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					Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in
English/Arabic Translation:

        A Corpus Linguistic
            Approach
            Salma Mansour
            Leeds University
Overview
• Dictionaries: a serious problem
• Powerful/less adjectives in English and
  Arabic
• Corpus analysis
• Results
Dictionaries Vs. Corpora
Printed dictionaries

   limited by space
   information is always partial
   interpreted (sometimes wrongly)
   internally inconsistent and contradict each other
   out of date
 “There are many facts about language that
   cannot be discovered by just thinking about
   it, or even reading and listening very
   intently” (Sinclair, 1995)
“ As language teachers and professionals, we
   often have strong intuitions about language
   use…corpus-based research, however, shows
   us that our intuitions are often completely
   wrong” (Biber, 2005)
Emotions:
 In/security (the boy was anxious/confident)
 Dis/satisfaction (the boy was fed up/ absorbed)
 Un/happiness (the boy was sad/happy)
(Martin and White, 2005: 46-9; Bednarek 2008:15)
Powerful/less adjectives in English
and Arabic
 Strong qawi ‫قوي‬        Weak da‘if ‫ضعيف‬

 Powerful jabar ‫جبار‬    Powerless wahin
                          ‫واهن‬
 Tough qas ‫قاس‬
                         Tender raqiq ‫رقيق‬
         powerless                  powerful


tender               weak   tough              strong

          ‫ضعيف‬                        ‫قوي‬
          da„if
                                     qawi
  Thing     Hinge
                    Evaluative
evaluated            category
Examples: weak
   AMMD           EMD          LASD          COED           WCD
    2007          2008         1994          2010           2002

‫ضعيف العقل‬     ‫ضعيف – غير‬   Not strong in Lacking        Lacking
da„if al„aql   ‫قوي‬          character     physical       power or
(mentally      (weak, not                 strength and   strength
weak)          strong)                    energy
        BNC       LLS             I-EN   LLS
physically weak   18.18   hand           13.80
heart             15.81   pulse          12.99
stomach           11.71   stomach        11.79
chest             8.97    muscle         11.70
muscle            8.90    leg            8.20
ankle             7.09    knee           7.39
chin              6.95    heart          7.30
Leg               4.40
body              3.02
eye               1.12
   ‫/ ضعيف‬da„if/ „weak‟
                        I-AR             LLS
‫ الشخصية‬al-shakhsyah „the personality‟   150
‫ القلب‬al-qalb „the heart‟                140
‫ الساقين‬al-saqayn „the legs‟             75.35
‫البصر‬al-basar „the eyesight‟             22.44
‫ العقل‬al-„aql „the mind‟                 1.89
Top 10 collocates of weak in BNC and I-EN
        BNC      LLS               I-EN     LLS
syllable         87.51    spot              133.28
spot             86.21    link              107.04
link             80.91    point             99.54
point            57.05    economy           58.50
interaction      56.71    signal            47.15
position         39.28    tie               40.82
overlap          36.62    acid              33.38
smile            34.19    argument          30.72
nuclear          30.81    immune            23.11
form             28.07    position          18.65
Examples: strong
  AMMD             EMD            LASD          COED         WCD
   2007            2008           1994          2010         2002

– ‫قوي – شديد‬   – ‫قوي – شديد‬    Having a      Physically   Physically or
        ‫ضخم‬             ‫متين‬   degree of     powerful     mentally
                               power, esp.                powerful
                               of the body
       Strong
COED
       • physical
LASD

       • physical
WCD
       • mental

AMMD
       • None!
 EMD
      LLS of mental, physical, behavioral collocates
      of strong
   Appraised/Thing          BNC               I-EN
      evaluated
Mind                        3.10              0.47
Arm                        93.66              55.75
Character                  44.13              34.84
Personality                34.88              58.54
Collocation: a mode of expressing meaning

 “You shall know a word by the company it keeps”
  (Firth, 1957: 12).
 “Looking at lexicographic work on Arabic
  collocation, a rather bleak picture emerges. There is
  an extremely limited amount of information
  on collocation in both monolingual (Arabic) and
  bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic
  dictionaries. Besides, no monolingual (Arabic) or
  bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic)
  collocational dictionary has been compiled as yet”
  (Bahumaid, 2006:137).
Dictionaries and semantic prosodies


“Lexicographers in the past have not been fully aware of
  the extent of semantic prosody […]modern corpora
  provide new opportunities of studying the
  phenomenon” (Partington, 1998: 68).
Semantic prosodies
• Positive   Favorable (pleasant)



• Neutral    Neutral (No evidence)



• Negative   Unfavorable (unpleasant)
Strong smell
   AMMD / I-AR                BNC
     negative      Positive   Negative   neutral


                    aroma      drains     coffee
     bad smell


                   perfume      gas      brandy
     ‫رائحة كريهة‬
 Node: powerful
       BNC    LLS             I-EN    LLS
tool          143.09   tool          814.27
influence     136.16   force         207.16
force         103.39   nation        186.20
man           90.58    weapon        136.33
weapon        83.64    man           86.53
argument      57.96    influence     77.79
body          55.52    incentive     76.15
position      45.45    message       63.50
voice         44.83    computer      57.08
personality   24.13    way           54.29
Node: strong
       BNC    LLS         I-EN      LLS
wind         433.66   feeling      372.52
feeling      352:24   support      355.22
sense        326.05   sense        349.23
support      178.31   evidence     338.85
position     163.77   emphasis     305.34
emphasis     151.91   wind         266.76
evidence     129.73   leadership   258.30
link         125.36   commitment   241.05
opposition   122.81   supporter    230.46
argument     108.53   leader       215.36
Halliday (1976: 73):

• Strong (not powerful) tea

• Powerful (not strong) car
powerful vs. strong

        weapon




force   powerful   tool




        nation
Powerless vs. weak
Powerless collocates   Weak collocates with:
  with:                 syllable
 helpless              spot
 passive               link
 do nothing            point
 totally dependent     economy
 hanging               smile
Collocation     Joint    Freq     LL score
powerless to    176     2466407    187.92
powerless
                 12     54759      18.16
against
powerless .      63     4722093    16.85
powerless
                 6      53516       7.10
group
Powerless in     10     185185      0.20
powerless
                 4      27442       5.24
position
powerless
                 6      115476      4.92
people

powerless and    22     2615080     2.43

powerless ;      5      203952      2.43
powerless as     7      521522      1.77
powerless
                 4      207566      1.55
when

powerless by      4     504964      0.37
 tender & tough
 (a) tender

   Thing evaluated                English   Arabic

year                      inexperienced               ‫غير ناضج‬

people, behavior          gentle, nice           ‫لطيف - رقيق‬

food                      easy to chew               ‫سهل المضغ‬

part of the body          sensitive                      ‫حساس‬

offer                     generous                        ‫سخي‬

feeling, emotions, love   romantic                     ‫رومانسي‬
   (b) tough
  Thing evaluated               English       Arabic

time                    hard                       ‫أوقات عصيبة‬

people                  rough, stiff          ‫قاس – جلف - شكس‬

decision, choice,       difficult                        ‫صعبة‬
question, competition
opponent                stubborn, obstinate               ‫عنيد‬
Same but different!
‫ جبار‬jabar ‘powerful’ vs. ‫ قوي‬qawi
‘strong’ vs. ‫ قاس‬qas ‘tough’
(1) Positive jabar (great)
juhd /effort/, ‟mal /work/, mashru‟ /project/ …God

(2) Negative jabar (stubborn, unfair/unjust)
malik /king/, hakim /judge, commander, leader/

(3) Neutral jabar (No indication)
(1) Positive qawi (strong)
fariq /team/, jaysh /army/, ‟iqtisad /economy/
e.g. ‟iqtisad qawi /strong economy/ (not jabar/ not qas)

(2) Negative qawi (destructive)
zilzal /earthquake/

(3) Neutral qawi
ta‟thir /influence/, shakl /form/
(1) Negative qas (difficult)
rajul /man/, waqi„ /reality/, shay‟ /something/

(2) Positive qas (No indication)

(3) Neutral qas (No indication)
  ‫ رقيق‬raqiq /tender/
• Negative raqiq(weak)
ghisha‟ /membrane/, jild /skin/

• Positive raqiq (nice)
uslub /style/, shakhs /person/, sawt /voice/, ihsas
  /feelings/, thawb /garment/
shakhs raqiq (nice person)
shakhs da„if/wahin (weak person)
Thank you for your attention

				
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