Atasha Mahabir Professor McCoy ENGL 399W Nov 11 2009 Annotated Bibliography Ake, Jami. “Glimpsing a „Lesbian‟ Poetics in „Twelfth Night.‟” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 43.2 (Spring 2003): 375-394. In her piece, Ake acknowledges the non- existence of new, modern conceptions of sexual identity and relationships during Shakespeare‟s time, while examining how “the inadequacy of Orsino‟s ostensibly heteroerotic Petrarchan discourse… gives rise to pastoral poetics of female desire in Viola‟s conversation with Olivia” (376). She highlights Twelfth Night’s illustration of a new language of a female‟s love for another female to form an early definition of lesbian desire. Charles, Casey. "Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night." Theatre Journal 49.2 (May 1997): 121-41. In his examination of examination of Twelfth Night, Charles argues that the play functions “neither as an uncomplicated promotion of a modern category of sexual orientation nor … an ultimately contained representation of the licensed misrule of saturnalia” (122), moving the discussion away from the play‟s attempt to take a position on homosexuality. For Charles, the play illustrates sexual/ gender identity as a social construction, which might suggest the irrelevance of societal rules and labels of sexual identity when it comes to same-sex love. Howard, Jean E. “Crossdressing, The Theatre, and Gender Struggle in Early Modern England.” Shakespeare Quarterly 39.4 (Winter 1988): 418-40. In this article, Howard introduces the idea of the male actor taking on women‟s roles in Shakespeare‟s plays. He asks, “[W]as crossdressing by male actors merely an unremarkable convention within Renaissance dramatic practice; was it a scandal, a source of homoerotic attraction, or an inevitable extension of a same-sex gender system in which there was only one sex and that one sex male?” (419). The implications of male actors taking on female roles adds another dimension to take into consideration when trying to interpret Shakespeare‟s message about sexual/gender identity. Pequigney, Joseph. "The Two Antonios and Same-Sex Love in Twelfth Night and The Merchant of Venice." English Literary Renaissance 22.2 (1992 Spring): 201-21. In this article, Pequigney examines the same-sex bond that is developed between Sebastian and Antonio throughout Twelfth Night, calling it “the classic relationship, wherein the mature lover serves as guide and mentor to the young beloved” (204). He deems homoeroticism a “major theme” of the play and rejects the analysis of Sebastian‟s marriage to Olivia as his rejection of his homosexual love for Antonio, giving way to the notion that the heterosexual marriages at the end of the play don‟t necessarily undermine the same-sex bonds of love. Sokolovic-Cizmek, Klarisa. “Homosocial, Homoerotic, Bisexual, and Androgynous Bonds in Shakespeare‟s Comedies.” Diss. U of Southern Florida, 2003. Sokolovic traces a history of “homosocial, homoerotic…” relationships in a few of Shakespeares plays. While she accepts the existence of “homoerotic undercurrents” (ii) in the works, she explains her reservations about arguments that it intends to be a “permanent sexual orientation” (ii). She instead sees it as part of the maturation process, where one learns about them self, which will ultimately culminate into a heterosexual marriage. For Sokolovic, the main message and focus is not on homosexual love, but the self. Stackhouse, Amy D. “Shakespeare‟s Half-Foot: Gendered Prosody in Sonnet 20.” The Explicator 65.4 (Summer 2007): 202-4. Stackhouse‟s analysis of the sonnet is twofold; first she breaks the sonnet down to illustrate its focus on homosexual love in terms of its subject matter. In addition to this, she furthers her analysis by writing, “Shakespeare plays with the form of the sonnet to reinforce the sonnet‟s theme of sexual ambiguity” (202). She suggests he does this by adding an extra unstressed half-foot to the feminine rhymes, which reinforces Sonnet 20 as an expression of homosexual love.
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