The Particle Theory of Matter (PowerPoint)

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					The Particle Theory of
 Matter is anything that has
  mass and takes up space.
 Anything around us and in the entire
 universe can be classified as either matter
               or energy.
The Particle Theory of Matter:
1. Matter is made up of tiny particles (Atoms & Molecules)
2. Particles of Matter are in constant motion.
3. Particles of Matter are held together by very strong
   electric forces.
4. There are empty spaces between the particles of matter
   that are very large compared to the particles themselves.
5. Each substance has unique particles that are different
   from the particles of other substances.
6. Temperature affects the speed of the particles. The
   higher the temperature, the faster the speed of the
 The Particle Theory of Matter explains
   the following scientific phenomena:
• Pure substance are homogeneous (one
  phase - one unique kind of particle)

• Physical Changes - Melting, Evaporation,
  Sublimation, Dissolving.....

• Characteristic Physical Properties -
  Density, Viscosity, Electrical &
  Thermal Conductivity
• Properties:
 Information about a substance that
  describe it and that helps us identify it.

Characteristic Physical Properties - are
  physical properties that can be used to
  identify a substance because they never
e.i. the density of water is always 1.00g/ml
  at room temperature.
• Solid state:
Particles of solids are held in place by
strong electrostatic forces and are densely
packed together.
Particles of solids vibrate constantly due
to their internal energy but they cannot
move from one place to another. Particles of
solids possess only vibrational energy.
 rubber, iron, ice, chalk
               LIQUID STATE
 Particles of liquids are kept together by forces of
attraction that are weaker than those of solid particles.

Within the walls of the container they can move from place
to place bumping into the sides of the container and into
other particles. This type of energy is called
translational energy.

This energy gives a liquid the ability to flow and be poured
and to spread when a liquid is spilled. Liquid particles also
have vibrational energy.

alcohol, gasoline, oil, water
                  GAS STATE
 Particles of gases are "more rarefied" than either liquids
  or solids.
 This means that the forces of attraction that hold them
  together are very weak and that the spaces between them
  are much larger than the spaces between solid and liquid
 Particles of gases can move from place to place within a
  container bumping against the walls of the container and
  against other particles.
 They rotate and vibrate at the same time. Particles of
  gases have rotational, translational and vibrational energy.
 This explains why they can escape from a container very
  easily and they can put pressure on the side of the
  container (example a balloon or a tire).
• Examples: air, natural gas, carbon dioxide, steam
           How to describe Matter
        (Qualitative and Quantitative
1.   Physical State: solid, liquid, gas.
2.   Colour:    green, blue, yellow, black,
                   reddish-brown, etc.
3.   Odour:      odourless, flowery, spicy,
                        nauseating, etc.
4.   Clarity:    clear, cloudy, opaque.
5.   Luster:      shiny, dull.
  How to Describe Matter(cont..)
6. Form:       regular (crystalline), irregular (amorphous)

7. Texture:       how does it feel? fine, coarse, smooth,
                       waxy, etc.

8. Hardness:      can it be scratched easily? scale from 1-10

9. Brittleness:   can it break apart or shatter easily?
                        brittle or flexible
10. Malleability: can it be bent and folded into different
                        shapes? malleable or non-malleable
11. Ductility: can it be stretched out into a long
                        wire? ductile or non-ductile
12. Viscosity: can the substance flow? viscous or non-
       Chemical Properties
Properties of a substance that we
  observe when it reacts or does not
  react with other substances
 iron rusts in moist air, gold does not
 hydrogen burns in oxygen, but nitrogen
 does not
 zinc reacts with acid, but glass does
 When a state of matter gains or
looses heat it undergoes a change