UbD Curriculum Unit Template - DOC by mikesanye

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									Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                          10-12 Days


     Unit 1: Properties and Changes in Matter
                                        Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:

 (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
      expected to:
     (E) Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypothesis,
         and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient
         scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks,
         safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals.
     (F) Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision
     (G) Express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures,
         including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures
     (H) Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
     (I) Communicate valid conclusions supported by data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings,
         graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology based reports.

 (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make
     informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
     (A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental
         and observational testing.

 (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between
     chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
     (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties
     (B) identify extensive and intensive properties
     (C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of shape and volume

 (8) Science concepts: The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is
     expected to:
     (A) define and use the concept of a mole
     (B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms in a sample of material

 Enduring Understandings:                                     Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

  Answers cannot be more precise than the least               How do we measure how much matter is present in
   precise measurement.                                           a sample?
  A mole describes the number of particles in a given         What is the size of an atom?
   substance (i.e. 6.02 X 1023 particles).
  Energy is the ability to cause change.

   Students will know…                                         Students will be able to…

      The following metric prefixes: nano, milli, centi, &      Analyze a system in terms of its components and
       kilo                                                       how these components relate to each other, to the
      That the precision of a measurement depends                whole and to the external environment.
       upon the instrument and the person doing the              Identify the correct number of significant figures
       measuring.                                                 for a given measurement.
      The difference between accuracy and precision             Round answers to the correct number of significant
      The relationship between precision and significant         figures.
       figures.                                                  Convert a number into and out of scientific
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
      The rules for significant figures.                           notation.
      What a chemical symbol is.                                  Convert between nano, milli, centi, and kilo
      That volume relates to the amount of space an               Perform calculations using dimensional analysis
       object occupies.                                            Use Avogadro’s number to convert between moles
      That density is a ratio of mass to volume.                   and atoms for an element
      That density is a physical property.                        Determine the volume of an substance using a
      Density can aid in the classification of substances          graduated cylinders, water displacement, and V= l
       because different substances usually have different          x w x h.
       densities.                                                  Determine the mass of an object using an
      The relative differences in density between the              electronic balance.
       solid, liquid, and gas of a given substance.                Use the particle model to represent objects with
      That the density of water is 1 g/cm 3 or 1 g/mL.             varying densities
      Water is unique in regards to the density of its solid      Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and
       and liquid state.                                            predict trends from data
      That a liquid and gas are both fluids.                      Determine the density of an object experimentally,
      That physical properties describe bulk quantities of         graphically, and mathematically.
       atoms, not single atoms (ie. a gold atom is not gold        Use density to solve for mass and/or volume of an
       in color, a gold atom does not melt ).                       object.
      That extensive properties) such as mass, length,            Relate density to floating/sinking.
       and volume) are dependent upon the amount of                Distinguish between physical and chemical
       substance present.                                           properties, such as those identified on an MSDS
      That the number of particles can be related to the           sheet
       mass in one mole of a given substance (molar                Identify chemical changes based upon
       mass)                                                        experimental evidence such as production of a gas,
      That intensive properties (such as density, color,           change in temperature, production of a precipitate,
       melting point) remain the same no matter how                 or color change.
       much of a substance is present.                             Distinguish between physical and chemical
      That energy is required for chemical and physical            changes.
       changes.                                                    Represent changes in matter using the particle
                                                                    model.
                                                                   Investigate and use the law of conservation of
                                                                    mass to describe physical and chemical changes
 Student Pre-conceptions:
          Lack of particle model. Only a small portion of students aged 16 are likely to use a particle model to
            explain physical and chemical phenomena. The continuous model (no particles and/or no spaces
            between particles). Students have a hard time imagining “empty space” or the concept of “nothing”
            between particles. Students cannot directly experience nothing (ie. water is appears to be a
            continuous substance). *Novick and Naussbaum (1978), Stavy (1990), Benson et al (1993).
          Inconsistency in applying the law of conservation of Mass: students can not distinguish between
            volume, mass and density. Students may infer that changing the shape of an object changes its
            mass.
          Physical properties of a bulk sample of an element are the same as the property of a single atom.
            (ie. a gold atom would be gold in color, a copper atom would be copper…..)
 TAKS Connections:                                              Spiraling:
 Viscosity: physical property of a substance                    Middle School: difference between physical and
 Buoyancy: relate density and floating sinking, density         chemical change, law of conservation of mass, density
    columns                                                     (only finding it when given mass and volume), floating
 Properties of solids: brittleness, elasticity, ductility,      and sinking
    malleability, hardness, tensile strength
 Digestion: physical and chemical changes




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                          10-12 Days


                   Unit 2: Energy and States of Matter
                                       Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
 Intro. (5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All
      systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy and matter. Change and
      constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patters help to
      make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its
      components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.
 (1) Scientific processes. Lab and Safety (A-C)
 (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
      expected to:
      (B) know that scientific hypothesis are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being
            supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which
            have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;
      (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being
             tested by multiple independent researches. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established
             and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new
             technologies are developed;
      (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;
      (E-I) plan and implement investigative procedures…including computers and probes.
  (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between
      chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
      (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes
      (C) compare solids, liquids, and gases to determine their compressibility, structure, shape, and volume.
 (5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its
      predictive power. The student is expected to:
      (A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table.
 (9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and
      the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:
      (A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles and temperature for an
             ideal gas as described by Boyle’s Law, Charles Law, Avogadro’s Law, Dalton’s Law of partial pressure
             (*not this unit), and the Ideal Gas Law.
      (C) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory
 (11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student
      is expected to:
      (A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;
      (B) understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer.

 Enduring Understandings:                                     Essential Questions
   Students will understand that…
                                                               How can kinetic molecular theory be used to explain
      Kinetic energy is energy stored in the motion of the      the behavior of gases?
       particles of a substance.                               What happens when the energy of a system
      Thermal energy is equal to the total kinetic energy      changes?
       of a sample.                                            How do solids, liquids, and gases differ from each
      Potential energy is the energy stored due to the         other?
       relative position of particles.
      A system is a collection of cycles, structures and
       processes that interact.




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
   Students will know…                                      Students will be able to…

      That gases have mass.                                 Distinguish solids, liquids, and gases according to
      The chemical formulas of common gases.                   their shape, structure, volume and compressibility.
      The basic tenets of Kinetic Molecular Theory          Analyze a system in terms of its components and
       (KMT) as they relate to gases: Particles of a            how these components relate to each other, to the
       gas: are in constant motion, moving in straight          whole, and to the external environment.
       lines until they collide with the wall of a           Look for periodic trends relative to substances that
       container, experience elastic collisions, and do         are found as gases at room temperature.
       not stick to other particles.                         Investigate the properties of gases and represent
     How gas pressure, temperature and volume are              the results using particles, graphs, and equation.
       measured, including units.                            Investigate the properties of gases using
     That kinetic energy is transferred between                temperature and gas probes.
       particles via collisions.                             Solve qualitative and quantitative problems
     The pressure of a gas is due to the collisions of         involving volume and pressure (Boyle’s Law).
       the particles with the sides of the container in      Solve qualitative and quantitative problems
       which it is enclosed.                                    involving temperature and volume (Charles’ Law).
     How a thermometer works                                Solve qualitative and quantitative problems
     What thermal “equilibrium” is                             involving temperature and pressure (Gay-Lussac’s
     That the average speed of particles is directly           Law).
       related to temperature.                               Use the Ideal Gas Law to determine changes in
     Standard temperature and absolute zero and                pressure, volume, temperature and moles.
       how to convert from Celsius to Kelvin.
                                                             Describe and calculate relations between the
     Kinetic energy is energy stored in the motion of
                                                                number of particles and volume using Avogadro’s
       the particles of a substance.                            Law.
     Thermal energy is the sum of all the kinetic
                                                             Determine the number of moles present using the
       energy present in a substance (i.e. 1 kg water
                                                                ideal gas law or molar volume.
       at 25o C has more thermal energy than 1 g).
     Potential energy is the energy stored due to the       Use molar volume (22.4 L) to determine the V, n or
                                                                # of particles.
       relative position of particles.
     That a gas has more potential energy and solid         Distinguish between temperature, kinetic energy
       has the least for a given substance.                     and thermal energy.
     Energy is transferred into and out of a system         Use KMT to describe the behavior of gases and
       by working and heating, resulting in an increase         relationships between P, V, T and n.
       or decrease in the thermal energy of the              Relate particle motion with absolute zero.
       system.                                               Identify the relative velocities of gases with
     Avogadro’s Law states that equal volumes of               different masses at the same temperature.
       ideal gases at the same temperature and               Distinguish between kinetic, potential and thermal
       pressure contain the same number of particles.           energy.
       (V/n=k)                                               Explain and predict the effects of adding or
     The conditions for STP.                                   removing energy on P, V, and T.
     1 mole of a gas at STP is 22.4 L for any gas
     Changes in temperature, pressure and volume
       are physical changes.
     Everyday examples of Gas Laws and Gas
       behaviors.
 Student Preconceptions:
     Students age 16 and above seem to accept that gas particles are uniformly distributed in a vessel, but
       many do not believe that they are in constant motion (Novick and Nussbaum, 1981)
     Problems with the notion that empty space exists between particles causes students considerable difficulty.
     Some students use the notion of repulsive forces between gas particles to explain why gas particles don’t
       fall to the bottom of a container (Brook, Briggs, & Driver, 1984).
     Some students use the notion of attractive forces between particles to explain gas pressure (Brook, Briggs,
       & Driver, 1984)
     Heating a gas results in particles being forced apart.
     Cooling a gas results in gas particles shrinking, condensing or sinking or becoming more attracted to each
       other.

Revision Date: 4/30/2011
          Students do not distinguish between temperature, thermal energy and kinetic energy.


                    TAKS-Correlation                                             Spiraling
 IPC:
          Newton’s Laws: 1st: particle continues moving
        in a straight line until they collide 2nd: when            Physical changes: P, V, T, only involve
        they collide they change speed and/or direction             interactions between particles within the same
        (accelerate), 3rd: during a collision, force of             substance
        particle A on B is equal to the force of B on A.           Energy is required for change
      Work = F x d (compress a gas or a gas pushes                Law of Conservation of Mass: as long as “n” is
        out against another object)                                 not changed
      Kinetic energy KE= 1/2mv2                                   Mole (n)
      PE = mgh (h =height, relative position from                 Periodic table: physical properties (i.e. state of
        the surface of the Earth)                                   matter at room temperature)
      Momentum = mv, momentum is conserved in                     Density: effects of P, V, T and n,
        collisions                                                 Particle drawings, graphical representations
      Heat transfer: Conduction & radiation                       Measurement: mass and volume
 Biology:                                                          Physical properties of gases: all gases act alike
      Diffusion                                                   Fluid: a gas is one
      Osmosis
      Breathing, blood pressure




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                            8-10 Days


                   Unit 3: Energy and Phase Changes
                                       Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
 (2) (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypothesis,
     and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes
      (F-I)
 (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between
      chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
      (A-C)
      (D) Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigations of their properties ( for this unit we
          will only focus on properties of pure substances).
 (11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The
      student is expected to:
      (A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal;
      (B) understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer;
      (D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat
      (E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process
 Enduring Understandings:                         Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…
                                                   What changes in matter and energy occur during a phase
  Energy can be transferred between the            change?
   system and surrounding but is always            How does particle movement relate to energy and change?
   conserved.
  Energy transfers result in changes in
   matter.
  Changes in matter can be explained in
   terms of particle movement.
   Students will know…                             Students will be able to…

  That phase changes are physical                   Distinguish between vaporization, boiling, and evaporation.
      changes.                                       Identify the state of matter present, m.p., b.p. and direction of
     That energy is conserved and is always          energy transfer on a heating/cooling curve or phase diagram.
      involved when a system undergoes a              Explain phase change at the molecular level and identify the
      change.                                         types of phase changes that occur.
     That all energy transferred into a system       Distinguish relative strengths of intermolecular forces (do not
      increased the kinetic energy (thermal)          identify types) based upon observable properties (i.e. rates of
      energy of the system.                           evaporation, m.p. or b.p.).
     That energy is transferred between a           Describe the process of evaporation and compare vapor
      system and its surroundings via                 pressure of different substances by referring to intermolecular
      conduction and radiation.                       forces and reading a vapor pressure curve.
     That convection involves the transfer of       Describe the changes in kinetic (thermal) energy and potential
      energy within a fluid.                          energy that occur along various parts of the heating/cooling
     That forces exist between particle of the       curve and/or phase diagram.
      same substance (intermolecular).               Sketch a heating/cooling curve when given a situation in
     That attractions between particles              which a substance at a given temperature undergoes a
      decreases potential energy.                     change in temperature.
     That solids have the least potential           Collect temperature data using a temperature probe.
      energy and gases have the most.                Use m.p., b.p., and c to identify an unknown substance.
     That phase changes involve transfers           Use Q=mcT, Q= mhf, Q=mhv to solve problems involving
      between kinetic (thermal) energy and            heating/cooling of a substance.
      potential energy.                              Apply the law of conservation of energy to explain and solve
     The relationship between vapor pressure,        problems using concepts of calorimetry
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
      atmospheric pressure and boiling point.           (Qlost substanceA = Q   gained by substance B)
  That specific heat capacity of a
      substance relates the mass and
      temperature changes to the energy
      absorbed or released during a change in
      temperature.
     The physical meaning of the heat of
      fusion and heat of vaporization for a
      given substance.
     The strength of the forces between
      particles affects m.p. and b.p. and state
      at room temperature.
     That m.p., b.p., and “c” can are physical
      properties of a substance.
     The relationship between Joule, calories
      and Calories
 Student Preconceptions:
          Cooling causes the particles to shrink.
          When something evaporates it disappears (Lack of conservation of mass).
          Condensation of water on a glass is due to water moving through the pores of the glass. (Steam turns
           back into water from hydrogen and oxygen gas in the air)
          Gas weighs less than the liquid form.
          Bubbles in boiling water contain nothing or contain hydrogen and oxygen gas.
          Difficulty in understanding cooling as a decrease in particle motion.
          Boiling is a chemical change.
          Water is a liquid and is never a gas.
          Students do understand reversible change (melting/freezing, boiling/condensing). Students assume
           melting/freezing or boiling/condensing occur at different temperatures.
          Freezing means cold or can only occur in a freezer.

 TAKS Connections                                 Spiraling:
 IPC                                                  Temperature (Kelvin and Celsius)
          Forces                                     Kinetic and potential energy
          Energy                                     Mass
          Conduction, convection, radiation
          Q=mcT
                                                      Properties of solids, liquids, gases
                                                      Thermal equilibrium
 Biology                                              Conduction, convection, radiation
          Homeostasis: sweating, shivering,          Law of conservation of mass
           maintaining core body temperature,         Pressure (effects on b.p.)
           internal vs external regulation of         Temperature and kinetic energy
           body temperature
          Water cycle
                                                      Kinetic molecular Theory
          Fever: Response to pathogens
           (immune response, inflammatory
           response)




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                             10-12 Days


              Unit 4: Pure Substances and Mixtures
                                        Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
 (4) Science Concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationship between
      chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expect to:
      (A) Differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties.
      (D) Classify matter as pure substance or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
 (10) Science Concepts: The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of
      solutions. The student is expected to:
      (C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;
      (E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated,
           saturated, and supersaturated solutions.
      (F) investigate factors that influence solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and
           surface area.
 (9) Science Concepts: The students understand the principles of ideal gas behavior, KMT, and conditions that
      influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:
      (A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles and temperature for
           Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure.

 Enduring Understandings:                                     Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…
                                                               How does amount of solute present affect the
  The properties of a mixture are different from those           properties of a solution?
      of a pure substance.

   Students will know…                                         Students will be able to…

  That some properties (mass, pressure, volume,                  Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures
      moles, concentration) of matter depend upon how              based upon physical properties (D, mp, bp, c,
      much matter we have.                                         conductivity – thermal and electrical)
     That some properties of matter depend upon the              Distinguish between pure substances in particle
      nature of the matter (density, mp, bp, c, solubility,        diagrams and chemical formulas
      electrical conductivity) and not how much matter is         Determine the partial pressure of a mixture of
      present.                                                     gases.
     The affect of temperature, agitation, and surface           Distinguish between unsaturated, saturated, and
      area on the rate of dissolution                              supersaturated.
     The affect of temperature and pressure on solubility        Interpret a solubility curve.
     That a solution contains solutes and solvents that          Calculate the concentration of solutions using
      can be in different phases of matter                         molarity and percents concentration.
     That solubility depends upon temperature and the            Perform calculations related to diluting solvents
      kind of solute.                                             Use a variety of separation techniques to separate
     The relationship between temperature and solubility          out pure substances from a mixture (magnets,
      of gases in liquids.                                         distillation, chromatography, filtering….)
     What an electrolyte is.
     That the amount of solute affects m.p., b.p. and
      v.p.
     That molarity = moles of solute/ liters of solution.
     The difference between mixtures and pure
      substances.
     That separating pure substances from mixtures is a
      physical change and requires energy.

Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                          8-10 Days


                           Unit 5: Atomic Theory & Nuclear
                                       Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
 (6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The
 student is expected to:
         (A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic
         theory, including Dalton’s Postulates, Thomson’s discovery of electron properties, Rutherford’s nuclear
         atom and Bohr’s nuclear atom:
         (D) use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element.
 (12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is
 expected to:
          (A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta and gamma radiation
          (B) describe radioactive decay processes in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and
          (C) compare fission and fusion reactions.

 Enduring Understandings:                                    Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…                               What are the strengths and limitations of
                                                                 analogies, metaphors and scientific models?
  All atoms are made up of small subatomic particles.          What are the strengths and limits of the current
  Atomic models have changed over time in response              atomic model?
      to new evidence.                                          What are the differences between physical,
  Only electrons are free to move within the atoms              chemical, and nuclear changes?
      and between atoms.

   Students will know…                                        Students will be able to…

      That an atom is the smallest particle of an element      Identify the valid and invalid attributes of each
       that maintains the properties of that element.            model of the atom.
      That atoms of different elements are different from      Distinguish between mass number and atomic
       each other but are made up of the same subatomic          mass.
       particles.                                               Determine the number subatomic particles when
      That no one has ever seen an atom.                        given an isotope’s symbol or name.
      That the diameter of atoms are described in              Use the periodic table to identify an element,
       nanometer or angstroms.                                   determine the atomic mass, and determine the
      Relative diameter of the atom vs the nucleus.             number of protons or electrons in a neutral atom.
      The experimental design and conclusions used in          Identify an element when given the number of
       the development of modern atomic theory,                  protons, neutrons, and electrons.
       including Dalton’s Postulates, Thomson’s discovery       Calculate atomic mass number given percent
       of electron properties, Rutherford’s nuclear atom         abundance of naturally occurring isotopes.
       and Bohr’s nuclear atom.
      The charge, relative mass and location of protons,       Describe the radioactive decay process.
       neutrons, and electrons.                                 Compare and contrast alpha, beta and gamma
      That electrostatic forces can be attractive or            radiation.
       repulsive                                                Write balanced alpha, beta, and gamma decay
      That electrostatic forces exist between charged           reactions.
       particles within the atom.                               Compare and contrast fission and fusion reactions.
      That the nucleus is held together by the strong
       nuclear force.
      That the atomic number is equal to the number of
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
       protons in an atom.
      That the mass number is equal to the total number
       of protons and neutrons in an atom.
      That the identity of an element is determined by its
       atomic number.
      That in a neutral atom the number of protons
       equals the number of electrons.
      The difference between isotopes of the same
       element.
      That the atomic mass of an element is a weighted
       average of the masses of all the naturally occurring
       isotopes of the element.
      What an amu is.
      That the atomic masses on the periodic table are
       masses relative to carbon-12.
      That chemical reactions (changes) involve the
       electrons.

      That nuclear reactions involve the nucleus.
      That the neutron-to-proton ratio of an atom’s
       nucleus determines its stability.
      That unstable nuclei undergo nuclear decay and
       emit radiation.
      Everyday applications of nuclear processes (ie.
       medical and energy)

                                            Student Preconceptions

      properties of atoms resemble the substance’s macroscopic properties (gold atoms are gold in color)
      atoms are alive, they are similar to cells in that they reproduce and grow and have a nucleus.
      think the model’s drawing represents the actual atom
      atoms are visible under really powerful microscopes (like scanning tunneling microscopes)
      do not understand the concept of a scientific model.
      electron shells enclose the atom and protect it (like sea shells and clam shells).
      electron clouds are structures where electrons are embedded (like water droplets in a cloud in the sky).
      have a hard time believing that empty space exists within the atom. They prefer the concept of a solid
       sphere.

                      TAKS Correlation                                             Spiraling


 IPC:                                                            KE & PE
   research and describe the historical development of          Theory
    atomic theory                                                Periodic table
                                                                 mass
 Biology:                                                        mole
                                                                 molar mass
                                                                 use molar mass and Avagadro’s number to convert
                                                                  between mass, moles and particles.




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                7-9 Days


                                       Unit 6-The Electron
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                      (B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of
                         being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable
                         explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated
                         into theories;
           (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to
                   make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
                     (F) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists
           (6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory.
                   The student is expected to:
                      (A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern
                             atomic theory, including….Bohr’s nuclear atom
                      (B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy,
                              frequency, and wavelength of light;
                      (C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed
                              of light;
                      (E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis
                              valence electron dot structures.
 Enduring Understandings:                                       Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…                                   What does it mean for an atom to be excited?
                                                                    How are electrons arranged in an atom?
  The arrangement of electrons, especially the
   outermost electrons, explains the chemical
   properties of the elements.
  Light waves have energy and transfer energy when
   they interact with matter.
   Students will know…                                           Students will be able to…

      Waves can be described by their wavelength,                  Compare the Bohr model and quantum mechanical
       frequency, amplitude and speed.                               models of the atom.
      Light is an electromagnetic wave that travels at             Contrast the continuous electromagnetic spectra
       3.00 X 108 m/s.                                               and atomic emission spectra.
      The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred           Relate the lines in an emission spectrum to the
       in packets called photons.                                    jumps made by electrons from higher to lower
      The energy content of photons is directly                     energy levels in atoms.
       proportional to the frequency of the                         Calculate frequency or wavelength of a photon
       electromagnetic waves.                                        using the speed of light and v=f.
      The difference between the wave and particle                 Use the equation E=hf to determine the energy or
       properties of light.                                          frequency of a photon of light.
      Electrons are free to move within the atom.                  Identify the relationship between an atom’s energy
      That photons (EM waves) are emitted from an                   levels, sublevels and orbitals.
       atom when electrons move from a higher potential             Use Pauli’s exclusion principal, the aufbau principle,
       energy level to a lower potential energy level                and Hund’s rule to represent electron

Revision Date: 4/30/2011
       (quantum leap).                                            arrangements using orbital diagrams
      The relative frequency, wavelength and energy             Determine the number of valence electrons for a
       associated with various types of electromagnetic           given element from its electron configuration
       waves.                                                     and/or position on the periodic table.
      How the Bohr model of the atoms was developed             Determine the probable charge of an ion formed
       based upon atomic emission spectrum.                       from a main group element.
      Energy is emitted and absorbed by matter in               Express the arrangement of electrons in atoms
       quanta.                                                    through electron configurations and Lewis valence
      Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest            electron dot structures.
       energy levels first (Aufbau Principle).
      Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a
       maximum number of unpaired electrons results
       (Hund’s Rule).
      Energy levels are designated 1–7.
      Orbitals are designated s, p, d, and f according to
       their shapes
      The atomic orbitals are superimposed over one
       another to form the electron cloud that is the outer
       portion of the atom.
      That the valence electrons determine many
       physical and chemical properties of a substance.
      That positive ions are formed when electrons are
       removed from an atom (#p > #e).
      That negative ions are formed when electrons are
       gained by and atom (#e > #p).
      That noble gases have very stable electron
       configurations.

                                              Student Preconceptions

      Electron shells enclose the atom and protect it (like sea shells and clam shells)
      Electron clouds are structures where electrons are embedded (like water droplets in a cloud in the sky)
      Do not differentiate between orbits and orbitals
      Have a hard time believing that empty space exists within the atom. They prefer the concept of a solid
       sphere.
      An atomic orbital is an energy level
      An atomic orbital is a trajectory described by an electron rotating around the nucleus
      An atomic orbital is a region/portion of space



                           TAKS Correlation                                         Spiraling

 Objective 2:                                                        KE and PE
 Objective 5 IPC :                                                   Theory
 The student knows the effects of waves on everyday                  Periodic Table
 life. The student is expected to:                                   Atomic structure (Bohr model)
 (A) demonstrate wave types and their characteristics                Physical and chemical properties
 through a variety of activities such as modeling with
 ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting
 data on seismic waves
 (B) demonstrate wave interactions including
 interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and
 resonance within various materials
 *Calculate the speed, frequency or wavelength using
 formula chart

Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _7-9_ Days


                                   Unit 7: Periodic Table
                                          Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
     (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
           expected to:
             (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
     (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to
           make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
            (F) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists
     (5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply
           its predictive power. The student is expected to:
             (A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;
             (B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali
             metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals; and
             (C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii,
             electronegativity, and ionization energy.

 Enduring Understandings:                                        Essential Questions:
  Students will understand that…
  All substances in the universe are composed of one                How can the periodic table be used to predict
   or more of the elements present on the periodic                    properties of elements?
   table.
  The chemical and physical properties of the elements
   are periodic functions of their atomic number (which
   in turn tells us the # of electrons and therefore the
   arrangement of electrons).
   Students will know…                                            Students will be able to…

      That Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev is credited             Explain the use of chemical and physical properties
       as being the creator of the first working version of           in the historical development of the Periodic Table.
       the periodic table of elements.                               Predict the relative atomic radii, ionic radii,
      The contributions of Newland, Mendeleev and                    ionization energy, electronegativity or reactivity of
       Mosely in the development of the modern periodic               two elements using periodic trends.
       table.                                                        Classify an element as a metal, metalloid, or
      The terms malleable, ductile, brittle, tensile                 nonmental.
       strength, and conductivity.                                   Identify the location of alkali metals, alkaline earth
      The properties of metals, nonmetals, and                       metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition
       metalloids.                                                    metals.
      A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table.           Identify the elements found as diatomic molecules.
      A group or family is a vertical column on the                 Identify the properties of alkali metals, alkaline
       periodic table.                                                earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition
      That common atomic radii units are picometers,                 metals.
       nanometers and angstroms.                                     Predict the relative sizes of neutral atoms and
      That atomic radius decreases from left to right                positive and negative ions.
       across a period because each successive element               Identify the number of valence electrons for a
       has an added proton and electron which causes the              particular group of elements.
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
       electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.                 Identify the probable charge on the ion of a main
      That atomic radius increases as you move down a              group elements based upon its position on the
       group due to the effect of electron shielding.               periodic table.
      That electrons are the only things removed or               Identify a probably position on the periodic table of
       added in a chemical change.                                  an unknown element when provided a list of
      That ionization energy is a physical property and is         properties.
       the energy required to remove an electron and is
       typically measured in kJ/mole.
      That the ionization energy increases when moving
       from left to right across a period because more
       energy is required to remove a tightly held
       electron.
      That the ionization energy decreases as you move
       down a group because less energy is required to
       remove an outer electron increased atomic radii.
      That the noble gases maintain a stable, low energy
       configuration as a result of a complete outer shell.
      Electronegativity is a chemical property that
       describes the relative ability of an atom to attract
       electrons from another atom.
      That the electronegativity decreases when moving
       down a group because of electron shielding.

                                            Student Preconceptions

      The positive charge of an atomic nucleus gives rise to a certain amount of attractive force that is shared
       equally among the electrons of the atom (or ion)
      The atomic size increases towards the right on the periodic table.
      All atoms have the same weight
      Heat may result in a change of atomic size
      The size of an atom is determined primarily by the number of protons
      All atoms are the same size
      Atoms are large enough to be seen under a microscope

                      TAKS Correlation                                               Spiraling

 IPC:                                                            Potential energy
          Work: work was done to remove electrons from          Atomic structure
           the atom                                              Valence electrons
          relate the chemical behavior of an element            Electron configuration (s,p,d and f blocks)
           including bonding, to its placement on the            Physical properties (density, state of matter at room
           periodic table                                         temperature, conductivity, specific heat capacity, mp,
                                                                  bp)
                                                                 Chemical properties (reactivity)
                                                                 Intensive vs extensive properties
                                                                 Atomic number, elemental symbol, average atomic
                                                                  mass
                                                                 electrons are free to move in an atom




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _5-7_ Days




               Unit 8: Empirical/Molecular Formulas
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                      (F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;
                      (G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical
                              procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;
                      (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
             (3) The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions
                     within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
                      (F) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.
            (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships
                    between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
                      (D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
            (8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The
                    student is expected to:
                      (A) define and use the concept of a mole;
                      (C) calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas;


 Enduring Understandings:                                         Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      Atoms always combine in whole number ratios to                 How can we determine the formula of an unknown
       form compounds.                                                 compound?

   Students will know…                                             Students will be able to…

      State evidence for Avagadro’s Hypothesis and                   Use experimental data to determine the relative
       experimental data to determine the relative mass                mass of two objects.
       of diatomic molecules.                                         Use experimental data to determine the number of
      The laws of Definite Proportions and Multiple                   items in a sample without actually counting them
       proportions as they relate to compound formation.               (counting by massing).
      The meaning of the word empirical.                             Determine the molar mass of a compound when
      The meaning of the word “relative” as applied to                given the chemical formula of a substance.
       mass, moles, and atoms.                                        Convert between mass, moles, and atoms or
      That the subscript in a chemical formula represents             molecules.
       both mole ratios and atom ratios.                              Determine the % composition of a sample when
      That the empirical formula of a compound is the                 given the chemical formula
       simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of the                    Determine the empirical formula of a compound
       elements in a compound.                                         when given data about % composition.
      That the molecular formula is the actual ratio of              Determine the molecular formula when given the
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
       atoms in a molecule of that compound.                     empirical formula and information about the molar
      That the ratios in which elements combine are             mass.
       related to their position on the periodic table.




                                             Student Preconceptions

      That mass and moles are interchangeable quantities
      There is some confusion when referring to moles of atoms and of molecules e.g. of chlorine or oxygen


                      TAKS Correlation                                            Spiraling


                                                              mole
                                                              grams, moles, particles conversions
                                                              formulas
                                                              Avogadros Hypothesis
                                                              Dalton’s view of the atom
                                                              Diatomic molecules of gas
                                                              Periodic trends




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _5-7_ Days




                     Unit 9: Ionic and Metallic Bonding
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                       (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
           (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships
                   between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
                      (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties
                      (B) identify extensive and intensive properties
                      (D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
            (7) Science Concepts: The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic and covalent (next unit) bonds.
                   The student is expected to:
                    (A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals….., using IUPAC
                        nomenclature rules;
                    (B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main
                        group or transition metals……
                    (C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic … bond.
                    (D) describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply theory to explain metallic properties such as
                        thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility


 Enduring Understandings:                                        Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the           Why do atoms form chemical bonds?
       valence electrons, determines how the atom can                  What does chemically stable mean?
       interact with other atoms.

   Students will know that…                                       Students will be able to…

      Ionic bonds are electrostatic interactions between              Use electronegativity values to predict bond type.
       atoms that hold them together.                                  Determine the probable charge of a main group
      Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons,                   metal or nonmetal using the periodic table.
       usually between a metal and nonmetal.                           Describe the formation of an ionic bond.
      An atom’s valence electrons are those that are                  Construct electron dot formulas to illustrate the
       involved in bonding with other atoms.                            formation of an ionic bond.
      Atoms gain or lose electrons in order to form ions              Name ionic compounds containing main group or
       to achieve the same electron configuration as that               transition metals, using IUPAC nomenclature rules
       of a noble gas.                                                 Write the formula of an ionic compound given its
      The electron configuration of a noble gas is a                   name.
       stable, low energy arrangement.                                 Identify the bond type of a substance using
      Stable ionic compounds are neutral.                              physical properties.
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
      The formation of an ionic bond is overall an               Name and write formulas of ionic compounds
       exothermic process. (that the overall bonded state          involving transition metal.
       energy is lower than the unbonded state).                  Name and write formulas for ionic compounds
      The larger the difference in electronegativity              containing common polyatomic ions.
       between two atoms, the more ionic the bond.                Use the “sea of electrons” to describe metallic bond
      The chemical properties of substances are                   formation.
       explained by the arrangement of electrons.                 Describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply
      The physical properties of ionically bonded                 theory to explain metallic properties such as
       materials such as m.p., b.p., hardness, specific            thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability,
       heat, solubility and electrolytic behavior.                 and ductility.
      Energy is required to break a chemical bond.
      Polyatomic ions are two or more nonmetal atoms
       bonded together that act as a single unit with a net
       charge.
      A formula unit represents the ratio of cations to
       anions that form an electrically neutral compound.
      Electrons in a metallic bond are “delocalized”
       because they are free to move through the metal
       and are not attached to a particular atom.
      Metals can be thought of as positive ions held
       together by an ocean of negative electrons.
      An alloy is a mixture of metals.




                                            Student Preconceptions

      That the charge on an ion is found at a particular location (supported by electron dot diagrams).
      Not distinguishing between formula units and molecules.
      Do not see ionic bonds as three dimensional (form lattices)
      The number of ionic bonds an ion can form is determined by the electron configuration
      Bonds can only be formed between one sodium and one chloride ion
      Bonds can only be formed between the atoms which have donated or accepted electrons
      Bonds are actually “stick like things” that hold atoms together.

                      TAKS Correlation                                               Spiraling

 IPC:
          Ionic vs covalent bonding                           m.p., b.p., specific heat, solubility, electrolyte, atomic
          Oxidation number                                     structure, valence electrons, electron configuration,
          Identify which elements have similar chemical        periodic trends, metal, nonmetals, transition metals,
           and physical properties based upon their             halogens, noble gases, alkali metal, alkaline earth
           location on the periodic table                       metals, pure substance vs mixture
          Oxidation number
          Writing formulas given ions and their charges
          Electrolytes
          Periodic table
          Identify elements gain (accept), lose (donate)
           or share electrons and how many electrons are
           involved.
          Identify which elements are likely to combine
           (and in what ratio) based upon their location on
           the periodic table



Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                  _10-12_ Days




                              Unit 10: Covalent Bonding
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                       (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
           (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships
                   between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
                      (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties
                      (B) identify extensive and intensive properties
                      (D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.
            (7) Science Concepts: The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic and covalent bonds. The student
                   is expected to:
                    (A) Name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids
                        and bases, …, using IUPAC nomenclature rules;
                    (B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main
                        group or transition metals, covalent compounds……
                    (C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bond.
                    (E) predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair
                        geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.


 Enduring Understandings:                                        Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the           Why do atoms form chemical bonds?
       valence electrons, determines how the atom can                  How are ionic and covalent compounds different
       interact with other atoms.                                       from each other?

   Students will know that…                                        Students will be able to…

      An atom’s valence electrons are those that are                  Use electronegativity values to predict bond type.
       involved in bonding with other atoms.                           Use periodic trends for electronegativity to predict
      A covalent bond is formed when two nonmetals                     type of bond formed.
       share one or more pairs of valence electrons in                 Describe the formation of a covalent bond.
       order to obtain the electron configuration of a                 Use arrows to represent forces of attraction or
       noble gas.                                                       repulsion among atoms.
      Diatomic molecules are covalently bonded.                       Identify the bond type of a substance using
      A polar covalent bond is formed when a pair of                   physical properties.
       electrons is shared unequally between two                       Apply the octet rule to atoms that bond covalently.
       nonmetals.                                                      Construct electron dot formulas to illustrate the
      Exceptions to the octet rule exist.                              formation of a covalent bond.
      The smaller the difference in electronegativity                 Describe the formation of single, double, and triple
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
       between two atoms, the more covalent the bond.               covalent bonds.
      The chemical properties of substances are                   Compare and contrast a polar and nonpolar bond
       explained by the arrangement of electrons.                   and a polar and nonpolar molecule.
      The physical properties of covalently bonded                Identify an acid or base by its chemical formula or
       materials such as m.p., b.p., hardness, state at a           name.
       particular temperature, specific heat, solubility and       Name covalent compounds, acids and bases using
       electrolytic behavior are explained by the level of          IUPAC nomenclature rules.
       interaction between particles.                              Write the formula of a covalent compound given its
      Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions have              name.
       both ionic and covalent bonding.                            Predict molecular structure for molecules with
      Energy is required to break a chemical bond.                 linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair
      Carbon atoms bond to one another to form chains,             geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair
       rings and networks to form a variety of structures.          Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.




                                             Student Preconceptions

      That the charge on an ion is found at a particular location (supported by electron dot diagrams).
      Not distinguishing between polar bonds and polar molecules.
      Bonds can only be formed between the atoms which have donated or accepted or share electrons
      Bonds are actually “stick like things” that hold atoms together.

                      TAKS Correlation                                                Spiraling

 IPC:
          Ionic vs covalent bonding                            m.p., b.p., specific heat, solubility, electrolyte, atomic
          Oxidation number                                      structure, valence electrons, electron configuration,
          Identify which elements have similar chemical         periodic trends, metal, nonmetals, transition metals,
           and physical properties based upon their              halogens, noble gases, alkali metal, alkaline earth
           location on the periodic table                        metals, pure substance vs mixture, biological
          Oxidation number                                      structures and macromolecules
          Writing formulas given ions and their charges
          Electrolytes
          Periodic table
          Identify elements gain (accept), lose (donate)
           or share electrons and how many electrons are
           involved.
          Identify which elements are likely to combine
           (and in what ratio) based upon their location on
           the periodic table




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                              _13-15_ Days




                            Unit 11: Chemical Reactions
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                       (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
             (8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The
                  student is expected:
                       (A) define and use the concept of a mole;
                       (B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of
                            material;
                       (C) use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations; and
             (9) The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the
                 conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:
                       (C) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.
             (11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions.
                  The student is expected to:
                       (A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical and thermal energies;
                       (B) understand the law of conservation of energy and process of heat transfer;
                       (C) use the thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical
                           reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;
 Enduring Understandings:                                       Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      In all chemical reactions there is a conservation of         How do we represent chemical reactions (Domain
       mass and energy.                                              2)?
      Chemical reactions involve electrons
      Chemical reactions require effective collisions
       between reactants and particles (Domain 1).
      Chemical reactions result in changes in total
       chemical potential energy and thermal energy of a
       system (Domain 3).
      The rate at which a chemical reaction occurs
       depends upon the number of effective collisions
       (Domain 4).

   Students will know that…                                        Students will be able to…

 Domain 1:                                                      Domain 1:
      Energy may be stored in different ways in a               Identify the components of the chemical system
       system such as chemical potential or thermal               identify the reactants and the products of a
       (kinetic) energy.                                          system.
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
      Chemical reactions involve the breaking of           Identify evidence of a chemical change.
       existing chemical bonds and formation of new         Identify a chemical reaction as endothermic or
       bonds.                                                exothermic based upon the change in
      Breaking bonds (chemical reactions) requires          temperature or other observable (light, sound)
       an input of energy.                                   changes in the surroundings.
      Not all collisions result in a chemical reactions    Use particle diagrams to represent a chemical
       (breaking of bonds).                                  reaction.
      Effective collisions require:                        Use simulations to describe and explain chemical
            o collisions between the correct reactant        reactions at the particle level.
                particles
            o enough energy to break bonds
            o that the reactant particles have the
                correct orientation when they collide
      All reactions are reversible (product particles
       can collide to reform reactants).
      Most reactions occur in solution (aq) or in the
       gaseous state (g) because the reacting
       particles are free to move and can collide and
       interact with each other more easily.
      In exothermic reactions, the total chemical
       potential energy of the reactants is greater
       than the chemical potential energy of the
       products. This “lost energy” gets transferred
       to the surroundings from the system.
      In endothermic reactions, the total chemical
       potential energy of the reactants is less than
       the chemical potential energy of the products.
       This “gained energy” gets transferred into the
       system from the surroundings.

 Domain 2:                                                 Domain 2:
  Mass is conserved during any chemical                    Balance a chemical equation.
    change.                                                 Identify a reactant or product as solid (s),
  A balanced chemical equation represents the                liquid (l), gas (g), or in solution (aq).
    conservation of matter at the atomic level and          Convert a written description of a chemical
    the macroscopic level by showing the                      reaction into a balanced chemical equation
    relationships between reactants and products.             using the appropriate symbols.
  The total number of atoms does not change                Classify reactions as synthesis, decomposition,
    during a reaction because every reactant atom             combustion, single displacement and double
    must be included in a product particle.                   displacement reactions.
  The coefficients in chemical equations describe          Identify a reaction as endothermic or
    the quantities of the individual atoms or                 exothermic depending upon the location of the
    molecules and the moles of the substances                 energy term in the chemical equation.
    involved.
                                                            Draw particle diagrams to represent balanced
  Precipitation (double displacement) reactions
                                                              chemical equations.
    occur only if an insoluble solid called a
                                                            Prepare from given samples a range of
    precipitate (ppt) forms.
                                                              solutions of ionic compounds
  Single displacement reactions involving metals
    only occur if a more reactive metal replaces a          Combine pairs of ionic solutions to determine
    less reactive one.                                        which pairs form a precipitate.
  Combustion reactions involve hydrocarbons                Predict based upon results of laboratory
    reacting with oxygen gas to produce carbon                investigations, which ionic compounds are
                                                              insoluble in water. Compare these predictions
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
    dioxide, water and lots of energy.                    to a reference table of solubility.
   Burns in air means reacts with oxygen gas.           Use a reference solubility table to predict the
   That many chemical reactions result in the            products of a precipitation reaction (double
    formation of a mixture of new substances.             displacement).
                                                         Use particle drawings to represent and explain
                                                          the process that must occur when two ionic
                                                          substances dissolve in water and then react.
                                                         Use the reactivity series of metals to predict
                                                          the products of a single displacement reaction
                                                          involving metals occurs.

 Domain 3:                                            Domain 3:
  The amount of energy required to initiate a         Interpret a potential energy diagram for a
    reaction is called the activation energy.            given collision that results in a chemical
  Enthalpy (H) is equal to difference between          reaction.
    the chemical potential energy of the products      Determine H for a reaction given a potential
    and reactants in a chemical reaction.                energy diagram or the total chemical potential
  In general, energy is transferred out of the          energy of the reactants and products.
    system (exothermic) when the products have         Identify a reaction as exothermic or
    stronger bonds (greater chemical potential           endothermic using a potential energy diagram,
    energy) than those in the reactants.                 when given a value of H or when given a
  In general, energy is transferred into the            chemical equation with an energy term in it.
    system (endothermic) when the products have        Identify the mechanisms by which energy is
    weaker bonds (less chemical potential energy)        transferred into or out of a chemical system
    than those in the reactants.                         (heating, light, electricity, sound).
  Energy is transferred into or out of the system
    by heating (transfer of thermal energy), light,
    electricity or sound.
                                                      Domain 4:
 Domain 4:                                             Predict ways in which the rate of reactions can
  The number of effective collisions can be             be increased.
    increased by:
    A. Increasing the number of collisions
        between the correct particles by increasing
        the temperature, stirring, and using gases
        or solutions instead of solids.
    B. increasing the temperature, increases the
        number of particles that have sufficient
        energy to break bonds when they collide.
    C. using a catalyst increases the number of
        particles that have the correct orientation
        during collision and/or decreases the
        activation energy.
  Not all reactions go to completion. Product
    molecules can collide to reform reactant
    particles.




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
                                           Student Preconceptions

      H does not indicate the energy stored in the chemical bonds of the reactants or products.



                      TAKS Correlation                                            Spiraling

 IPC:
          identifying reactants and products                  kinetic and potential energy
          meaning of coefficients and subscripts              endothermic/exothermic
          law of Conservation of Mass (mass of reactants      types of bonding
           = mass of products)                                 solutions, solubility
          balancing chemical equations                        periodic trends and reactivity
                                                               heat
                                                               elements, compounds, mixtures
                                                               chemical formulas and naming




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _10-12_ Days




                                   Unit 12: Stoichiometry
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is
                   expected to:
                       (G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical
                              procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;
                      (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
             (8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The
                  student is expected:
                       (A) define and use the concept of a mole;
                       (B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of
                            material;
                       (D) use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations; and
                       (E) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between
                            reactants and products, calculations of limiting reagents, and percent yield.
           (9) The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the
                   conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:
                      (B) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships
                              between reactants and products for reactions involving gases; and
           (11) The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is
                   expected to:
                      (C) use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions
                              and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;
                      (E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.


 Enduring Understandings:                                         Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      Matter can be transformed by a change in state or              How can we determine chemical quantities in
       by undergoing chemical reactions, but it can never              chemical reactions?
       be created or destroyed.

   Students will know that…                                        Students will be able to…

      The coefficients in a chemical reaction describe the           Balance equations, given the formulas for reactants
       quantities of individual atoms or molecules and the             and products.
       moles of the substances involved.                              Interpret balanced equations in terms of
      In a chemical process, the mass of the reactants                conservation of matter and energy.
       equals the mass of the products (Law of                        Create and use models of particles to demonstrate
       Conservation of Mass).                                          balanced equations and chemical reactions.

Revision Date: 4/30/2011
      A stoichiometric calculation is a conversion from         Use the law of conservation of mass to determine
       one amount (mass, volume & mole) of substance              the amount of reactants or products when given
       in any chemical change to another amount and can           the mass of all other reactants or products.
       be made as long as the relationships among all of         Perform stoichiometric calculations to determine
       the reactants and all of the products at the               mass relationships between reactants and
       molecular level are known.                                 products.
                                                                 Perform stoichiometric calculations, including
                                                                  determination of mass and volume relationships
                                                                  between reactants and products for reactions
                                                                  involving gases
                                                                 Perform stoichiometric calculations to determine
                                                                  the amount of energy absorbed or released in a
                                                                  chemical reaction.
                                                                 Perform stoichiometric calculations to determine
                                                                  limiting reagents and percent yield.
                                                                 Explain, using possible sources of error, why the
                                                                  experimental yield is not the same as the
                                                                  theoretical yield.

                                           Student Preconceptions

      Not distinguishing between grams and moles.
      That all chemical reactions go to completion.
      Not distinguishing between experimental and theoretical yield.

                      TAKS Correlation                                             Spiraling

 IPC:
          Balancing chemical reactions                         Evidence of a chemical change
          Solving Law of Conservation of Matter problems       Endothermic vs. exothermic
           when given either mass of reactants or               Reactants, products
           products.                                            Ideal Gas Law
                                                                Periodic table, molar mass
                                                                Grams to moles
                                                                Moles to liters
                                                                Molar volume
                                                                Types of bonding
                                                                Naming/formula writing




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _7-9_ Days




                                      Unit 14: Acids/Bases
                                            Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (1) The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using
                   safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
                      (B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and
                           radioactivity as summarized on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS);
           (2) The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
                      (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable
                              hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators,
                              computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks,
                              pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic
                              balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals;
                      (G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical
                              procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;
                      (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
                      (I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports,
                             labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
           (4) The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical
                   and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:
                      (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;
                      (B) identify extensive and intensive properties;
           (10) The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The
                   student is expected to:
                      (A) describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems;
                      (C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;
                      (D) use molarity to calculate the dilutions of solutions;
                      (E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and
                          unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;
                      (G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowery definitions and
                          predict products in acid base reactions that form water;
                      (H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-
                          reduction reactions;
                      (I) define pH and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to calculate the pH of a
                           solution; and
                      (J) distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
 Enduring Understandings:                                     Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      Acids and bases have unique physical and chemical         How can we identify a substance as an acid, base
       properties.                                                or neutral?
      Neutralization reactions involve the reaction             What impacts do acids and bases have on the
       between an acid and a base.                                environment and biological systems?

   Students will know that…                                    Students will be able to…

      Indicators are used to distinguish between water,         Identify a substance as an acid or base based upon
       acids and bases.                                           its physical and chemical properties.
      Arrhenius acids yields H+ (aq), hydrogen ions as the      Use common indicators to distinguish between
       only positive ion in aqueous solution.                     acids and bases.
      the hydrogen ion may also be written as H3O+(aq) ,        distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-
       hydronium ion.                                             Lowery definitions of acids and bases
      Arrhenius bases yield OH- (aq), hydroxide ion as the      Write simple neutralization reactions that produce
       only negative ion in an aqueous solution.                  water when given the name or formulas of the acid
      Strong acids and bases dissociate completely in            and base involved.
       water.
                                                                 Define pH and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion
      The degree of dissociation determines electrolytic
                                                                  concentrations to calculate the pH of a solution
       properties.
                                                                 Use titration to determine the concentration of an
      Strong does not mean the same thing as
                                                                  unknown acid or base.
       concentrated.
      Titration is a laboratory process in which a volume       Use Kw = [H3O+][OH-] to determine the hydrogen
                                                                  or hydroxide ion concentration.
       of solution of known concentration is used to
       determine the concentration of another solution.          Use the relationship: pH + pOH = 14.00 to
      Neutralization occurs when the moles of acid               calculate pH or pOH.
       equals moles of base.                                     Calculate the concentration of an unknown solution
      H+ is a proton.                                            from a titration.
      A Bronsted-Lowery acid is a H+ donor.                     Distinguish between degrees of dissociation for
      A Bronsted-Lowery base is a H+ acceptor.                   strong and weak acids and bases
      The pH of a solution is the measure of acidity or         Use particle models to distinguish between
       basicity.                                                  dissociation of strong/weak acids and bases.
      The differences between acid-base reactions and           Identify common weak/strong acids and bases.
       precipitation reactions.                                  Identify some common examples of everyday acids
      Simple neutralization reactions are examples of            and bases.
       double displacement reactions.                            Predict products and write equations for reactions
                                                                  of metals with acids.
                                                                 Identify environmental impact of acids/bases.
                                                                 Determine the amount of acid or base needed to
                                                                  neutralize a given amount (molarity and volume) of
                                                                  an acid/base.

                                            Student Preconceptions

      Students understand properties of acids much better than properties of bases.
      An acid is something which eats material away or which can burn you.
      Testing for acids can only be done by trying to eat something away.
      Not distinguishing strong and concentrated acids.
      Neutralization is the breakdown of an acid or something changing from an acid into something else.
      The difference between a strong and a weak acid is that strong acids eat materials away faster than a weak
       acid.
      A base is something which makes up an acid.
      Confusing donating protons with chemical bonding and donating electrons.
      Not seeing H+ as a proton.
Revision Date: 4/30/2011
                      TAKS Correlation                                            Spiraling

 IPC:
          identify a substance as an acid or base based       Evidence of a chemical change
           upon its physical and chemical properties           Balancing chemical formulas
          when given the pH of substance: identify it as      Single and double displacement reactions
           an acid or base, identify whether H or OH is        Naming/writing formulas
           present in a greater amount.                        Types of bonding
          identify common examples of acids and bases         Endothermic/exothermic
          acid rain: sources and effects                      Solutions/mixtures
                                                               molarity
                                                               MSDS and safety




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
Subject / Course: Chemistry                                                                                 _5-7_ Days




                                             Unit 15: Redox
                                           Stage 1 – Desired Results
 Established Goals:
           (2) The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
                      (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable
                              hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators,
                              computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks,
                              pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic
                              balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals;
                      (G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical
                              procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;
                      (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
                      (I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports,
                             labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
           (5) The student understands the historical development of the periodic table and can apply its predictive
                   power. The student is expected to:
                      (B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including
                              alkali metals, alkaline earth metal, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals
           (7) The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to:
                     (B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions
           (10) The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The
                   student is expected to:
                       (E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and
                           unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;
                      (H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-
                          reduction reactions;


 Enduring Understandings:                                         Essential Questions:
   Students will understand that…

      Oxidation and reduction must always occur                      How is a redox reaction different from a
       together.                                                       precipitation and acid/base reaction?
      Oxidation-reduction reaction involves transfer of
       electrons.
      Charge is conserved in a redox reaction.




Revision Date: 4/30/2011
   Students will know that…                                  Students will be able to…

      reduction is the gain of electrons.                    determine the oxidation number of an element
      Oxidation is the loss of electrons.                     and/or ion.
      Oxidation increases an atom’s oxidation number.        Identify oxidizing and reducing agent.
      Reduction decreases an atom’s oxidation number.        Identify oxidation and reduction half-reactions for a
      Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that              redox equation.
       oxidation and reduction have occurred.                 differentiate among acid-base reactions,
                                                               precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction
                                                               reactions

                                         Student Preconceptions

  



                      TAKS Correlation                                          Spiraling

 IPC:
          electrolytes                                      Evidence of a chemical change
                                                             Balancing chemical formulas
                                                             Single and double displacement reactions
                                                             Naming/writing formulas
                                                             Endothermic/exothermic
                                                             MSDS and safety




Revision Date: 4/30/2011

								
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