Fluency_FacGuide_09-21-07 by xiangpeng

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									                                                     Introduction to the Module


Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEA) place heightened emphasis on the need to use research-based
practices to help students with disabilities gain access to and progress in the general education
curriculum. One way the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) addressed this
challenge was to establish the Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K–8
through a 5-year cooperative agreement. The Access Center became a part of the OSEP
national Special Education Technical Assistance and Dissemination (TA&D) Network in October
2002.

The mission of the Access Center is to provide technical assistance that strengthens state and
local capacity to help students with disabilities effectively learn the content and skills embedded
in the general education curriculum. The Access Center proposes that access to the general
education curriculum occurs when students with disabilities are actively engaged in learning the
content and skills that define the general education curriculum. This most likely occurs when
students are exposed to standards-based instructional learning goals and to research-based
instructional methods and practices, materials and media, and supports and accommodations.

To that end, the Access Center has developed a library of professional development modules
on topics related to research-based practices designed to promote access to the general
education curriculum. The purpose of these modules is to provide professional development
opportunities to state, district, and school personnel, particularly through a train-the-trainer
model that can be facilitated by Access Center staff, or by individuals who have significant
knowledge of the topic and are interested in a vehicle through which this knowledge can be
disseminated.

This Module

―Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency‖ is a 2.5–3 hour module designed to
promote knowledge and understanding of the third essential component of reading: fluency.

NCLB requires that all states strive to close the academic achievement gap. This gap is
described as the significant disparity in educational achievement and attainment among groups
of students as determined by a standardized measure. Traditionally, children with disabilities
have scored among the ―low achievers‖ on these measures. To bridge this gap, children with
disabilities must have the opportunity to develop the skills required for academic success within
the general education curriculum. Since reading is the foundational skill for all learning, it is
essential that children with disabilities receive targeted and effective instruction that addresses
their core weaknesses in reading.

In 1997, in response to the controversies over reading education, Congress asked that a
National Reading Panel (NRP) be established to determine what research has shown about the
effectiveness of various instructional approaches. As a result of the panel‘s work they published
a report entitled ―Teaching Children to Read,‖ in which they identified five essential components
of reading. Fluency is the third essential component and one of three that are considered to be
essential for early reading. The first two essential components are phonemic awareness and
phonics, which are the two components of the ―Alphabetic Principle.‖ The purpose of this




                                                                                                      ii
                                                            Introduction to the Module


module is to help provide teachers with the knowledge and tools necessary to provide effective
reading interventions for students who struggle with reading fluently.

Using This Module

The Access Center encourages you to customize any or all portions of this module to meet the
needs of your audiences. We recommend that professional development providers gain an
understanding of participants‘ instructional settings, strengths, and areas for growth. Such
understanding may be accomplished through an assessment conducted prior to the
professional development event, supervisor recommendations, or both. These materials can be
adapted to align with participants‘ teaching situations, concerns, and professional development
goals. See ―Tips for Customizing Modules.‖

Any portions of the module may be reproduced and disseminated without prior permission,
provided that the source is cited as:

The Access Center (2007). Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency.
Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved (today’s date), from the World
Wide Web: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/ReadingFluencyModule.asp.



         For additional information on this or other topics, please contact The Access Center at
                                          accesscenter@air.org.

                   The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8
          The Access Center is a cooperative agreement (H326K020003) funded by the U.S.
           Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, awarded to the
                                  American Institutes for Research
                      1000 Thomas Jefferson St. NW, Washington, DC 20007
                    Ph: 202-403-5000 TTY: 877-334-3499 Fax: 202-403-5001
                  e-mail: accesscenter@air.org website: www.k8accesscenter.org




         This report was produced under U.S. Department of Education Grant
 # H326K020003 with the American Institutes for Research. Jane Hauser served as the
 project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or
 policies of the Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department
 of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this publication
 is intended or should be inferred.




                                                                                                   iii
                                                                       At a Glance
                                  Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



Section                                               Handouts Used      Estimated Time

Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives                         1              10 minutes

The Impact of Reading Interventions                         —               15 minutes

Research Base, Terms, and Components                         2              15 minutes

Assessment                                               3, 4, 5, 6         50 minutes

Strategies for Teaching Fluency                           7, 8, 9           50 minutes

Summary                                                     —               10 minutes




                                                                                           iv
                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



CONTENTS
I.     Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives ................................................................. 1
II.    The Impact of Reading Interventions .................................................................. 3
III.   Research Base, Terms, and Components........................................................... 7
IV.    Assessment ......................................................................................................... 13
V.     Strategies for Teaching Fluency ........................................................................ 22
VI.    Summary .............................................................................................................. 29




                                                                                                                                   v
                                                                                       Facilitator’s Notes
                                                       Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




I. Introduction, Agenda, and Objectives
       (approximately 10 minutes)


              Slide 1                          Welcome participants and introduce yourself and the topic of this
                                               module. Indicate that the session will last approximately 2.5–3 hours
                                               and will involve presentations and participant activities.
  Effective Interventions for Struggling
                 Readers
                      Fluency


                    Your name here
                   Date, location, etc.




              Slide 2                          Provide an overview of what will be covered in this module:

                     Agenda                       Goal and Objectives—a review of the goal of this presentation
• Goals and Objectives
                                                   and the objectives—what the participants are expected to gain.
• Research Terms and
  Components


                                               
• Students Who Struggle
• Assessment
• Strategies
                                                   Research Base, Terms, and Components—a review of the key
                                                   findings of the research related to reading fluency and of the
                                           2
                                                   common terms and various components of fluency.

                                                  Students Who Struggle—examples of behaviors teachers may
                                                   see in the classroom that indicate students are struggling with
                                                   fluency.

                                                  Assessment—a review of the assessment process used to
                                                   identify fluency deficits and track student progress.




                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



                                                                              Strategies—a review of research based strategies that can be
                                                                               used to improve the fluency rate of students who struggle with
                                                                               reading.




                  Slide 3                                                     Tell participants the major purposes of this session (read the goal
                                                                               and objectives from the slide).
               Goals and Objectives

Goal: To promote knowledge understanding of
effective interventions in fluency for students who
                                                                              Explain that participants can post questions or comments on the
                                                                               chart paper that is up around the room (the ―parking lot‖)
struggle with reading.

Objectives:
–Participants will:
       •
       •
       •
           Articulate research on fluency instruction.
           Outline the importance of assessing fluency progress.
           Identify components of fluency.
                                                                               throughout the session and that these will be addressed either
       •   Implement research-based fluency instructional strategies
           that can be used to teach struggling readers.                       during or after the session.
Handout #1

                                                                       3




                                                                              Let participants know that you will e-mail answers to those
                                                                               questions to anyone who leaves their e-mail address on the sticky
                                                                               notes.

                                                                              Refer to the fluency resources and references in Handout 1
                                                                               (Fluency Resources and References). Tell participants that the
                                                                               resources and references will be discussed throughout the
                                                                               presentation.




                                                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                        Facilitator’s Notes
                                                      Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




II. The Impact of Reading Interventions
    (approximately 15 minutes)



 Note to Facilitator:

 Include this section only if the participants have not been introduced to the module on
 the Alphabetic Principle.



         Slide 4                              Tell participants that the purpose of this illustration is to explore the
                                              connections between reading interventions and the role of educators
  The Connections Between Reading
   Interventions, NCLB, and YOU!
                                              and the requirements placed on them. Make the following points as
                               Students

                               Teachers

                               Standards
                                              you explore each ring of the circle:
                               Assessments

                               NCLB


                                                 Students—Point out that there are students at both ends of the
                                                  achievement gap. The purpose of this module is to explore
                                          4
                                                  interventions that can help those at the low end span the gap by
                                                  improving their reading skills. Make the following points as you
                                                  explore each ring of the circle.

                                                  –   The achievement gap is described as the significant disparity
                                                      in educational achievement and attainment among groups of
                                                      students as determined by a standardized measure.

                                                  –   Traditionally, children with disabilities have scored among the
                                                      ―low achievers‖ on these measures and are therefore often at
                                                      the low end of the achievement gap.

                                                  –   To bridge this gap, children with disabilities must have the
                                                      opportunity to develop the skills required for academic
                                                      success within the general education curriculum.

                                                  –   Since reading is the foundational skill for all learning, it is
                                                      essential that children with disabilities receive targeted and
                                                      effective instruction that addresses their core weaknesses in
                                                      reading (Lloyd, 2005).

                                                  –   An effective reading intervention plan is an essential part of
                                                      closing the achievement gap for students who struggle with
                                                      reading.




                                                                                                                          3
                                           Facilitator’s Notes
          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




    Note to Facilitator:

    Since teachers are the end users for this module, it is essential to
    gain their buy-in if this training is to be effective. The purpose of
    the section below is to acknowledge their day-to-day realities in
    the classroom and to help them understand that a reading
    intervention plan can be of benefit to them as well as their
    students.

    Teachers—Tell participants that while students are the main
     consumers of educational services that are dictated by the
     districts, states and federal educational agencies, you understand
     that it is the teachers who are required to deliver the services. Use
     the following points (or include some of your own) that are
     appropriate for your particular audience:

     –   Teachers:

          ■   Are expected to overcome any and all problems that
              students may bring into the classroom with them.

          ■   Must interface with the students, parents, principals, state
              and district personnel, reading specialists.

          ■   Are expected to do everything, do it well, and do it within
              a limited amount of time.

          ■   Are held accountable for student achievement.

     –   Acknowledge these realities that teachers face on a day-to-
         day basis.

     –   Tell them that there is evidence that effective reading
         interventions can assist them in meeting the demands placed
         on them to improve student achievement.

    State Standards

     –   Teachers are also expected to teach to their state standards in
         an effort to increase student achievement in all content areas.

     –   Many states have developed their own comprehensive
         assessments to measure progress (i.e., FCAT (Florida), ISAT
         (Illinois), and Leap21 (Louisiana)).

     –   Reading interventions should be based on instructional
         objectives and state standards.




                                                                             4
                                           Facilitator’s Notes
        Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


    –   Intensive interventions can help struggling students raise their
        achievement scores on standardized tests and help teachers
        meet state standards.

   Assessments

    –   Accountability is the cornerstone of NCLB, and as a result,
        everyone is under scrutiny for the part they play in improving
        student achievement.

    –   To measure student achievement, multiple and ongoing
        assessments are conducted at every level, from the
        classrooms to state assessments.

    –   Under the accountability provisions of NCLB, all states must
        describe how they will close the achievement gap. They must
        produce annual state and school district report cards that
        report progress.

    –   All Title I states and districts are required to participate in the
        National Assessment of Education Practice—the Nation‘s
        Report Card.

    –   All Reading First States are required to collect and report
        assessment data to the Department of Education.

    –   Effective reading intervention plans include comprehensive
        assessment plans, which help teachers track student progress
        and inform instruction.

    –   These data can also be used to help meet school, district,
        state, and federal reporting requirements.

   No Child Left Behind

    –   According to NCLB, too many children with reading problems
        are misidentified as learning disabled and placed in special
        education classes.

    –   This over-identification hinders the academic development of
        these students, and also takes valuable resources away from
        students who truly have special needs.

    –   Therefore, emphasis on scientifically based reading instruction
        for students who are struggling with reading is a key
        component of NCLB.

    –   NCLB requires that achievement data be disaggregated to
        provide a clear picture of the progress of all students, including
        those with disabilities.



                                                                              5
                                                  Facilitator’s Notes
                  Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


              –   NCLB requires that all students, districts and states make
                  adequate yearly progress, and includes sanctions and rewards
                  to hold all public schools accountable.




Slide 5      Targeted reading interventions can help struggling readers
              improve their reading skills and raise their achievement scores
              across content areas.

             This in turn can help teachers, schools, districts, and states make
              adequate yearly progress and begin to close the achievement gap
              as mandated by NCLB.




                                                                                    6
                                                                                                        Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                       Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




III. Research Base, Terms, and Components

                 Slide 6                                       Include the following points when reviewing this slide (if the audience
                                                               also participated in the Alphabetic Principle module, the first
              The Five Components                              three bullets will be a review—adjust accordingly):

                                                               
 1.    Phonemic Awareness
 2.
 3.
       Phonics
       Fluency
                                                                   In 1997, in response to the controversies over reading education,
 4.
 5.
       Vocabulary
       Comprehension
                                                                   Congress asked that a National Reading Panel (NRP) be
                         FLUENCY                                   established to determine what research has shown about the
                                                           6
                                                                   effectiveness of various instructional approaches.

                                                                  As a result of the panel‘s work they published a report entitled,
                                                                   ―Teaching Children to Read,‖ in which they identified five essential
                                                                   components of reading.

                                                                  Read the five components.

                                                                  This presentation will focus on the third essential component of
                                                                   reading—fluency.




                 Slide 7                                          To be a fluent reader means being able to decode individual
                                                                   words accurately and quickly…and understand the words as you
                    Why Fluency?                                   read them.
 • Fluency is a critical skill
      – Good reading comprehension rests on a foundation
        of fluent reading of words.
                                                                  A child who reads haltingly will work so hard at the mechanics of
      – Good readers rapidly recognize words without
        having to think about what the words are, and
                                                                   the task that there‘s little mental energy left to understand the
        automatically activate the meaning of the words
        they are reading.
                                                                   meaning.
                                                           7




                                                                                                                                          7
                                                                                                      Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



                                                              It is important to note that even mild word identification difficulties
                                                               can undermine reading fluency.




                 Slide 8                                      Review the ―key findings‖ of the research base for fluency
                                                               instruction.
Research Base for Fluency Instruction
           Key Findings
Fluency is:
• Improved through guided repeated oral reading
                                                              Tell participants that you will discuss guided reading in more detail
  procedures.
• Strengthened by feedback and guidance
                                                               later, as well as how to provide feedback and guidance.
• Effective for both good and struggling readers.
• Critical for students to process meaning and build
  comprehension skills.
• Neglected in many reading programs.                         Present the following information:
National Reading Panel (2002)



                                                               –   Fluency develops from reading practice, but it is the ―most
                                                       8




                                                                   neglected‖ reading skill because practitioners assume it will
                                                                   increase with improvement in other reading areas.

                                                               –   The National Reading Panel found that guided repeated oral
                                                                   reading activities are effective, but there is a lack of evidence
                                                                   supporting independent silent reading activities.

                                                               –   Fluency instruction is appropriate for students of all ages and
                                                                   levels, including students who struggle with reading, once they
                                                                   have mastered the ―Alphabetic Principle.‖




                                                                                                                                         8
                                                                                                   Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



             Slide 9                                       Review and define the terms that are frequently used (and often
                                                            confused) when discussing fluency.
               Common Terms
• Fluency—the ability to read text automatically,
  accurately, and effortlessly.                            Tell participants that important indicators of fluency are the ability
• Irregular words—words that cannot be decoded.
• Letter-sound fluency—the ability to produce
  sounds of letters quickly.
                                                            to process meaning during reading and the ability to read in
• Irregular word fluency—the ability to identify
  irregular words automatically.                            phrases.
• Oral reading fluency—the ability to identify
  words in a passage accurately.


                                                        
• Prosody—the intonation and expression used in
  reading.
                                                    9
                                                            Provide demonstrations for the following terms:

                                                            –   Letter-sound fluency example:

                                                                 ■   Show the audience several letters of the alphabet (on
                                                                     chart paper or an overhead projector) and ask them to
                                                                     produce the sound for each letter (e.g., /d/ in dog, /f/ in
                                                                     fan).

                                                                 ■   Ask participants for an example of a letter-sound fluency
                                                                     goal.

                                                                     An example of a letter-sound fluency goal: Given a set of
                                                                     letters from the alphabet, a student can produce the
                                                                     sound for each letter in one minute.

                                                            –   Irregular word fluency example:

                                                                 ■   Irregular words cannot be decoded (sounded out)
                                                                     because the sounds of the letters are unique to that word
                                                                     or a few words (Carnine, Silbert & Kame‘enui, 1997).
                                                                     Irregular words are sometimes called exception or sight
                                                                     words.

                                                                 ■   Show the audience several irregular words (e.g., none,
                                                                     right, said, was, and come).

                                                                 ■   Ask participants for an example of an irregular word
                                                                     fluency goal.

                                                                     An example of an irregular word fluency goal: Given a set
                                                                     of irregular words, a student can read each word in less
                                                                     than three seconds.

                                                            –   Oral reading fluency example:

                                                                 ■   Ask participants for an example of an oral reading fluency
                                                                     goal.

                                                                     A sample oral reading fluency goal: Given a grade level
                                                                     reading passage, a student can read 75 words per
                                                                     minute.



                                                                                                                                     9
                                                                                                      Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                      Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




                                                                 Note to Facilitator: Remember that goals should be obtainable.
                                                                 It may be necessary to set intermediate goals for students who
                                                                 struggle with reading.

                                                                 For example: Perhaps a student reads at a maximum of 35 words
                                                                 per minute. Set the next goal at 45 or perhaps 50 words per
                                                                 minute (depending on how much the student struggles). Have the
                                                                 student do repeated readings and keep a graph of their own
                                                                 progress toward that goal. When it is reached—raise the bar to
                                                                 the next intermediate level.

                                                                 –   Prosody—the intonation and vocal expression used in reading:

                                                                      ■   Even when students recognize many words automatically,
                                                                          their oral reading still may be expressionless, not fluent.

                                                                      ■   Readers must know to pause appropriately within and at
                                                                          the ends of sentences and when to change emphasis and
                                                                          tone.




Slide 10                                                     Review the components of fluency.

 Fluency Components                                             Letter-sounds, regular words, and irregular words.
                   Letter-Sound




                                                             
                                  Regular
      Expression


                                                                 Once these areas are mastered, a student is ready to work on text
                                   Word



 Word                                       Irregular
Grouping                                       Word
                    Fluency




    Rate
                   Components




                                        Text
                                                                 fluency.
            Automaticity    Accuracy




                                                        10
                                                                Accuracy—Although most people think of rate when talking about
                                                                 fluency, words must also be read correctly. Reading rate is
                                                                 determined by the number of words read correctly per minute.

                                                                Fluent readers must read quickly and accurately.




                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                  Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


                                                             Automaticity—In addition to accuracy, the goal is for words to
                                                              become automatic to the point where students do not need to
                                                              think about decoding.

                                                             Rate—A student‘s reading speed. Fluency is the ability to read
                                                              accurately when reading quickly.

                                                             Word grouping—Moving away from reading each word in a
                                                              passage in isolation to grouping several words together.

                                                             Expression—Punctuation cues indicate the type of expression
                                                              appropriate when reading aloud. Students should learn how to
                                                              read sentences with exclamation points, question marks, and
                                                              other punctuation.




             Slide 11                                        Read the statistic from this slide.

             Students Who Struggle                           Engage participants in Large Group Activity
Approximately 40 percent of American 4th grade
students cannot read fluently.
                                                              –   The ―Fluency Statistic‖ worksheet in Handout 2 (Fluency
National Assessment of Educational Progress (2002)
                                                                  Statistic) provides a reading passage. Cut out the phrases
Handout #2
                                                                  from the passage and place each phrase on a flashcard, or
                                                     11
                                                                  put the phrases on slides in the PowerPoint presentation.
                                                                  Slowly show the audience all of the phrases over one minute
                                                                  (in order). Check participants‘ understanding of the passage.
                                                                  How did participants feel reading disjointed phrases, slowly
                                                                  and without accurate punctuation? Was it easy to understand?
                                                                  Or frustrating? Or did they just lose interest? Ask participants
                                                                  to share their feelings about this experience.




                                                                                                                                     11
                                    Facilitator’s Notes
    Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



–   Some students who struggle with reading often read fewer
    than 74 words per minute—a pace at which it would be difficult
    to keep track of ideas as they develop within the sentence and
    across the page.

–   The fluency rate in the activity they participated in was 74
    words per minute. Tell them that they just experienced what
    our struggling 4th graders experience each time they read.
    This is why it is so important to teach and improve fluency.




                                                                     12
                                                            Facilitator’s Notes
                           Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




IV. Assessment
  (approximately 50 minutes)


   Slide 12           Ask participants—What are some behaviors they may observe in
                       the classroom that could indicate some students are struggling
                       with fluency?

                      Have the participants turn to a colleague to discuss the question.

                      Give participants 5 minutes for discussion, and tell them to be
                       prepared to share their answers.

                      Ask participants to share their answers.




                                                                                            13
                                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



              Slide 13                                     Review any observations listed on this slide that were not mentioned
                                                           by the participants in the activity on Slide 12.
             Possible Observations

• Student has difficulty and grows frustrated when
  reading aloud.
                                                              Student has difficulty and grows frustrated when reading aloud,
• Student does not read aloud with expression.
• Student does not “chunk” words into meaningful
                                                               either because of speed or accuracy.
  units.
• Student doesn’t pause at meaningful breaks within

                                                           
  sentences or paragraphs.
                                                               Student does not read aloud with expression; that is, he/she does
Reading Rockets. “Target the Problem” (2006)

                                                      13
                                                               not change the tone where appropriate.

                                                              Student does not ―chunk‖ words into meaningful units.

                                                              When reading, the student doesn‘t pause at meaningful breaks
                                                               within sentences or paragraphs.




              Slide 14                                     Use the following to support the main points on this slide:

              Assess the Problem                              Fluency assessments should measure various fluency skills,
• Use multiple types of assessments; formal and
  informal.
• Measure speed, comprehension, types of errors,
                                                               including reading speed, accuracy, comprehension, types of
  and expression.
• Select and administer assessment tools that are
  valid and reliable in the measurement of fluency.
                                                               errors, and prosody.
• Monitor student progress regularly to ensure
  student achievement in fluency is progressing.

                                                           
• Administer assessments one on one.
• Use screening and progress monitoring assessment
  to form flexible instructional groups.
                                                               Informal assessments can play an important role in the
Good & Kaminski (2002)                                14
                                                               assessment process for fluency.

                                                               –   Informal assessments may actually yield more valid
                                                                   information than formal assessments.

                                                               –   Valid assessment—An assessment that measures what it is
                                                                   intended to measure.

                                                                   For example, an assessment to measure prosody would not
                                                                   be considered valid if it was a standardized pen and pencil
                                                                   test. Tone and expression in reading can only be measured by
                                                                   the informal process of listening to a student read.




                                                                                                                                   14
                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


              Formal measures are also important in assessing reading fluency,
               and include standardized assessments administered by trained
               personnel.

               –   Formal assessments for fluency may be more reliable than
                   informal assessments, since they employ standardized tests
                   that are given to all of the students being assessed.

               –   Reliable assessments are those that produce consistent
                   results for the same or similar students.

              It is usually necessary to conduct both informal and formal
               assessments to obtain a clear picture of specific problems that
               may interfere with the reading fluency of individual students.




Slide 15      It is necessary to assess students in order to set appropriate goals
               and instruction.

              Ask participants what kind of assessments they currently use for
               fluency.

              Have the participants turn to a colleague to discuss the question.

              Give participants 5 minutes for discussion, and tell them to be
               prepared to share their answers.

              Ask participants to share their answers.

              Use a flip chart to note answers.




                                                                                      15
                                                                                                        Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                       Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


                                                              Compare shared answers to assessments on the next slide.




             Slide 16                                             While screening assessments are essential to pinpoint specific
                                                                   problems and insure appropriate placements for students, ongoing
               Measuring Fluency                                   monitoring of progress should be used to guide instruction and
• Informal
   –
   –
       Informal reading inventories (IRI)
       Running records
                                                                   allow it to be differentiated to meet specific needs through flexible
   –
   –
       Miscue analysis
       Reading speed calculations                                  grouping.
• Formal
   – Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT-4)
   – Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
     (DIBELS)

                                                                  Note to Facilitator: Both formal and informal assessments are
Handout #3
                                                         16

                                                                  used for screening as well as for monitoring progress. Formal
                                                                  assessments are often used to compare baseline data with
                                                                  current data to measure student progress. They are also
                                                                  sometimes required as a diagnostic indicator of a specific
                                                                  problem. Informal assessments are quick measures of student
                                                                  progress that provide a snapshot of the effectiveness of
                                                                  instruction. If a problem is apparent, a more formal assessment
                                                                  may be required.



                                                                  Review the examples provided for informal and formal
                                                                   assessments.

                                                                   –   Informal

                                                                       ■   Informal Reading Inventories (IRI): require students to
                                                                           read grade-level passages aloud and silently. Students
                                                                           summarize what they‘ve read. This assessment helps
                                                                           determine a student‘s instructional level.

                                                                       ■   Miscue analysis: errors are analyzed to determine if they
                                                                           match the context and have the same meaning as the
                                                                           word missed.




                                                                                                                                       16
                                          Facilitator’s Notes
        Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


        ■   Running records: a record of student reading behavior
            including miscues, self-corrections, omissions, and
            additions. Analysis of a record like this identifies areas of
            need for further instruction.

        ■   Note: Refer participants to Handout 3 (Running
            Records and Miscue Analysis) as a reference for more
            information on running records and miscue analysis,
            which is the next assessment covered.

        ■   Reading speed calculations: students read from a specific
            passage while the teacher times them for a minute to
            determine their speed per minute.

    –   Formal

        ■   GORT-4: Gray Oral Reading Test includes oral reading
            that examines accuracy, rate, and comprehension.

        ■   DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills,
            designed to be short (one minute) fluency measures used
            to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and
            early reading skills.

   Participants must become familiar with these assessments before
    implementing them with students. Always review the directions
    and manual to check for any training requirements needed to use
    assessments.

   Assessments can support teachers in developing appropriate
    instruction, as well as identifying when a student may need
    additional services.




                                                                            17
                                                     Facilitator’s Notes
                   Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



Slide 17      This slide displays the average fluency rates for grade levels 2.5
               through 7.5. *Remember that students who struggle with reading
               do not read at grade level for their age. Set goals accordingly.

              The goal of fluency is to increase comprehension. These rates are
               for reading with understanding. Some students may be able to
               read this many words per minute, but when asked about what they
               read it is evident that understanding did not occur. Therefore, it is
               important to strive for a reading rate that reflects understanding of
               the text.




Slide 18   This activity determines participants‘ fluency rates. It also
           demonstrates repeated reading and charting progress. Ask
           participants to find a colleague to work with.

           Note: In case someone asks—the average reading rate for adults who
           read well is 200–250 wpm

              Refer to Handout 4 (Fluency Rate) and Handout 5 (Charting
               Fluency). Each of the participants will read one of the passages
               on the handout out loud to their partner three times. Their partner
               will listen to them read and chart how many words they read in
               one minute.

              Let pairs determine who will go first. In each pair, one person
               reads passage 1 and the other person reads passage 2.

              Set the timer and tell participants to start. Time participants for
               one minute. Then instruct participants to graph performance on
               the Charting Fluency Handout. Repeat 2 times and then have
               pairs switch roles. Repeat entire process.

              After each person has had a chance to read their passage




                                                                                     18
                                           Facilitator’s Notes
        Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


    3 times, tell participants to look at their progress.

   Questions to ask the participants: How did the second and third
    readings compare to the first? If you did not do better, what might
    you do to improve your fluency rate?

Note: It is unlikely any of the participants will read above the average
fluency rate for 7th grade (Slide 17) in this exercise, since this reading
passage is very technical and includes acronyms and reference
citations. To assess fluency rate in the classroom, teachers should
select text that is at the appropriate grade level for each student.

The purpose of this exercise is for participants to see how their
fluency rate can increase with practice. The passage was chosen to
be challenging for the participants. They will probably find that the 1st
time they read the passage they will stumble over the citations and
acronyms. The 2nd time they will do what proficient readers usually do
– skip over the citations and acronyms (since they are not critical to
the comprehension of the text). This type of information can be
examined after the passage is read, if necessary.




                                                                             19
                                                                                          Facilitator’s Notes
                                                          Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



         Slide 19                                    Read the question on the slide, and ask for volunteers to share
                                                      their answers with the group.

                                                  
           Charting Progress
                                                      The following are some possible answers you can use to
                                                      elaborate on participants‘ responses.
What do you see as possible advantages for
 having students chart their own progress?

                                                      –   Even small gains are noticeable.
                                             19       –   Student is competing against him/herself only.

                                                      –   Teacher can monitor progress and adjust instruction if
                                                          required.

                                                      –   Steady growth over time is apparent.

                                                      –   A benchmark is in sight.




                                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                    Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




             Slide 20                                          Tell participants that since you have discussed the importance of
                                                                monitoring student progress in reading you would like to provide
       Student Progress Monitoring                              them with the information on this slide related to the National
• National Center on Student Progress Monitoring,
                                                                Center on Student Progress Monitoring.
  American Institutes for Research

• Mission: To disseminate practices proven effective
  in grades K–5.

• http://www.studentprogress.org/
                                                               This is an excellent resource on measuring student growth based
                                                                on instructional curriculum.
Handout #6
                                                       20




                                                               Refer the participants to the Web site, which provides resources
                                                                and information on tracking student progress to inform instruction.

                                                                –   There are training materials with handouts and materials
                                                                    available online for using Curriculum-Based Measurement
                                                                    (CBM) in reading, including measures specifically for fluency.


                                                               Also refer participants to Handout 6 (Beginning Reading CBM),
                                                                which includes a set of additional materials to use in the
                                                                classroom




                                                                                                                                      21
                                                                                                Facilitator’s Notes
                                                              Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




V. Strategies for Teaching Fluency
        (approximately 50 minutes)


               Slide 21                                  Review strategies on Slide 21 for teaching fluency. These
                                                          strategies are appropriate for all readers, including students with
 Effective Strategies for Teaching Fluency                disabilities.
  • Guided Reading

  • Books on Tape

  • Explicit and Systematic Instruction
                                                         All of these strategies are important because they provide
  • Opportunities for Practice                            opportunities for students to hear and practice effective models of
  • Appropriate Text Level
                                                          fluent reading that are appropriate for their reading level.
                                                 21




                                                         Tell participants that each of these strategies will be covered in
                                                          depth in the next slides.

                                                         Through screening assessments, students can be placed in
                                                          flexible groups.




               Slide 22                                  Review the steps for Guided Reading:

                  Guided Reading                          –   Teacher, parent, or peer reads a passage aloud, modeling
  • Steps                                                     fluent reading.
     – Teacher reads passage aloud.

     – Students reread same passage silently.

     – Students read the passage aloud.                   –   Then students reread the text silently, sometimes several
     – Students reread the same passage aloud.

                                                              times.
  Handout #7
                                                 22




                                                          –   Next, the students read the passage aloud.

                                                          –   Then, the students reread the same passage aloud.

                                                         For their students who do not read fluently, this strategy can be
                                                          effective in improving several of the components of fluency,
                                                          including prosody, accuracy, and fluency rate and comprehension.




                                                                                                                                22
                                                                                                       Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                     Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



                                                                Refer the group to Handout 7 (What is Guided Reading?) for
                                                                 additional information on specific techniques that can be used in
                                                                 Guided Reading.




            Slide 23                                        Use the following to support this slide:

                 Books on Tape                                  Using audio books can be a fun way to help students improve
• Provides students with a model for reading with
                                                                 their reading fluency.
  expression and punctuation.

• Fun and independent activity to support fluency
  development.

• Effective strategy but not a substitute for direct
                                                                Books on tape are a wonderful way to expose students to
  instruction.
                                                                 literature appropriate to their age and interests.
                                                       23




                                                                If possible, have a supply of taped books on hand so students can
                                                                 choose those that interest them.

                                                                Ask the participants for examples of how they may use books on
                                                                 tape in their classroom.

                                                                Note to Facilitator: Remember, while books on tape have been
                                                                shown to increase reading rates and word attack skills, they are
                                                                not a substitute for direct instruction in each of the essential
                                                                reading components.




                                                                                                                                     23
                                                                                                        Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                     Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



           Slide 24                                            Review each step of the sequence supported by the examples
                                                                listed below:
  Explicit and Systematic Instruction
• Model: Provide explicit examples of new material.
• Practice: Provide ample opportunities for students
                                                                –   Model: A teacher can read a passage aloud to a group of
  to practice new material. Ample is defined by the
  individual needs of each student.                                 students to demonstrate fluent reading.
• Assess (ongoing): Check students’ understanding
  of the new material throughout the lesson.


                                                                –
• Feedback: Immediately correct any incorrect
  student responses by repeating the teacher model.                 Practice: The teacher can provide time for students to
                                                       24
                                                                    practice reading the same passage aloud.

                                                                –   Assess: The teacher can monitor improvement in fluency by
                                                                    timing their rate with a passage they are working on. ―Assess‖
                                                                    as used in the instructional sequence is considered a form of
                                                                    monitoring ongoing progress and is only part of the
                                                                    assessment piece. Assess often and throughout instruction.

                                                                –   Feedback: The teacher can offer feedback on how to improve
                                                                    fluency to students, how fluency has improved compared to
                                                                    past performance, and how to identify students that
                                                                    demonstrate fluent reading.

                                                                    Note: If possible, use the link below to show the audience a
                                                                    video clip of explicit fluency instruction.

                                                                –   Video clip of explicit fluency instruction (North Central
                                                                    Regional Educational Laboratory)
                                                                    http://www.ncrel.org/rf/sbrr/fluencyvid.htm (This link is listed in
                                                                    the resources handout for participants to visit on their own as
                                                                    well.)

                                                            If unable to show the link, tell participants to visit the link to view an
                                                            example of a teacher delivering explicit and systematic fluency
                                                            instruction.




                                                                                                                                          24
                                                                                    Facilitator’s Notes
                                                  Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



           Slide 25                       Use the following to support the slide.

       Tips for Providing Feedback           Feedback is an essential component of effective reading
• Be positive.
                                              instruction.
• Be attentive.

• Be precise.

• Be mindful.
                                             However, to be effective there are certain guidelines that should
                                              be followed.
                                     25




                                             Read the tips from this slide and provide the following examples:

                                              –   Provide positive feedback when correct responses are made.
                                                  Praise goes a long way with learners who struggle with
                                                  reading. Example: ―Great job reading with expression!‖

                                              –   Be attentive—correct mistakes immediately. Show students
                                                  what to do and provide them an opportunity to do it correctly.
                                                  Example: ―That word is ‗cake.‘ What word is this?‖ Try not to
                                                  use the word ―no.‖

                                              –   Be precise—provide clear and direct instructions. Example:
                                                  ―Say this word‖ rather than ―Would you say it?‖

                                              –   Be mindful—of mistakes made during the session. If you
                                                  cannot correct an error immediately, jot down the incorrect
                                                  responses (perhaps on an index card you keep on a clipboard)
                                                  so you can go back and review them before the end of the
                                                  session.




                                                                                                                   25
                                                                                                               Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                             Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



               Slide 26                                                 In addition to being explicit and systematic, provide opportunities
                                                                         for fluency practice. Remind participants that students who
             Opportunities for Practice                                  struggle with reading need interventions that supplement what
•
•
•
    Daily
    Model fluent reading
    Phrasing
                                                                         they receive in their core programs. Allowing opportunities for
•
•
•
    Following along with a tape
    Readers’ theater
    Choral reading
                                                                         students to practice their fluency skills will increase the intensity
•
•
•
    Repeated reading chart
    Reading buddies
    Self-recordings
                                                                         and duration of instruction for these students.
•   Amplification



                                                                     
Hudson, Lane, & Pullen (2005); Partnership for Reading (2004)

Handout #8
                                                                26
                                                                         Refer to Handout 8 (Opportunities for Fluency Practice). This
                                                                         handout defines each of the opportunities listed on this slide.
                                                                         These opportunities are appropriate for all students, including
                                                                         students with disabilities.

                                                                        Have the participants review the handout and bring participants‘
                                                                         attention to the reader‘s theater description. There is not enough
                                                                         time to discuss each opportunity in depth; the following activity will
                                                                         focus on only one of these opportunities.

                                                                        Reader’s theater

                                                                         –   Go to the Reader‘s Theater link at
                                                                             http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/RTE.html. This site has free
                                                                             scripts that can be used for reader‘s theater activities in class.
                                                                             The scripts may be freely copied and shared. The Access
                                                                             Center did not receive permission to post the scripts online.
                                                                             Therefore, facilitators will have to print out script examples
                                                                             from the Web site to share with the participants.

                                                                         –   Distribute sample scripts from the Web site so participants can
                                                                             see the examples.

                                                                              ■   Activity—Discussion Question

                                                                                     Ask participants how they think that the reader‘s
                                                                                      theater may support fluency development?

                                                                                     Give participants several minutes to think individually
                                                                                      about the question and develop an answer. Tell
                                                                                      participants to be prepared to share their answers.

                                                                                     Ask participants to share their answers.




                                                                                                                                                  26
                                         Facilitator’s Notes
        Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency


        ■   Possible answers:

               Students practice reading aloud.

               Students need to use expression.

               Students need to follow context cues.

               Students need to use an appropriate rate.

Refer participants to Handout 9 (Fluency Strategies) as a resource
for additional fluency strategies.

  Note to Facilitator: Reader‘s Theater is a fluency strategy that
  students and teachers usually enjoy. It can be very helpful in
  adding interest and fun to instruction. However, this strategy has
  not been proven to be as effective as some of the others in
  improving fluency; therefore it should not be relied on exclusively.




                                                                         27
                                                                                                             Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                            Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency



              Slide 27                                                 Choosing an appropriate text level for practicing fluency is
                                                                        essential.
            Appropriate Text Level
• How to determine
   – Have student read aloud from a book at the level you
                                                                       Fluency develops as a result of many opportunities to practice
     feel is appropriate for him/her.

   – Calculate the number of words read correctly and
                                                                        reading with a high degree of success. Therefore, your students
     divide by the total words read.
      • Higher than 97% accuracy = independent reading level
      • 90–97% accuracy = instructional level
      • 89% or below = frustration level
                                                                        should practice orally rereading text that is reasonably easy for
   – Five Finger Rule                                                   them—that is, text containing mostly words that they know or can
                                                               27
                                                                        decode easily. In other words, the texts should be at the students‘
                                                                        independent reading level.

                                                                       Explain to participants how they can determine if the text level is
                                                                        appropriate for a particular student.

                                                                       Review ―Five Finger Rule‖:

                                                                        –   Teachers should direct students to turn to any page in a
                                                                            selected book and read the page independently.

                                                                        –   The student should keep track of any errors or unknown
                                                                            words. The number of errors will identify whether the book is a
                                                                            good choice for the student. After reading the page and
                                                                            counting their errors, students can use the following scale:

                                                                            ■   0–1 errors = easy

                                                                            ■   2–3 errors = perfect

                                                                            ■   4–5 errors = difficult




                                                                                                                                              28
                                                                                                             Facilitator’s Notes
                                                                             Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers—Fluency




VI. Summary
        (approximately 10 minutes)


              Slide 28                                                  Review the primary points made in the presentation.

                       Summary
• Mastery of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics is
  necessary before working on fluency.

• Fluency is often left out of reading instruction, but it is
  an essential component.

• Assessment is critical to inform fluency instruction.

• Fluency must be taught explicitly and systematically.

• The essential components of early reading must be
  mastered before vocabulary and comprehension skills
  can be developed.

                                                                28




Slides 29 and 30                                                        Ask participants if they have any questions.

                                                                        Thank them for participating and remind them that if they have
                                                                         questions that have not been addressed, you will review them and
                                                                         respond via e-mail if they leave you their contact information.




           THANK YOU!



                                                                30




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