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Social Cognition Helping to Relate

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					 Social Cognition:
 Helping to Relate
The Role of Emotional Intelligence in a
   Neuro-developmental Model of
    Assessment and Interventions
                 Agenda

 Housekeeping

 Introduction of Rudolf Stockling

 Presentation

 Discussion
Introduction of Rudolf Stockling

 EDUCATION / MEMBERSHIP
  MSc (Psych) Wollongong
  Member Australian Psychological Society (APS)
  Registered Psychologist NSW Australia

 EXPERIENCE
    Secondary Teacher (4 Years)
    Educational Psychologist (12 Years)
    Psychologist in Private Practice (8 Years)
    Director of Assessment Lexicon Reading Centre Dubai
     (at present), www.lexiconreadingcenter.org
The Neuro-developmental Model
         of Learning
  Social Cognition Systems

 I. Utilizing Verbal Abilities to
  Relate to Others

 II. Utilizing Non-Verbal Abilities
  to Relate to Others
Recommended Social Skills
                       Awareness of Self and Others




  Self-Determination                                  Self-Control




                         Interpersonal Relations
      Interpersonal Relations
• Verbal /
  Non-Verbal
  Communicat
  ion
1. Use “I” Messages
2. Employ Active
   Listening
3. Use body language
   and facial
   expressions to
I. Utilizing Verbal Abilities to
        Relate to Others
A. Communicating Feelings
B. Interpretation of Feelings
C. Matching the Emotions of Others

D. Adjusting Language for Different
   Audiences
E. Selecting and Maintaining Topics of
   Conversation
   I. Utilizing Verbal Abilities to
       Relate to Others cont.
F. Utilizing Humour

G. Making Requests of Others

H. Using the Language of the Group
I. Communication Monitoring and
   Repair
J. Criticism and Critical Interpretations
 Awareness of Self and Others

• Empathy
1. Detect and identify
   one’s own feelings
2. Recognize and
   identify signs of
   emotion in another
   person
         Empathy / Active Listening
        Outcomes             In Progress                Proficient

1. Identify and label   •Facial expressions and      •Can apply descriptive
own feelings            body language are            words (physical) to
                        incongruent with             feeling
                        emotions                     •Matches metaphors to
                        •Identifies 0 or 1 emotion   feelings
                        with given situation         •Describes 2 or more
                                                     emotions with a given
                                                     situation


2. Identify and label   •Misinterprets facial        •Matches facial
others’ feelings        expressions                  expressions and feelings
                        •Not able to match body      •Matches behavior to
                        language and words           feelings
                                                     •Checks and clarifies to
                                                     reflect other’s feelings
 Awareness of Self and Others

• Expectations in
  Relationships
1. Identify expectations they have of their
   friends
2. Recognize expectations that friends and
   family members have of them
3. Critically analyze societal expectations
4. Respect and celebrate individual
   differences
Activity 1: Match Skill and Possible
             Problems
• Look at Activity Sheet 1
• Read the left side column of Verbal sub-
  skills and match with right hand column of
  possible problems. (The two columns don’t
  match).
• Write the correct number beside each sub-
  skill (The first one has been done).
A Communicating Feelings
•   How to help:
•   Improve students' ability to communicate their feelings by enhancing their
    ability to recognize their different emotional states and identify their own
    emotions. Help students develop the vocabulary words to label their
    emotions and thoughts, and improve their verbal expression of feelings.

•   Recognize students' non-verbal attempts to communicate feelings (e.g.,
    facial expressions, sighs, and gestures), and encourage them to express
    those feelings in words.

•   Allow students to express themselves in ways other than through oral
    discussion (e.g., writing journal entries, matching pictures, answering
    true/false questions, role-playing).

•   In particular, teach students to verbalize their feelings when they are
    becoming frustrated (e.g., This work is hard; I'm not sure what to do here;
    etc.).
B Interpretation of Feelings
• How to help:
• Use an advance organizer to focus student attention on
  how the targeted skill of understanding the feelings of
  others fits into the context of daily social settings,
  friendships, etc.
• Build students' ability to interpret the feelings of others by
  having them practice:
   – inhibiting their initial responses or reactions and taking time to
     think about the situation, such as during a role-play activity
   – taking the perspective of others in an attempt to understand their
     feelings, such as in a story or role-play
   – reading the non-verbal cues in an interaction that help reveal a
     person's feelings, such as in a movie or role-play
   – understanding the image another person is trying to develop and
     project as a cue to his/her feelings, such as in a story or movie
 C Matching the Emotions of Others
• How to help:
• Help students be aware of others' feelings and interests through
  role-playing activities. Promote students' ability to interpret feelings
  others display, as well as to communicate their own feelings. For
  example, have students "read" each other's cues in a role-play,
  integrating both verbal expressions and non-verbal cues (gestures,
  facial expressions, etc.).

• Provide opportunities for students to improve their greeting skills
  (e.g., learning to match the affect of others to effectively approach
  an individual or enter a group).

• Reinforce students for using appropriate non-verbal signals and
  verbal phrases during conversations, group activities, etc.

• Guide students in self-monitoring during social situations (e.g., to be
  aware how their affect or mood changes within an interaction).
    D Adjusting Language for Different
       Audiences
•   How to help:

•   Guide students in identifying the conversational styles expected from different audiences
    (friends, librarian, etc.). For example, have students complete the following chart, writing down
    the language that they can and cannot use with different groups.
•                         Audience        Can Say   Cannot Say
                          1. Friend
                          2. Teacher
                          3. Bus Driver

•   Students may need to improve their ability to modify both the content and the delivery of their
    interactions, that is both what they say and how they say it. Use role-play situations to help
    students develop these skills and structured opportunities for them to practice with school
    personnel.

•   Students may benefit from examining the consequences of failing to switch conversation
    codes. Activities where students can play with language might include role-play activities and
    writing plays or short stories.

•   Students may need to develop an understanding of the language of their peer group to interact
    more effectively with their classmates.
E Selecting and Maintaining Topics
of Conversation
•   How to help:
•   Provide opportunities for students to develop and effectively use the
    language that is appropriate for a particular audience (known as trait
    vocabulary). Through role-play, guide students in identifying the
    conversational styles (language, expressions, etc.) expected from different
    audiences, such as friends, teachers, etc. Help students identify topics of
    conversation best suited to that audience.

•   Provide opportunities for students to develop conversational skills, including
    pacing a conversation, and engaging greeting skills. Students may write
    scripts together to act out in a role-play activity.
•   If a student makes frequent comments that don't seem to relate to the topic
    at hand, consider why he/she may be making seemingly "off the cuff"
    remarks. For example, she may be unable to read the social situation
    properly, or may feel that she can't contribute to the topic. This may leave a
    student feeling left out, and may cause her to try to change the subject. A
    student might also try to change the subject when he/she is more
    knowledgeable than others about a subject, is impatient at the pace of the
    discussion, etc.
F Utilizing Humour
•   How to help:
•   Humor is a sophisticated form of language. Students who are unable to use humor
    that fits their current social context may experience frustration with the "dead air" that
    follows their joke. These students may not be able to "read" their peers, use the
    language of their peers, or take the perspective of others to know when to use humor
    appropriately. These students may benefit from talking with their peers about humor
    and its uses in social situations.

•   Teach students the appropriate times for making jokes, humorous comments, etc. in
    your classroom, in the school, and community. Discuss inappropriate times as well,
    and how they vary from situation to situation.

•   Students may benefit from creating a list of topics that are appropriate for some
    audiences but not for others. Students may also need guidance in developing the
    ability to choose and use appropriate language based on the audience, a skill known
    as code switching. Click here to learn more about code switching.

•   Help students recognize the difference between friendly joking/teasing and rude
    remarks. If necessary, discuss topics that are not appropriate for friendly joking (e.g.,
    death, poverty, ethnicity, etc).
G Making Requests of Others
•   How to help:
•   Improving students' requesting skills may include teaching them different phrases that
    are appropriate for making requests, and helping them improve the delivery of these
    phrases, e.g., using a pace and manner that reflects a request rather than a demand.
    Have students practice in your class, making requests of peers, of school personnel,
    etc.

•   Offer guidance that helps students improve their code switching abilities, i.e., show
    them how to adjust their language according to the audience with whom they are
    interacting. For example, have students ask for something from both their teacher
    and a friend. Compare the different ways they speak and act.
•
    Provide students with specific examples of appropriate ways to ask for things in your
    classroom (e.g., raising your hand, submitting a written request, having a private
    meeting, etc).

•   Create contracts with students to reinforce appropriate request making. Specify
    expected behavior (e.g., asking friend to share supplies in an appropriate way, asking
    teacher for help in an appropriate way, etc.), and identify what kinds of reinforcement
    the student will receive when the contract is met (e.g., being class messenger for the
    day, getting 10 minutes of free reading time, etc.)
H Using the Language of the Group
• How to help:
• Provide students with opportunities to interact casually with other
  students (e.g., before and after school, between activities) in order
  to practice their use of peer-appropriate language.

• Setting up social skills training groups in your classroom may give
  students a chance to learn and field-test new skills and behaviors
  that contribute to social competence. But, the positive effects of
  such groups may be negated by "the real world" social scenes of the
  school bus, the hallway, etc. In order to maximize the likelihood that
  newly acquired knowledge and skills will transfer to other settings:
   – Students must develop resiliency to social failures and
      resistance by others.
   – Students must develop adaptive coping strategies when
      attempts at social interaction are unsuccessful.
   – All students, not only those in special training groups, may need
      to be educated about the need to accept others.
I Communication Monitoring and
    Repair
•   How to help:
•   Emphasize the importance of previewing (thinking ahead) and self-monitoring (being aware of
    what one says and how one says it). Encourage students to make a list of things that might help
    regulate what they say and how they say it (e.g., take my time, think of what to say before starting,
    etc.).

•   Have students reflect upon social interactions with peers after a conversation or exchange.
    Discuss what information was effectively communicated, or could have been communicated more
    clearly, what might have been repaired or said a different way, etc. Provide examples of situations
    in which miscommunications are successfully repaired, e.g., a story in which a negative
    interaction becomes a positive one after misinterpretations are clarified.

•   Students may need to learn specific "repair" statements such as: "I can see you misunderstood
    me . . ." "What I meant to say was ...," "Let me say that another way.," "I could have said that
    better ...," etc. Help students develop a network of vocabulary related to emotions, and an ability
    to recognize and interpret a listener's non-verbal and verbal feedback during a social interaction.

•   Students may benefit from structured activities where they can explore interactions that spiral
    down from positive to negative, and those that improve from negative to positive. For example,
    students may watch movies or videos, read short stories or comic books, etc., and then discuss
    the positive and negative behaviors, the presence or absence of self-monitoring, examples of
    social "repairs," etc.
J Criticism and Critical
Interpretations
•   How to help:
•   Set up classroom or homework activities such that the teacher is the only one providing
    constructive criticism. This will allow you to model appropriate language, etc. Be sure a student
    knows (in advance if possible) that you will be discussing his/her performance.

•   Make it easier for students to respond appropriately to teacher feedback by helping them start
    making corrections (e.g., do two problems together, write the next sentence together, etc.).

•   As students learn to accept constructive criticism from the teacher, have them practice giving
    suggestions and receiving feedback from peers during guided cooperative activities. In general,
    design more cooperative activities and reduce the emphasis on competition. Explain that
    constructive criticism is meant to be helpful, not threatening. Be sure criticisms are tactfully
    conveyed to and by students.

•   Help students improve their ability to see situations from different perspectives by suggesting that
    they ask, "How would I feel if someone said that about me?" Help students learn to plan their
    comments and criticisms carefully, e.g., by asking themselves, "How can I say this so he will not
    be too upset?"

•   Provide opportunities for students to improve their communication repair and conflict resolution
    skills. For example, have students practice recuperative strategies (both receiving and delivering
    negative feedback) in role-play situations and structured opportunities around school. Click here to
    learn more about conflict resolution.
    II. Utilizing Non-Verbal Abilities
            to Relate to Others
•   A Greeting Abilities
•   B Reciprocal Behaviors
•   C Reinforcing Behaviors
•   D Perspective Taking
•   E Tangential Initiation
•   F Non-Verbal Cueing
    II. Utilizing Non-Verbal Abilities
         to Relate to Others cont.

•   G Social Control Level
•   H Conflict Resolution
•   I Timing and Staging
•   J Social Self-Monitoring
•   K Image Development and Marketing
•   L Recuperative Strategies
      Interpersonal Relations
• Verbal /
  Non-Verbal
  Communicat
  ion
1. Use “I” Messages
2. Employ Active
   Listening
3. Use body language
   and facial
   expressions to
A Greeting Abilities
•   How to help:
•   Provide students with opportunities to practice reading non-verbal behaviors (expressions, body language, etc.) of individuals or groups
    they want to approach.
•     Provide guidelines to help students know when it is appropriate to greet others. Emphasize recognizing patterns of behavior, and paying
    attention to key details (saliency determination). Encourage students to think ahead before jumping into an interaction (response
    inhibition) by asking themselves questions such as:
•   Have I have ever interacted with this person before?
    How did that go?
    What is s/he doing now?
    Can I add to the activity?
    Will I be a distraction?
    Is s/he happy, sad, angry, anxious?
    Can I help?
•   Make sure the student knows that there are times when it is appropriate to interrupt others (e.g., during an emergency).

•   Help students learn that approaching a group of student peers is complicated by the fact that a hierarchy exists within any group; all
    individuals within a peer group do not all hold the same status. When students approach a group situation, encourage them to ask
    questions such as:
•   Which peer group do I approach?
    Do I greet the group as a whole?
    Do I greet an individual who will help me get into the group?
•   Enhance the likelihood that a student's initiations with a peer or peer group will be successful by setting up structured opportunities in the
    classroom. For example, have the student lead others in a small group activity that focuses on one of his interest or affinity areas.

•   Offer suggestions to the student to help initiate verbal interactions. Suggestions may be explicit (e.g., "Go to Sarah and ask, 'May I work
    on the painting project with you?'"), or general (e.g., "When working on the project today, compliment other members of the group on their
    work").

•   Initiating social interactions involves being able to select topics of conversation and use the language of your peer group. Help students
    develop their verbal pragmatic skills in these areas.
B Reciprocal Behaviors
•   How to help:
•   Reduce the emphasis on competition in the classroom. Provide opportunities for
    sharing and cooperative work (e.g., making a mural or bulletin board together).
    Encourage students to share materials and work cooperatively so that reciprocal
    interactions can take place.

•   Provide special class activities at the end of the day as rewards for engaging in
    "reciprocal behaviors" (e.g., taking turns appropriately throughout the day).

•   Help students establish short and long-term goals related to increasing the number of
    positive interactions with peers. For example, a contract may be drawn up in which a
    student agrees to increase the percentage of times that he shares materials in
    activities, takes turns in games, etc.

•   Enhance the likelihood that a student's interactions with a peer or peer group will be
    positive by setting up structured or guided opportunities in the classroom. For
    example, organize a small group activity that focuses on the student's area of
    interest, in which each member participates together in the completion of the activity.

•   Give students time to reflect on actions taken and alternatives not taken in an
    interaction, e.g., what could have been said, shared, etc.
C Reinforcing Behaviors
•   How to help:
•   Emphasize collaboration in the classroom. Provide opportunities for students
    to learn from each other (e.g. being the 'expert' in an area of affinity).

•   Have students note each other's strengths before, during, and after
    collaborative or competitive activities.

•   Stress effort over ability in the classroom, the development of skill over a static
    evaluation.

•   Help students learn to make positive statements by providing suggestions for
    reinforcing comments about others' contributions during activities. Allow
    students to develop their own supportive comments.

•   Guide students so that they are able to let another student win or show
    improvement, or be more competitive during competitive activities.

•   Provide special class activities at the end of the day as rewards for exhibiting
    "reinforcing behaviours" (e.g., 10 minutes of free reading time for making
    positive comments about each other's work throughout the day).
D Perspective Taking
• How to help:
• Help students be aware of others' feelings and interests by viewing
  films, and sharing pictures, books, music, poems, and other
  expressive forms.

• Introduce role-play activities in which students act out a scene from
  different perspectives.

• Facilitate the development of perspective taking by engaging in
  open and active dialogue in your classroom. Encourage students to
  look at the world from the vantage points of others. Bring in real life
  examples, such as current events, school issues, etc.

• Make perspective taking a problem solving activity in which students
  must solve a problem by taking the view of another individual, e.g.,
  How would this person see the situation? How would he/she try to
  solve the problem?
E Tangential Initiation
•   How to help:
•   Promote interactions by helping students find common interests. Encourage
    the discovery of shared affinities and experiences from which students can
    build interactions.

•   Enhance the likelihood that a student's interactions with a peer or peer
    group will be positive by setting up structured or guided opportunities in the
    classroom.

•   Set up non-academic opportunities for students to interact within a group of
    peers (e.g., board games).

•   Help students see the relationship between verbal initiations and effective
    greeting skills. Model a variety of verbal initiations for students. For
    example, "I was wondering if you'd like to borrow my ball while I go inside
    for a minute. Then when I come back, we could play catch if you want." or,
    "There are not enough computers for all of us so why don't we both work on
    this one."
F Non-Verbal Cueing
• How to help:
• Use modeling and role-playing to help students learn the messages
  that are communicated by specific gestures and movements. Have
  students practice interpreting what others are communicating based
  on 'reading' their body language. Also, have them practice projecting
  certain moods, feelings, etc., by using body language.

• Help individual students improve their interactions by clearly
  identifying what they are doing wrong in terms of body language
  (e.g., standing too close, not looking at the person when in
  conversation), and what they should do instead (e.g., stand at an
  arm's length during face-to-face conversations, occasionally look at
  the conversation partner when speaking).

• Reinforce students privately for using appropriate non-verbal signals
  during conversations, group activities, etc.
G Social Control Level
•   How to help:
•   Help a student recognize the non-verbal cues from others that indicate that he/she is
    exercising too little, too much, or the appropriate amount of control in social
    interactions.

•   Help students reflect on unsuccessful social interactions, so they can learn from
    experience. Prompt students to ask themselves guiding questions, such as:
     –   "Should I have said something to my friend when he was picking on that new kid, instead of
         just watching and saying nothing?"
     –   "Does this person not want to be around me because I sound (or act) too bossy?"
     –   "Did that person say, "NO" when I asked him/her to come over to my house because s/he
         doesn't know me very well, is upset with me, or because s/he had other things to do?"

•   Students who have difficulty exhibiting appropriate levels of social control will need to
    be resilient, especially if others move away from them. A student may find that he/she
    will need to have and use recuperative strategies to restore a bruised relationship.

•   Structure classroom activities to enhance the likelihood that students' interactions will
    be positive, e.g., by encouraging cooperative projects. Help students learn to avoid
    potentially negative interactions or to remove themselves from a negative interaction
    when it occurs.
                Self Control
• Setting Boundaries
1. Identify personal, physical and emotional limits
2. Identify two situations in which personal
   boundaries might be tested
3. Communicate personal boundaries to another
   person in a verbal and non-verbal way
H Conflict Resolution
•   How to help:
•   Teach students to recognize the internal and external signs that often precede conflicts. For example, feelings of anger that develop
    before he/she loses his temper, certain events that often end in conflict, non-verbal cues that others give off that indicate their anger or
    aggression, etc.

•   Help a student identify typical events that frustrate or anger her. Teach the student alternative ways to deal with these frustrating events,
    e.g., walking away, asking for help, etc. Give her the chance to practice these alternatives through role-play.

•   Examine how other students are behaving towards a student who has problems with conflict resolution. Be sure others are not being
    confrontational, and triggering the student's negative interactions.

•   Set up your classroom environment in ways that minimize the opportunity for students to be physically or verbally aggressive with others
    (e.g., carefully monitoring seating arrangements, maintaining your mobility in the room, etc.).

•   Provide students with 'best bet' steps to resolve a conflict once it has begun. Steps may include:
      –    Inhibit your first response
      –    Search for alternative backup strategies
      –    Select and deploy a best bet non-verbal response
      –    Select and deploy a best bet verbal response
      –    Monitor the effectiveness of best-bet strategies
      –    Recruit others into the process of resolution as a positive act

•   Give students example phrases to use to resolve problems (e.g., "Let's work it out", "I can compromise on this.").

•   Clearly define what students are doing wrong (e.g., swearing) and what they should do instead (e.g., communicate their feelings clearly,
    for example, by saying, "This is frustrating to me.").

•   Promote post-conflict reflection among students by helping them analyze (or take apart) a conflict. Help students realize that the search
    for "Who did what to whom" is often futile, and that accusations and scapegoating are not effective. Encourage students to do an objective
    analysis by creating a description of alternatives they might have chosen (speaking or behaving in different ways, making different
    decisions at critical junctures, etc.).
                Self Control
• Setting Boundaries
1. Identify personal, physical and emotional limits
2. Identify two situations in which personal
   boundaries might be tested
3. Communicate personal boundaries to another
   person in a verbal and non-verbal way
      Interpersonal Relations

• Conflict Management
1. Adopt a working definition of conflict
   management to personal life
2. De-escalate a conflict situation using
   three techniques
3. Address a conflict using conflict
   management steps
I Timing and Staging
• How to help:
• Enhance students' awareness of verbal and non-verbal indications
  that interactions and relationships with peers are proceeding too
  quickly, or too slowly.
• Hand out an advance organizer to help students focus on ways in
  which the specific skill to be worked on (e.g., pacing relationships)
  fits into the context of their daily social setting, friendships, etc.

• Use models (from stories, film, etc.) to portray the timely
  development of relationships, i.e., where peers do not expect too
  much from each other too quickly.

• Students may benefit from developing their ability to exhibit the
  appropriate level of social control when interacting with their peers,
  i.e. relating to others in neither too passive nor too controlling a
  manner.
J Social Self-Monitoring
•   How to help:
•   Teach students explicit self-monitoring techniques through direct instruction. For example:
     –   Enhance students' recognition of behavior patterns. Use films, pictures, case studies, short stories, etc. that
         present a wide range of non-verbal and verbal indicators of emotions and thoughts.
     –   Improve students' ability to store, remember and identify the specific language of positive and negative
         interactions (saliency determination). Help students learn to associate potential responses to situations, and
         to have these responses readily available in their long-term memory.
     –   Help students develop automaticity in social self-monitoring. Encourage them to practice both the
         recognition and retrieval of self-monitoring skills until the skill becomes 'automatic'.

•   Use role-playing activities to improve students' ability to use self-monitoring skills. For example:
     –   Set the stage for role-playing by beginning with scripted interaction situations, then move on to
         improvisation.
     –   Analyze the social role-play with students. Give students time to reflect on actions taken and alternatives not
         taken, e.g. what they did effectively, what they could have said differently, etc.
     –   Reconstruct the activity and help students become aware of more effective monitoring techniques.

•   Move students beyond role-play situations when possible. For example:
     –   Help a student reflect upon actual social interactions with peers after an exchange has taken place.
•   Use an advance organizer that helps students see how the skill to be worked on (e.g., social self-
    monitoring) fits into the context of their real friendships and daily social interactions.
K Image Development and Marketing
•   How to help:
•   Help students get not only a sense of the image(s) they wish to project to their peers, but a sense
    of comfort with that image. Encourage students to use their strengths and affinities to help market
    their image.

•   Let class members know, through subtle means, that students they have rejected possess
    strengths and affinities, to increase the possibility that others will seek out these individuals.

•   Discuss "marketing" features such as dress, interests, and type of personality that students' can
    use to reflect a given image. Be sure to emphasize that students may have to sacrifice "who they
    really are" in order to create, market, and sustain an image that is not genuine.

•   Encourage classroom discussions, one-on-one conferences, and role-play activities that explore
    the downsides to being popular, rebellious or friendly with students who do not reflect one's self-
    image.

•   Encourage an adult or peer to form a relationship with a student who has been rejected by other
    students. A socially or politically adept student or class leader, for example, may lower the risk of
    public humiliation experienced by their classmate by providing the student with social guidance,
    mentoring, and acceptance. Educate students about the need to accept others for their unique
    qualities.
L Recuperative Strategies
•   How to help:
•   Structure activities in such a way that a student does not dwell on problems or setbacks. Guide
    students in developing adaptive coping strategies and recuperative techniques. One such strategy
    involves inhibiting a first response when faced with a difficult social situation, and instead coming
    up with alternative ways to deal with the setback. For example, the student who did not make the
    team may contribute by being the 'team publicist', a student who has hurt another's feelings may
    work on ways to repair the relationship, etc.

•   Help students develop resiliency to social failures and rejection or resistance by others. Use role-
    play activities to give students opportunities to explore the positive outcomes and consequences
    of using recuperative strategies.

•   Allow a student to attempt new or challenging strategies privately, before trying them in a group or
    social situation.

•   Be considerate of students' feelings at all times. Do not embarrass a student or put him/her on the
    spot in front of others (e.g., by announcing test scores aloud or by making a shy student read
    aloud in class).

•   Let class members know, through subtle means, that students they have rejected possess
    strengths and affinities, to increase the possibility that others will seek out these individuals.

•   Try to educate students in all settings about the need to accept others for their unique qualities.

				
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