Abnormal Psychology by wanghonghx

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									          Abnormal Psychology
• Seven common elements of abnormality
  – Suffering: is the person feeling pain or discomfort
  – Maladaptiveness: interference with normal
    functioning
  – Incomprehensibility and Irrationality
  – Unpredictability and Loss of Control
  – Vividness: statistical rarity
  – Observer Discomfort
  – Violation of Moral and Ideal Standards
       History of Abnormality
• Possession
  – Animistic Forces: tarantism, lycanthropy
  – Satanic Forces: reports of witchcraft increased
    rapidly with the extensive instability of the late
    15th and 16th centuries (e.g., rise of capitalism,
    Protestant Reformation)
                Witchcraft
• Malleus Maleficarum (The Witch’s
  Hammer): a guidebook to discovering and
  getting rid of witches. Written by two
  monks.
  – Only women could be witches
  – “All witchcraft comes from carnal lust – which
    is, in women, insatiable”
• Tests of witchcraft: Fixed
            Salem Witch Trials
• Salem, MA (1691): First arrest in March, last
  hanging in September.
• Begins with 8 girls exhibiting a bizarre set of
  symptoms that include: vomiting, convulsions,
  slurred speech, and hallucinations
• Doctors suggest possession
• Accusations fly and eventually 19 people were
  executed, 2 died in prison, and 1 was tortured to
  death
Explanations for the Witch Trials
• Political Explanations: political leverage,
  diversion of attention. Tension between
  growing town and farmers. New minister
  had a number of enemies
• Sociological Explanations: the accused
  were undesirable members of society.
  Works for first accusations but then
  unravels as the elite are accused
          More Explanations
• Psychological Explanation: a hysterical
  mob mentality blossomed out of control
• Medical Explanation: inadvertent ergot
  poisoning (fungus that grows on rye,
  contains lysergic acid)
  – Heavy rains in 1691could lead to fungus
  – Young girls afflicted first – work directly with
    the grains
             Current History
• American Psychological Association (APA)
  publishes first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
  (DSM) in 1952. This manual had 60 categories of
  mental illness
• Subsequent versions came out in 1968, 1980,
  1986, and 1994
• More than 300 categories of mental illness now
• Changes based upon research, societal values, and
  political pressure (e.g., homosexuality, pre-
  menstrual dysphoric disorder)
• Labeling: Rosenhan study
           Specific Illnesses
• Phobias: fall under the larger category of
  Anxiety disorders.
• An extreme fear out of proportion to the
  actual danger. Interferes with the
  individual’s life. Learned response.
• Two therapies
  – Systematic Desensitization
  – Flooding
   Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
• Anxiety disorder that impacts about 3% of Americans
• Obsessions: intrusive and persistent thoughts
• Compulsions: repeated activities that reduce anxiety
  created by the obsession
• To be diagnosed compulsions/obsessions must cause
  either severe distress or be time consuming (more than
  1 hour per day)
• Onset: 6 to 15 for males, 20 to 29 for females
            Mood Disorders
• Clinical Depression: may lead to suicide (9th
  leading cause of death in the U.S.)
• Bipolar Disorder (1% of Americans):
  previously known as manic-depression.
  – Manic Phase: boundless but unproductive
    (sometimes, destructive) energy
  – Depressive Phase: lethargic and often suicidal
               Schizophrenia
• .5% to 1% of the U.S.
• Characterized by psychotic symptoms (distortions
  of reality that include delusions, hallucinations,
  disorganized speech and behavior, or catatonic
  behavior)
• To be diagnosed: disturbance must last for at least
  6 months, with one month of active phase
  symptoms
• Onset: early 20’s for men, late 20’s for women
      Schizophrenia - Delusions
•   Persecution
•   Grandeur
•   Nihilism
•   Thought Broadcasting
•   Thought Insertion
•   Capgras’ Syndrome
•   Ekbom’s Syndrome
Schizophrenia – Thought Disorders
•   Incoherence
•   Flight of speech
•   Loosening of associations
•   Neologisms
•   Clanging
         Types of Schizophrenia
• Catatonic – person may alternate between
  periods of rapid movement and no movement at
  all
  – Drug treatments have made this less common
• Disorganized – characterized by irrational speech
  and behavior (flat or inappropriate affect)
• Paranoid – pronounced hallucinations and
  delusions (delusions of grandeur). Good
  recovery rates
• Undifferentiated
    Dissociative Identity Disorder
• Used to be called Multiple Personality Disorder
• Key features: presence of 2 or more distinct
  identities that recurrently take control of
  behavior, and failure to recall important
  personal information
• Often the primary (original) identity is passive,
  dependent, guilt stricken, and depressed
• Transitions often triggered by psychosocial
  stress
                     D.I.D
• ½ of reported cases include individuals with 10
  or fewer identities
• Females average more identities (15 vs. 8 for
  males)
• Disorder is 3-9 times more prevalent in females
• Average time period from first symptom
  presentation to diagnosis is 6 to 7 years
                Is it real?
• Up until 1944, 76 reported cases
• In 1973, Sybil was published. TV movie
  with Sally Field followed
• Between 1985 and 1995 almost 40,000
  cases reported
• Up until 1980 it did not have a separate
  listing in the DSM (was considered a
  variant of dissociate fugues)
                Is it Real?
• Another issue is hypnosis: commonly used
  to help recall memories of abuse believed to
  trigger D.I.D.
• People diagnosed with D.I.D. tend to be
  very easy to hypnotize, which suggests that
  they are very susceptible to suggestion
• If therapist is “looking” for D.I.D. this
  scenario often produces it
          Dissociative Fugue
• Inability to recall important personal
  information and flight from the workplace
  or home
• May involve the establishment of a new
  identity in a new location
• Often occurs in a response to extreme stress
• Rare. More typical cases, but still
  infrequent, involve wandering away from
  nature disasters
       Uncommon Disorders
• Munchausen Syndrome: desire (medical)
  attention. Therefore, hurt themselves and
  lie about causes
• Munchausen by Proxy: desire attention and
  hurt others (their own children)

								
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