Salt Lake City Department of Public Utilities Water Resources & Watershed Management How Do You Treat YOUR Water? www.keepitpure.com Outline • Background & History – Watershed Description – Hydrology – Water Development – Watershed Protection • Water Quality – Drinking Water Source Protection - “what you see today you may drink tomorrow” – Water Quality Monitoring • Modern Watershed Management – Development Review/Inspection – Recreation Management – Enforcement – Watershed Education Where does the WATER in your HOME come from? Salt Lake Valley Source Water Supply Source: Utah Department of Natural Resources Wasatch Front Watershed TOTAL WATERSHED AREA = 200 sq mi TOTAL AVERAGE RUNOFF = 152,000 acre feet OWNERSHIP: Forest Service = 62% Salt Lake City = 19% Private = 19% Salt Lake County = <1.0% What is a Watershed? • a geographical area of land (such as a canyon from ridge to ridge) that catches the rain and snow drained by a single river system “Protected Watershed” Areas • City Creek • Parleys Canyon • Big Cottonwood Canyon • Little Cottonwood Canyon Early Watershed Management • 1851: Brigham Young removes cattle from City Creek • 1887-1947: Land purchase in City Creek • 1912: First Watershed Patrol Formed • 1950: Chlorination of water supply • 1952-1965: City Creek Canyon closed for water quality Watershed Legislation • 1913: PL199 requires primary management of National Forest for drinking water supply water quality • 1934: PL259 Removes southern canyons from mining, reserved surface estate to U.S. • 1989: PL101 Bush reaffirms legislation • State Constitution grants City of the First Class extraterritorial jurisdiction over drinking supply watershed Water Development • 1847 Diversion of City Creek • 1904 -1934 City enters into Agreements to exchange high quality Creek flows for late season irrigation deliveries • 1930’s drought and well development • 1960’s Deer Creek Reservoir Watershed Statistics Average Valley rainfall 12” vs. 520” (approx. 27” SWE) snowfall in the Wasatch Mountains “Great Salt Lake effect” of evapotranspiration (ET) increases mountain snowfall Winter snow is water “storage” use through hot summer months Hydrology Current Water Supplies Water Quality “what you see today you may drink tomorrow” Effectiveness of the Watershed Programs • Canyon water supply is traditionally below 100 coliform/100ml • There is a distinct difference between watershed and non-watershed canyons • Usage in the canyons has increased without major changes in bacteriological counts Canyon Bacteriological Comparison • Regulations enforced in protected watershed canyons • Protected Watershed canyons are sewered Seasonal Variations in Coliform • Average monthly changed patterns • After 1993 see late season Water Quality impacts Water Treatment Q&A Q: Why is Watershed Protection important? Watershed Protection is the first of four “Multiple Barriers” to pollution and disease: 1. Source Watershed Protection 2. Removal 3. Disinfection 4. System Residual Disinfection Q: Does the Treatment Plant remove all pollution? – Treatment removal based on 3 log (99.99%) removal per the Safe Drinking Water Act. – Cleaner Source Water = Cleaner Drinking Water Q: Why are dogs restricted from the watershed when wild animals roam free? – Domestic animals transmit human disease – We can control what we do, but not wildlife – Lots of people = lots of dogs = lots of dog waste (Mill Creek allows dogs, with over 2 tons per week of dog waste hauled out of canyon Drinking Water Pollution Detection In-Stream Early Warning Monitoring Treatment Monitoring Distribution System Monitoring Current Watershed Management Practices • Multiple use fostered • Water Quality primary goal • Salt Lake City, Forest Service, Salt Lake Valley Health Dept, and Salt Lake County cooperatively manage the Front Governing the Watersheds • Salt Lake City – Watershed Ordinance & Master Plan • USFS - 2003 Forest Plan, Conjunctive O&M Agreement w/City, EIS required for development on National Forest • Salt Lake County - Foothill & Canyon Overlay Zone (FCOZ) Development Ordinances • Salt Lake Valley Health Department - Sanitation regulations & enforcement City Watershed Partnerships & Funding • Cottonwood Canyons Foundation (Silver Lake Center, Public Lands IC) • USFS Backcountry Patrol, Facility Improvements • Sheriff Watershed Patrol How Do We Impact the Watershed? • Pollution (sanitary waste, garbage, chemicals, sediment) • Erosion (Development, Recreation) • Hazmat Spills An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure. SLC Watershed Regulations • City retains rights to all Canyon water – SLC Surplus Water Permits for Domestic use and Snowmaking – Snowmaking results in approx 18-30% loss, but melts in late season when needed in Valley • Class B Misdemeanor to Pollute the Watershed – No Dogs (private property owners may obtain permit for dog, but must keep on property, contain, and clean up after it). – Must use toilet, backcountry waste must buried 6” and 300 feet from watercourse – No Off-road Motorized Travel – Unlawful to pollute Watershed Education Program • Media Campaign Brochures, Print, TV, Movie Trailers, www.keepitpure.com • Education Signs (60 Sites) • 4th & 9th Grade Curricula • Public Outreach Road Signs Watershed Interpretive Signs Regulatory Sign Panel Trailheads What You Can Do to Protect the Watershed • Don’t swim in drinking water streams or lakes. • Pets are not allowed in the protected watersheds. Exercise dogs in other designated areas. • Pack out what you pack in. • Plan ahead and use existing restrooms. Thanks for Being a Champion for YOUR Drinking Water Watershed!