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					                                                              Presentation 3




Making Web Sites Accessible:
Implementation Challenges



Brian Kelly                                               Lawrie Phipps



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                                                                            E

Contents
     •   Auditing
     •   Legal Issues
     •   Work Flow
     •   Costs
     •   Usability
     •   Issues For You
     •   Conclusions




A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
Cultivate Interactive
                                                          Cultivate Interactive:
                                                           • Is an e-journal
                                                             funded by the EU.
                                                           • Is published 3 times
                                                             per year.
                                                           • Seven issues
                                                             published so far
                                                          Aims to comply with
                                                          accessibility guidelines
                                                          but:
                                                           • Three editors over
                                                             lifetime
                                                           • Errors creep in
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Bobby Analysis
                                                          Following analysis
                                                          by Bobby
                                                          application:
                                                           • 287 URLs
                                                             analysed
                                                           • Two P1 errors
                                                           • Many P2 and P3
                                                             errors
                                                          What should we do?




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Dealing With Errors
Missing ALT Tag
An ALT tag was missing from one
image. This was fixed.
The error occurred when a new
editor was appointed, who was not
familiar with all checking processes.


                                          Online Game
                                          An online game which is inherently
                                          inaccessible – and requires a browser
                                          which supports DHTML.
                                          The game is not a fundamental part
                                          of the Web site.
                                          Left, but limitations documented.
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Your Possible Concerns
You may have concerns:
  • Is universal design possible?
  • Do we treat WAI guidelines as mandatory
    or inspirational?
  • How much resources should we provide?
  • Is the problem solvable in a distributed
    authoring environment and no centralised
    CMS?
  • Links with the real world?


A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
Universal Design
Universal Design:
   • Implies that if we make use of appropriate design
     principles resources will then be universally
     accessible and reusable
   • We may feel that if we have difficulties
     implementing this we are doing something wrong
But:
   • Web browsers have bugs
   • We have little control over the output of Web
     authoring tools
   • Web specs themselves have bugs, ambiguities,
     etc.
A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
WAI / Browser Issues
The WAI guidelines talk about stylesheets and “when
user agents …”
   • This is too fuzzy
   • What should I do with Netscape 4?
The WAI guidelines talk about HTML technologies
such as LONGDESC:
   • This is not implemented in mainstream browsers
   • There is little implementation experience or
     usage guidelines
   • There has been talk around replacing its
     functionality with other approaches


A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
Case Study
Kenny Hermansen, Web Development Officer, London
School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine:
“I too have recently been struggling with just how
rigorously the WAI guidelines should be implemented.
… I certainly aspire to comply as fully as I can with the
WAI guidelines but …”
     • Some guidelines are too theoretical
     • Will have a pragmatic approach:
           • Use tables for positioning
           • Will not associate form controls for search boxes
           • Not necessarily nest headers correctly



A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
What To Do About WAI
Should you:
     • Regard WAI guidelines as a “must do”
     • Regard WAI guidelines as best practices to aspire
       to, but don’t get too concerned about legacy
       pages
     • Regard WAI as a successful lobby organisation,
       but ignore many of its guidelines as:
         • Fixing esoteric errors on a large Web site is a
           waste of money (which could be used to fit
           wheelchair ramps)
         • WAI only addresses W3C standards and fails
           to recognise that proprietary format (such as
           Flash, PDF, etc.) are being made accessible
A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
Costs
Have you estimated the costs for dealing with
accessibility on large Web sites:
     • The costs of running automated tests
     • The costs of manual tests
     • The costs of fixing problems
     • The costs of updating workflow procedures,
       purchasing new tools, retraining, etc.
     • The costs of providing support for buggy browsers
       such as Netscape 4
      How much should you be prepared to pay?
      If you are willing to sign a blank cheque, will this
      prevent a wheelchair ramp from being built?
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Reacting To Specialist Needs
React To Known Problems
 • If a student / member of staff with disabilities reports
   a problem, can that specific problem be addressed?
Real World Solutions
 • If a problem is reported which is inherently
   inaccessible (e.g. 3D visualisation of a molecule)
   rather than trying to fix the Web site, can a real
   world alternative be provided?
Accessibility Lab
 • Rather than designing Web sites for broken
   browsers can an accessibility Lab be provided,
   which provides standards-compliant browsers plus
   a range of accessibility devices?
A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
Is Legislation Appropriate?
It is desirable:
   • To make Web resources accessible
   • To ensure that there are no spelling mistakes or
     grammatical errors in Web pages
   • To provide networked resources everywhere
   • To ensure students and staff have adequate
     grants and salaries
   • To send flowers to your mother on Mother’s day
Aren’t all of these statements:
   • True
   • “Motherhood & apple pie” inspirational statements
   • Why should the first statement get the high profile,
     legislation,. …
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Discussion




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