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Technology Advancement Office Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Program (PDF) by d8772697b3413897

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									South Coast Air Quality Management District
Technology Advancement Office Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Program
Lisa H. Mirisola US EPA State Clean Energy-Environment Technical Forum Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) March 15, 2007
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AQMD Background • Greater South Coast Air Basin
– – – –

4-county region in CA Los Angeles San Bernardino County 11,000 sq. miles County 16 million people Riverside 261 thousand diesel vehicles Orange County County 9 million gasoline vehicles

• Attainment challenges
–

Further NOx and PM reductions needed to meet health standards
Slide 2 2

Ozone, 1990-2004 3-Year Average Basin-Days Exceeding 1-Hour Standard
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
19 96 19 95 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04

0.35 Concentration, ppm
Slide 3 3

Basin-Days Exceeding

0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00

YEAR Days Over 1-Hour Federal Ozone Standard Maximum 1-Hour Ozone Concentration (ppm)

Tools for Cleaning up Our Air
• • • • • Air Quality Management Plan Regulate stationary sources & public fleet activities Co fund Technology Demonstrations Provide incentives and emission credits to voluntarily use cleaner products Rely on state and federal regulations to set emission standards for mobile sources

Slide 4 4

Advanced Technology Approach
• Technology Advancement Office began in 1988 • Portfolio of possible solutions • Applications with different “payback” timing – Short-term, mid-term, and long-term 100+ projects on-going • Leverage federal, state and private efforts – Infrastructure and utilization • Government’s role is to accelerate technologies through demonstrations to overcome status quo
Slide 5 5

Advanced Technologies
Near-Term

• • • • • • • • • •

Aftertreatment Emulsified Diesel HD Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Advanced Diesel Engines Hybrid Vehicles (Plug-in & Hydraulic) Gas to Liquid Fuel GTL Renewables/Biofuels H2 Technologies & Refueling Fuel Cell Vehicles

Diesel

Longer-Term

Slide 6 6

Plug-In Hybrid Projects 1998-2005
• UC Davis entries – US DOE Future Car & Future Truck “Battery Dominant” Hybrids • EPRI Attributes & Commercialization HEV studies • Southern California Edison Plug-in hybrid microturbine utility truck
Slide 7 7

Develop Research Program to Address Critical Issues
• March 4, 2006, Board directed staff to expand PHEV activities • April 7, 2006, Board approved staff recommendation for expanded program – PHEV Technology Plan – PHEV Outreach Plan
AQMD PHEV Program AQMD PHEV Program Technical Technical Outreach Outreach
Slide 8 8

Timeline of Recent Efforts
• May 2006 – Board Expanded Efforts • June 2006 – Informational Briefing • July 2006 – Forum & Technical Roundtable • September 2006 – ARB ZEV Symposium • September 2006 – Plug-In CA Initiative • November 2006 – Thirty Vehicle RFP • Draft AQMP Control Measure and ARB ZEV reg • Ride and Drives & Outreach ongoing
Slide 9 9

• All-day meeting • Presentations and discussion by experts • 2nd in the series of technical roundtables • Webcast & presentations posted

10 Slide 10

Different PHEV Modes
70 60 50 40 Power (kW) 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0 5 10 15 20 Distance (mi) 25 30 35 40

All Electric Range

100% engine motor SOC 90% 80% 70% SOC (%) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

70 60 50 40 Power (kW) 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0 5 10 15 20 Distance (mi) 25 30 35 40

100%

Blended

engine motor SOC

90% 80% 70% SOC (%) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

11 Slide 11

Emissions Benefits Need to be Measured
• Cold-starts determine emissions for LEV II SULEV passenger vehicles • Clear benefits – Delivery applications – Energy diversity – GHG
12 Slide 12

Early Demonstrations Beneficial
Consensus that early demos desired Data input for modeling 100 – 200 vehicles DOE initiating roadmap in 2007 • AQMD and CARB opportunity
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

Percentage of Vehicle Fleet In Use (%)

Cumulative Fuel Consumed (gallons)

• • • •

PHEVs Reduce Fuel Consumption By >50% On Real- World Driving Cycles

227 vehicles from St. Louis each modeled as a conventional, hybrid and PHEV hybrid
Conventional Hybrid PHEV20 PHEV40
Average Daily Costs Gas. $3.45 $2.48 $1.58 $1.21 Elec. ----$0.48 $0.72 ¢/mi 9.1 6.5 5.4 5.1

26 mpg

CV

HEV

• 8647 total miles driven • 100% replacement of sample fleet

37 mpg

PHEV20 PHEV40

58 mpg & 140 Wh/mi

Assumes $2.41/gal and 9¢/kWh

5

76 mpg & 211 Wh/mi
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PHEVs: >40% reduction in energy costs >$500 annual savings

0 0

5

10

15

20

0 30

Time of Day (hr)

32

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Roundtable Conclusions
• Lithium Ion battery technology most promising but cost is currently high • Current hybrid architecture (charge sustaining) will work in “blended” strategy – most likely initial product • All electric range promises most air quality benefits but requires larger battery
14 Slide 14

• PHEV Prius in demo (EnergyCS) • PHEV Sprinter vans (EPRI-DaimlerChrysler) • PHEV Jetta w/ Li batteries (AC Propulsion) • PHEV Utility Boom Truck (EPRI – Eaton, Ford) • Request Proposals for 30 PHEV

Plug-In Hybrid Projects 2006+ Progress Overview

15 Slide 15

PHEV Prius (EnergyCS)
• AQMD demo 2 PHEV Prius
over 14,000 combined miles as PHEVs

• ARB emissions study
one PHEV, time limited, but SULEV capable

• Additional demos
CalCars, city of Santa Monica, Clean-Tech, SCE, SMUD, PG&E/BAAQMD, Manitoba Hydro

• Up to 5 total for AQMD – current contract
16 Slide 16

PHEV Sprinter Van (EPRI-DaimlerChrysler)
• 2 prototype PHEV Sprinter vans in test at SCE • Fleet operation of prototypes
at SCE & AQMD

• Next phase – 5 next gen for AQMD
30 van demo in US & Europe

• Amended utility prototypes for passengers

17 Slide 17

PHEV Jetta w/ Li batteries (AC Propulsion)
• Li battery integration complete
vehicle ready for demo

• Shares battery strategy with Ebox
(low cost consumer 18650 cells)

• Series hybrid system
(increasing US OEM interest)

• In demo this year
18 Slide 18

PHEV Utility Boom Truck (EPRI – Eaton, Ford)
• Ford F550 Chassis, Eaton integration • Add PHEV to Eaton hybrid electric dev • Demos w/SCE, LADWP, PG&E

19 Slide 19

30 PHEV Project
• Timeline
– – –

RFP issued November 3, 2006 5 proposals received & evaluated $2.7M approved from AQMD March 2, 2007

• Demos at up to 15 sites within AQMD • 2 passenger vehicle platforms
– –

20 Quantum Escape PHEVs 10 Hymotion Prius PHEVs
20 Slide 20

AQMD’s Clean Air Choice Program
• Features the cleanest new retail passenger vehicles LEV II SULEV and cleaner • Part of the AQMD website http://www.cleanairchoices.org. • Out of 34 models listed for 2007 – Nine gasoline hybrids – One natural gas • Outreach Efforts with wrapped vehicles
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