America Moves to the City - PowerPoint

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					America Moves to the
       Ms. Weston
             The Growth of the City
   Between 1870-1900,
    population of US cities
   Many US cities now boasted
    over a million people
       Skyscrapers—form follows
        function, ELEVATOR
       Commuters—electric trolleys,
        cities radiated outward
               The Lure of the City
   Industrial jobs
   Urban lifestyle
       Electricity
       Indoor plumbing
       Telephones
       Skyscrapers and bridges
       Department stores
                Negatives of City Life
   Increased consumerism
   Everything is disposable
       Leads to huge problems with waste
   Crime
   Lack of sanitation
   Large gap between social classes
       1879 ―Dumbbell tenement‖
            Crowded, lack of ventilation, filth and disease
            Largely populated by immigrants
Images from How the Other Half
Changes to the Church in the City
   Growth of cities posed
    challenges to traditional
        Church seemed too traditional,
         not responding enough to new
         challenges of city life
   ―Social Gospel‖ Movement:
    applying church principles to
    modern social problems
        YMCA and YWCA
   New denominations
        Salvation Army
        Christian Science—Mary Baker
             Curing disease through prayer
    Darwin Challenges the Church
   Darwin’s On The Origin of
    Species (1859)
       Evolution challenged
        traditional stories of creation
   By 1875, split in the church
       Conservative minority rejected
        Darwinians, asserted authority
        of bible (these would become
       Accomodationists—tried to
        reconcile Christianity with
   Religious teachings were
    becoming more of a private
         Growth of Public Education
   Growing belief that society will
    only function if people somewhat
   More compulsory education laws
   Continued growth of schools,
    especially high schools
        By 1900, large amount.
         Increasingly free textbooks
   Better teacher training
   Kindergartens
   Adult education Chautauqua
   Decline in illiteracy
        African-American Reformers
   Booker T. Washington
       Ex-slave, grew up in poverty
       Began teaching at Tuskegee
        Institute in 1881, later became
        head of school
       Focused on teaching blacks
        useful trades so they could get
        jobs, and therefore respect
       Accepted segregation if blacks
        could get economic and
        educational resources
       Accused of being an
        white racism.
    African American Reformers ctnd.
   W.E.B. DuBois
       Accused Washington of being
        an ―Uncle Tom,‖ selling out
        the race
       First African-American to get
        his PhD from Harvard
       Demanded complete equality
        for blacks—economic and
       Founded NAACP in 1910
        (National Association for
        Advancement of Colored
       Wanted ―talented tenth‖ of
        black population to lead the
        rest into full equality
    Expansion of Higher Education
   College increasingly seen as necessary
    to success
   Growth in women’s colleges and co-
    ed colleges
   Growth in black colleges
   Morrill Act of 1862 and Hatch Act
    of 1887—responsible for this growth
      Gave land grants to states to
        support public education (how
        the UC system began!)
   Private philanthropy also funded
    college growth (Stanford, Rockefeller
    and University of Chicago)
   Growth of professional schools
    (Graduate school)
         Intellectual Achievements
   College curriculum increasingly separating facts from
   More choice in curriculum, more specialization (majors)
   Medical schools and medical science prospered
   Pragmatism (distinctly American philosophy)
       William James
       Embraced uncertainty, pursuit of truth scientifically
       Practical philosophy
                       Rise of the Press
   Rising literacy—more people
    reading, more public libraries
   More people reading
       Cheap, mass-circulated
       Sensationalistic reporting
            Demand for simple, juicy
            Joseph Pulitzer and William
             Randolph Hearst
            Reported on scandals and
             sensational rumors
          Writing Towards Reform
   Magazine Nation—crusaded for civil service reform,
    honesty in government and moderate tariff
   Henry George
       Progress and Poverty asked why there is growing poverty with
        economic progress
       Proposed ―single tax‖ on property to equalize wealth
   Edward Bellamy
       Looking Backward –government nationalized big business
       Utopian socialism
                   Popular Literature
   Dime novels—usually about
    wild west
       First ―paperbacks‖
   Ben-Hur by Wallace—popular
    novel to affirm bible
   Horatio Alger
       Juvenile fiction
       Virtue, honesty and industry
        will be rewarded by success
        and honor
       ―Rags to riches‖ stories
   Poets Walt Whitman and
    Emily Dickinson
    Important Works of Literature
   Turn to realism—portrayed how life really was
   Kate Chopin—wrote about sexism, suicide,
    adultery in The Awakening
   Mark Twain—revolted against formal, elegant
    literature using realism and humor with books
    like Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn
   Stephen Crane—wrote about the rough life in
    slums with Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
                     The New Morality
   Increasing battle over sexual
    attitudes and role of women
       Victoria Woodhull preached
        free love
   Women had new economic
    freedom in cities
       Because of new job
        opportunities with switchboard
        and typewriters
       With economic freedom came
        sexual freedom
            Rising divorce rate
            Birth control
Families and Women in the Cities
   Challenges to the family in the city
     Families isolated, increased pressure
     Children more expensive in city

     Decreased birthrate

   Women becoming more independent
     Charlotte Perkins Gilman—early feminist
     Women and Economics argued that women should play
      a role in the economy through work
    Continued Struggle for Suffrage
   1890: National American Woman
    Suffrage Association
        Founders Cady Stanton and Anthony
        Increasingly militant
   Carrie Chapman Catt—pragmatic
        Instead of arguing equality, argued that
         women should have right to vote to be
         better wives and mothers in the cities
              Needed to have a say in public health,
   Victories for women
        Could vote in local elections
        Wyoming gave women vote in 1869
        Women could hold property even after
        The Plight of Black Women
   Largely kept out of
    suffrage movement by
    white women
   Ida B. Wells
       Began anti-lynching
       Began black women’s
        club movement
           Controversy Over Alcohol
   Increased alcohol consumption
    during Civil War and with influx of
   Middle class, pro-temperance
    activists believed alcohol to be at
    root of social ills
   1869 National Prohibition Party
   1874 Women’s Christian
    Temperance Union
        Led by Frances E. Willard
        Carrie A. Nation—smashed saloon
         bars with her hatchet
        Some states pass temperance laws
        18th Amendment in 1919
               The State of the Arts
   In painting, portraits
       James Whistler, John
        Singer Sergeant
   Music gaining popularity
       Homegrown American
        music from South—
        blues, ragtime and jazz
       Phonograph allowed
        Americans to play
        recorded music in their
             Amusement in the City
   Americans eager for leisure
    time, play and pleasure
       Vaudeville and minstrel shows
       Circus—PT Barnum
       ―Wild West‖ shows
       Baseball—becoming national
       Also basketball, football and
       Croquet and bicycles
   Standardization of popular
    culture—all Americans doing
    the same things for fun

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