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A SANE EDITOR does annotation

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					             A SANE EDITOR does
                 annotation


             peter.boot@huygensinstituut.knaw.nl



2006-10-07     TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   1
Overview
• Scholarly annotation
• Creating annotations using EDITOR
• SANE exchange of annotations
• Huygens plans




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What is annotation?
• MacMullen: annotation 'an intentional
  and topical value-adding note linked to
  an extant information object'
• Agosti & Ferro: gloss, scholium, postil, …
• Ovsiannikov: 'To remember, to think, to
  clarify and to share'
  – or to create, to argue, to support?



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Annotation dimensions (Marshall)
•   Formal / informal
•   Explicit / tacit
•   Writing / reading
•   Hyperextensive / extensive / intensive
•   Permanent / transient
•   Published / private
•   Global/institutional/workgroup/personal
•   And perhaps:
     – On vs. linked to annotated object
     – Self-contained / link outside


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Annotation environment / function

• The web
• Digital library
• Collaboratory
• Education
• Private study
• Scholarship



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Academic annotation tools

• Pliny
• Annotea
• H2O Playlist
• APE
• e-Laborate
• EDITOR



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Sample tool: Pliny
• Creator: John
  Bradley
• Personal note-
  taking while
  reading
• Modelling to create
  conceptual network
• Inspired by social
  science tools:
  Atlas/ti

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Sample tool: Annotea
• Web server for storing annotations
• Created by W3C
• For web annotations and bookmarks
• Needs client: e.g. Amaya




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Sample tool: H2O playlist
• List of annotated pointers to web sites
• Meant for syllabi
• Created at Harvard Law department




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Sample tool: APE
• Assistant for
  Philological
  Exploration
• Created by Dieter
  Köhler for annotation
  of Wittgenstein
  notebooks
• Highlight: support for
  canonical reference
  schemes


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 Sample tool: e-Laborate
• Created by NIWI / Huygens
  Instituut, Joris van Zundert
  et.al.
• Collaboratory for
  transcription and
  annotation of image
  material
• Used in edition projects
  for manuscript and
  print material
• Web-based
2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   11
Overview
• Scholarly annotation
• Creating annotations using EDITOR
     –   Motivation
     –   Context and components
     –   Annotation creation
     –   Annotation display
• SANE exchange of annotations
• Huygens plans


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Motivation: digital edition
• Robinson's vision for the future of the
  digital edition: a 'mutual enterprise' that
     –   Is the result of collaboration
     –   Includes tools
     –   Grows
     –   Includes annotation




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Motivation: research = annotation

• Role of note-taking in humanities research
  process
• Notes are more effective when structured
  and anchored to source location
• Manipulation
     – Filtering / Sorting/ Visualisation / Statistics
     – In doing research and in presentation of
       results


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Motivation: scholarly publication


              Digital                                                   Digital
             primary                                                  secondary
             material                                                  material
                                        Digital
                                      supporting
                                        material
        Editions (high-              (interactive)                    Digital or
        end, low-end),                                                digitised
        facsimile's                                                   articles, books


                                      Notes, models,
                                      SPSS files, …

2006-10-07          TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg                     15
  EDITOR Components                                                         Runs on scholar’s PC
                                    Runs on edition institute server


                        Edition                                                                    Edition
                         XML                                                                        XML
                                                              Download



                                                                                                EDITOR
                                                                                               annotation
                                                     Runs on EDITOR server
                                                                                                 input
                      Generation
                    edition / edition
                     + annotation

                                                                               Upload
                                                             Annotation                        Annotation
                                                                set                               set




                                                      EDITOR               EDITOR
                                                     annotation           annotation
                                                       server              display
                    Edition        Edition/
                    HTML          Annotation
                                    HTML


                                                                          Annotation
                                                                            HTML




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg                                                 16
EDITOR Components
• Annotation creation
• Annotation display
• (EDITOR / SANE) Annotation server




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Annotation creation
• XML source (probably TEI)
• Annotation yields annotation set (= separate file
  on disk)
• Annotations
     –   address locations in XML document
     –   are typed
     –   consist of multiple fields
     –   are user-defined
     –   can be sorted, filtered
     –   provide access to annotated locations



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Demo

Research into
Amoris divini emblemata
Otto van Veen
Antwerp 1615
(Emblem Project Utrecht)




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Annotation display
• Text display, in conjunction with edition
  XML (filtered, sorted, limited to parts of
  text)
• Visual display (filtered, sorted, etc. but
  also aggregated) – choose display type
• Future: live exploration of data by user,
  embedding in scholarly discourse



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EDITOR: summary
• It is possible and useful to create
  structured annotations that refer
  unambiguously to locations in digital
  edition XML files
• It creates a basis for display and
  visualisation functionality that goes
  beyond text display




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   30
Overview
• Scholarly annotation
• Creating annotations using EDITOR
• SANE exchange of annotations
     – Background
     – Scholarly ANnotation Exchange or SANE
       Markup Language, Request Protocol, Server
     – Demo
       Request Protocol , Edition using SANE
     – Discussion
             • Collaborative edition?
             • Need for a markup language and a request protocol?
             • Architecture
     – Conclusion
• Huygens plans
2006-10-07          TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   31
  EDITOR annotation toolset         Runs on edition institute server        Runs on scholar’s PC


                        Edition                                                                    Edition
                         XML                                                                        XML
                                                              Download



                                                                                                EDITOR
                                                                                               annotation
                                                     Runs on EDITOR server
                                                                                                 input
                      Generation
                    edition / edition
                     + annotation

                                                                               Upload
                                                             Annotation                        Annotation
                                                                set                               set




                                                      EDITOR               EDITOR
                                                     annotation           annotation
                                                       server              display
                    Edition        Edition/
                    HTML          Annotation
                                    HTML


                                                                          Annotation
                                                                            HTML




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg                                                 32
Characteristics
• Annotations handled as collection;
• Result from sustained study of a body of
  texts from a certain perspective;
• Typed (types defined by scholar),
  multiple fields of different data types;
• Handling may require supporting
  software (databases, indexing software);
• Best handled by specialised software;
• Annotations reside on specialised servers
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Scholarly ANnotation Exchange
• SANE-ML: SANE Markup Language
• SANE-RP: SANE Request Protocol
• SANE annotation server:
  implements the SANE Request Protocol
  based on annotations stored in SANE
  Markup Language




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   34
SANE overview
                        SANE
   Edition              Request
   server               protocol                                   EDITOR


   Other
visualisation               SANE               SANE-                Other
    tools                 annotation            ML                annotation
                            server           annotations            tools
  Statistical
  analysis
                                                                  Automated
                                                                  annotation

  'Clients'

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SANE Markup Language
• defined by a W3C XML schema
• a SANE-ML document describes
  annotation set
• intended to be tool-independent
• Preliminary version of schema available




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   36
SANE-ML Document
• set data
• edition data
• annotation type data: name and
  descriptions of the annotation types
• annotation data
     – reference to a location being annotated
     – value(s) for one or more annotation fields
• Includes information about suggested
  display options
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SANE Request Protocol
• early stage of development
• inspired by OAI-PMH (verbs, arguments), but:
     – more complex needs for ‘selective harvesting’
             • by type and/or field
             • by value
             • by annotated location(s)
     – need to return counts rather than (meta-)data
     – need to return suggested display of data
     – SANE requests typically made to serve a specific user
       request
• mode=data: returns data
  mode=display: returns HTML or SVG

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SANE Request Protocol: Verbs
•   identify                          •   getAnnotation
•   getSetData                        •   getAnnotationData
•   getTypeData                       •   getAnnotationFragments
•   getTypeCount                      •   getAnnotationNodes
•   getTypeCountUnit                  •   …
•   getDisplayData




2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   39
Aside: overlap
• Annotations stored separately from
  edition XML
• Annotations have start and end point
• Annotated text fragments may overlap,
  nest, coincide, …
• At annotation display time, edition XML
  and annotation info merged to display
  annotated text
• But: edition and annotations can get out
  of sync

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Demo
• SANE request protocol
• Edition implementing SANE requests




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Discussion: prospects
• This is not the revolution
     – assumes a stable edition, etc.
• So what about the edition as mutual
  enterprise?
• Annotations may be
     – add-on's to the edition
     – linking pins to online scholarship
• Points to the collaborative nature of
  scholarship

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Discussion: need for SANE ML and RP
• SANE RP creates interface between
  annotation requestor and annotation
  server
• SANE ML creates interface between
  annotation server and annotation creator
• To have both relieves annotation tool
  creators from having to write a tool-
  specific annotation server


2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   43
Discussion: architecture
• Separation of concerns between edition
  and annotation server
• Annotation server delivers data to edition
  ready to display (with mode=display)
• But edition display elements and
  annotation display elements occur
  together
• Examples:
     – Hyperlink in annotation display
     – Fragment display in text

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SANE summary
• Making available externally created
  annotations from a digital edition is
  feasible and useful
• Even using a specialized annotation
  server the edition application will need to
  be (re-)designed for annotation display
• In order to share both content and
  software, we may want to agree about an
  annotation markup language and
  annotation exchange protocol

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Huygens plans
• EDITOR status
     – Annotation creation: usable, beta quality
       can be downloaded from sourceforge
     – Annotation display: proof of concept
     – Annotation exchange: proof of concept
• Plans for ‘edition machine’
     – Edition creation
     – Edition publication
     – Edition annotation
• Hope to work on annotation exchange

2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   46
Questions?



http://www.huygensinstituut.knaw.nl/projects/editor/
http://www.huygensinstituut.knaw.nl/projects/sane/


peter.boot@huygensinstituut.knaw.nl

2006-10-07   TEI P5: Encoding dictionaries & more – Würzburg   47

				
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