teacher read-alouds
      • using higher level books;
      • explaining and instructing students in key
        vocabulary.



                       V 9, 10
     Vocabulary Instruction


The program provides a variety of texts so
that students have ample opportunities to read
at their independent level.




                  V 11; ID 17
   Vocabulary Instruction



Vocabulary instruction occurs before,
during, and after reading.




                 V 12
           Vocabulary
        Guidelines Activity
Open your reading program TE. Review
vocabulary lessons from the beginning, middle,
and end.
Review V 7-12 and 16 in the Guidelines:
   Make notes in the comments column.
   Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings in your small group.

                   V 7-12 and 16
         Vocabulary Instruction


 Select a limited number of words for robust,
  explicit instruction.
 Teach important, useful, and difficult words.




                        V 13, 14
              Vocabulary
          Instruction Example

Which words would you teach explicitly from a story
of historical fiction about explorers?
        Cortés               Cibola
        Jerez                Shower of arrows
        Expedition           Arrogant
        Conquests            Narváez
        Persuaded            Unbearable
        Hardships            Sierra Madre
        Vocabulary
    Instruction Example


Cortés         Cibola
Jerez          Shower of arrows*
Expedition *   Arrogant *
Conquests      Narváez
Persuaded      Unbearable
Hardships *    Sierra Madre
        Vocabulary Instruction


An effective instructional routine should:
 Introduce the word;
 Present a student-friendly definition;
 Clarify the word with examples; and
 Check students’ understanding.




                    V 15; ID 16
                Vocabulary
           Instruction Example
Step 1
 Introduce the word.
 This word is expedition.
   • Write the word on the board or overhead.
   • Say the word with me: expedition.
   • Say the word one more time: expedition.
                Vocabulary
           Instruction Example
Step 2
 Present a student-friendly definition:
  An expedition is a journey or voyage with a group of
  people, usually for a special purpose.
 Let’s read this explanation together:
  (Everyone repeats above explanation.)
 Explanation within the context of the story:
  In this story, Spanish explorers set out on an
  expedition to discover gold in Florida.
                 Vocabulary
            Instruction Example

Step 3
Clarify the word with examples:
    Verbal examples: An organized trip, mission,
      quest to learn or discover something
    Concrete examples: Military expeditions,
      geographic explorations such as the Lewis and
      Clark expedition, scientific expeditions such as
      space exploration
    Visual representations
               Vocabulary
          Instruction Example
Step 4
Check students’ understanding.
   Would a safari be an expedition? Why?
   Would a vacation be an expedition? Why?
   Which might have a more important purpose,
    an expedition to Mars or an expedition to a
    theme park? Why?
                 Vocabulary
            Instruction Example
Step 5
Expand students’ understanding.
    Have you ever gone on an expedition?
     Describe it.
    Clap if the following words are similar to
     expedition: quest, mission, walking,
     exploration, delay, amble.
    Complete the idea: Why might a trip to
     Alaska be considered an expedition?
               Vocabulary
               Instruction

 Students have multiple opportunities to use
  new words in reading sentences, paragraphs,
  and longer text.
 Extended instruction in multiple contexts
  promotes word awareness using word banks,
  vocabulary logs, semantic maps, concept
  definition mapping, word classification, and
  writing.


                    V 17, 18
     Vocabulary
Instruction Example
Vocabulary Instruction Example


                    Feeling sympathy for someone who is going through a hard
                    time and wanting to help them




      Indifferent                                                   Concern
      Coldness                                                      Care
      Aloofness                         compassion                  Empathy
      Lack of feeling                                               Sympathy




         The man felt compassion for the boy who fell off his bike and tried to
         help him up.




   (Graphic organizer courtesy of Florida Center for Reading Research)
                  Vocabulary
                  Instruction

 Strategy steps are taught over time to ensure
  understanding and correct application.
 Meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes are taught
  before they are connected to words.
 Strategies are provided to determine word
  meanings based on meanings of prefixes, roots,
  and suffixes.

                      V 19, 20, 21
             Vocabulary
             Instruction

Aspects of Word Study:

 Concepts of word       Figurative
  meaning                 meanings
 Multiple meaning       Morphemic
 Synonyms                analysis
 Antonyms               Etymologies
 Homonyms
                 V 22
Vocabulary Instruction

 Dictionary use is explicitly
 taught using grade-
 appropriate dictionaries.




             V 23
             Vocabulary
             Instruction

 Use of context to gain the meaning of an
  unfamiliar word is kept to a minimum.
 Computer technology is used to help teach
  vocabulary.




                   V 24, 25
               Vocabulary
            Guidelines Activity

Open your reading program TE. Review vocabulary
lessons from the beginning, middle, and end.
Review Guidelines V 13-15 and 17-25:
  Make notes in the comments column.
  Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or your group.


                   V 13-15 and 17-25
          Vocabulary
        Summary Activity

 Consider your notes in the comments and
  grade-level columns of the Guidelines.
 Answer questions or record notes about V
  1-6.
 Which areas would you need to investigate
  further?
 Discuss with the large group.
                V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
             Comprehension

Comprehension is the “process of simultaneously
extracting and constructing meaning through
interaction and involvement with written language. It
consists of three elements: the reader, the text, and
the activity or purpose for reading.”

                             (RAND, 2002, p. xiii)
 Why Teach Comprehension?

We teach comprehension so that students
“can read a variety of materials with ease
and interest, can read for varying purposes,
and can read with comprehension even
when the material is neither easy to
understand nor intrinsically interesting.”

                        (RAND, 2002, p. xiii)
          Comprehension
        Summary Questions
 Is instruction explicit?
 Is instruction systematic?
 Does instruction include coordinated instructional
  sequences and routines?
 Is instruction scaffolded?
 Does instruction include cumulative review?
 Are assessments included to measure and monitor
  progress?
           C 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ID 12, 15, 16, 20; A 1
              Comprehension
                Instruction

 Instruction includes how to determine which
  strategy to use and why (metacognition).
 Strategies learned are applied frequently to
  reinforce their usefulness.
 Strategies learned are applied with new text.



                        C 7, 8, 9
            Comprehension
              Instruction

 Appropriate texts are provided for students to
  practice applying strategies.
 Instruction includes how to establish and adjust
  purposes for reading.




                     C 10, 11
      Comprehension Instruction
Supports the use of multiple, coordinated comprehension
strategies such as:
  Answering questions;
  Generating questions;
  Summarizing;
  Using graphic and semantic organizers;
  Monitoring comprehension;
  Recognizing story structure; and
  Cooperative learning.
“Comprehension strategies are procedures that guide students to
become aware of how well they are comprehending as they attempt to
read and write.”                    (NICHD, 2000, p.4-40)


                              C 12
          Comprehension
            Instruction


Guided and supported cooperative learning groups
are suggested as an instructional technique.




                     C 13
               Comprehension
                 Instruction

Instruction:
 Begins with short passages
 Establishes a framework for the text: beginning,
  middle, and end
 Includes prompts for teacher think-alouds
 Models effective questioning to guide and monitor
  comprehension

                      C 14, 15, 16, 17
           Comprehension
          Guidelines Activity
Open your reading program TE. Review
comprehension lessons from the beginning, middle,
and end.
Review C 7-17 of the Guidelines:
  Make notes in the comments column.
  Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings in your small group.


                       C 7-17
       Comprehension Instruction
 Ample opportunities to listen to narrative and expository
  text.
 Explicit teaching of narrative and expository text
  structures.
 Students read narrative and expository text at their
  independent and instructional levels.
 Students choose from a variety of narrative and
  expository text at their independent and instructional
  levels.
 Texts contain useful, familiar concepts and vocabulary.
                      C 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
      Comprehension Instruction

“Before reading” comprehension strategies:
  Identify the purpose;
  Link prior knowledge to text;
  Teach critical vocabulary;
  Provide guiding questions; and
  Teach organizational features of text.



                           C 23
    Comprehension Instruction

“During reading” comprehension strategies:
    Teacher think-aloud prompts;
    Questions to focus on main idea throughout
     the selection; and
    Questioning activities to encourage students
     to use inferential skills.



                       C 23
Comprehension Instruction
“After reading” comprehensive strategies:
   Answering and generating questions;
   Summarizing;
   Main idea and details;
   Compare/contrast;
   Sequencing;
   Problem/solution;
   Predicting; and
   Story grammar.

                  C 23
 Comprehension Instruction

Main idea instruction is systematically
introduced, moving from simple to more
complex text:
     Pictures
     Individual sentences
     Paragraphs
     Complex text with main idea
      embedded

               C 24, 25
   Comprehension Instruction

 Includes learning story grammar
  elements and using these elements to
  retell the story.
 Includes activities where students use
  story grammar elements to discuss and
  compare stories.
 Introduces story grammar systematically,
  beginning with simple text that gradually
  becomes more complex.

                C 26, 27, 28
    Comprehension Instruction

Graphic organizers illustrate relationships among
concepts in text:
    Story grammar map
    Venn diagram
    Semantic map




                      C 29
          Comprehension
        Instruction Example




(Graphic organizer courtesy of Florida Center for Reading Research)
       Comprehension
    Instructional Example




(Graphic organizer courtesy of Florida Center for Reading Research)
                                  C 33
     Comprehension Instruction

 Conventions of expository text are included:
   • Chapter headings
   • Charts
   • Graphs
 Instruction includes how to interpret information
  from charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams.




                       C 30, 31
    Comprehension Instruction

Systematic review of:
       Literal comprehension
       Retelling
       Main idea
       Summarization



                        C 32
              Comprehension
                 Activity
Open your reading program TE. Review
comprehension lessons from the beginning, middle,
and end.
Review C 13-33 in the Guidelines:
 Make notes in the comments column; and
 Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or your group.

                      C 18-33
              Comprehension
             Summary Activity
 Consider your notes in the comments and grade
  level columns in your Guidelines.
 Answer questions or record notes about
  C 1-6.
 Which areas would you need to investigate further?
 Discuss with the large group.



                     C 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  Motivation and Engagement

Engagement refers to:

 Behaviors (school, reading);

 Motivations (goals, reasons for behavior); and

 Strategies (tools for reading, studying).
      Why Are Motivation and
      Engagement Important?


“Motivated students usually want to understand text
content fully and therefore, process information
deeply. As they read frequently with these cognitive
purposes, motivated students gain in reading
comprehension proficiency.”


                     (Guthrie, Wigfield, Metsala, & Cox, 1999)
    Motivation and Engagement

Instruction provides:
   Reading that is relevant to students’ lives
   Meaningful goals for learning from text
   A variety of text and assignment choices
   Collaborative learning opportunities




                M&E 1; V 11, 16; C 33
    Motivation and Engagement
        Guidelines Activity

Open your reading program TE. Review lessons
from the beginning, middle, and end.
Review M&E 1, V 11, 16, and C 33 in the Guidelines:
   Make notes in the comments column.
   Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
Discuss findings with your partner or your group.


                   M&E 1, V 11, 16, C 33
            Assessment

Assessment is the process of collecting data
for the purposes of specifying and verifying
problems, and making instructional decisions
for students. Assessment may be formal or
informal and is conducted through a variety of
methods: record reviews, interviews,
observations, and testing.
           Assessments

Four types of assessment to track student
achievement:
  Screening;
  Progress monitoring;
  Diagnostic; and
  Outcome measures.




                    A1
       Assessment


Includes teacher guidance for
differentiating instruction in response
to assessment results.




                A2
                 Assessments

Help identify:
 Students who are at risk for not learning to read
 Students who are already experiencing difficulty
  learning to read




                         A3
                   Assessment
                     Activity
Look through your TEs and ancillary assessment books.
   What assessments are included in your program?
   When are they administered?
   How is the information used in instruction?
  Review ID 24 and question 6 of PA, P, F, V, C in the
   Guidelines:
      Make notes in the comments column.
      Mark grade-level circle if element is evident.
                  ID 24, PA 6; P 6; F 6; V 6; C 6
     Professional Development


Professional development is the way educators
develop or enhance the knowledge, skills, attitudes,
and beliefs necessary to create high levels of
learning for all students.
Why is Professional Development
           Important?

Professional development is important to help
educators develop the insights, knowledge, and
skills they need to become effective classroom
and school leaders, better able to increase
student learning.
  Professional Development


 Includes adequate time for teachers to
  understand and implement the program.

 Includes a plan for follow-up assistance
  for teachers.




                   PD 1, 2
      Professional Development

 Offers adequate training to enable teachers to
  administer and interpret program assessments
 Includes customized plan for varying needs of
  participants (e.g., first-year, veteran teachers)
 Includes supports to facilitate application of content
  (e.g., checklists, in-class modeling)



                        PD 3, 4, 5
   Professional Development
            Activity

At your table, brainstorm a list of key questions to
ask about the professional development that
accompanies the reading program.

Share your list with the large group.
          Instructional Design:
           Why is it Important?


Well-designed instruction increases the probability of
            success for more students.
       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN:
THE FRAMEWORK OF A READING PROGRAM
                                        Scope and Sequence
                                        Goals and Objectives
                                        Lesson Organization
                                          Aligned Materials




                               Content                    Instruction
                             What is taught              How it is taught




   Phonological/Phonemic Awareness                             Explicit
   Phonics                                                     Systematic
   Fluency                                                     Coordinated Instructional
                                                               Sequences and Routines
   Vocabulary
                                                               Scaffolded
   Comprehension
                                                               Feedback
   Spelling
                                                               Differentiated Instruction
   Writing
                                                               Assessment
   Oral Language
   Listening Comprehension



                ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
        Instructional Design
               Activity

Open the Guidelines to Instructional Design.
Review the questions you need to answer.
With these questions in mind, review the comments
and grade-level marks in the reading component
sections of the Guidelines.
Synthesize your findings. Can you answer the
Instructional Design questions?

                      ID 1-32
          Reflections


Reviewing a reading program using the
Guidelines:

 Benefits and challenges

 Next steps

 Further investigation
“Only programs that teach all components of
reading, as well as writing and oral language, will be
able to prevent and ameliorate reading problems in
the large number of children at risk.”

                             (Moats, 2007, p.21)
Comments/Questions?


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Program Evaluation



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