ART The word art is derived is arti , the craft guilds of the Italian renaissance, when arti denoted craftsmanship, skill, mastery of form, inventiveness , associations that exist between form and ideas and between techniques and materials. STUDY OF ART HISTORY Study of the history of art is a relatively recent phenomenon; prior to the Renaissance , the modern concept of "art" did not exist, and art was used to refer to workmanship by generally anonymous trades-people. The present era has accepted the art of the past and of other cultures or an unprecedented scale. HISTORY OF ART •The history of art usually refers to the history of the visual arts, such as painting, sculpture and architecture. •The term also encompasses theory of the visual arts. • It is not usually taken or intended to refer to the performing arts or literary arts. • The history of art attempts an objective survey of art throughout human history, classifying cultures and periods and noting their distinguishing features and influences. •The field of "art history" was developed in the West, and originally dealt exclusively with Western painting, and Western art history, with the High Renaissance (and its Greek precedent) as the defining standard. •Gradually, with the onset of Modernism, a wider vision of history has developed, seeking to place other societies in a global overview by analyzing their artifacts in terms of their own cultural values. FUNCTION OF ART • Visual art is not produced with words but with formal artistic elements. It communicates ideas but is not intended to convey information in verbal form. • Art creates subtle emotional states or moods and broadens the aesthetic range of experience of all who perceive it. • It can be, it has been, and it often still is done by means of visual art. PICTORIAL ART There is no law which requires that a painting must tell the same story to each and every spectator or even that it must tell one at all. The pictorial arts may represent a visualization of sound patterns or by a series of symbols , evoke the memory of smell, sight or other sensations but they do not picture them ANCIENT ART • The period of ancient art began when ancient civilizations developed a form of written language. • The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the six great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these centres of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art. Because of their size and duration these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. They have also provided us with the first records of how artists worked. • Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i.e. Zeus' thunderbolt). POST-ANCIENT ART In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. There was no need to depict the reality of the material world, in which man was born in a "state of sin", especially through the extensive use of gold in paintings, which also presented figures in idealised, patterned (i.e."flat") forms. The Renaissance is the return yet again to valuation of the material world, and this paradigm shift is reflected in art forms, which show the corporeality of the human body, and the three dimensional reality of landscape EARLY CHRISTIAN ART • The earliest Christian art was not a style in a technical or chronological style sense, but rather indicated a change in symbolism, for there was a continuation of classical mythology. • Architecture – Early Christian architecture represents the development of the Roman interest in interior space. • The exterior effects were wholly neglected. GOTHIC ART The development and perfection of the Gothic concept of space and the complete integration of interior and exterior with ornament took place in France in the thirteenth century. It was in this period that the structural, decorative, aesthetic, and iconographical problems became solved, resulted in the harmonious interrelationship of the arts called organic unity. ROMANESQUE ART • Romanesque is not a standardized style and can’t be identified by a list of special features, for it varied widely in different localities. • Its an amalgamation of early Christian, Byzantine and native barbarian styles ; all these were changed materially by local conditions. • It was feudal rather than a united imperial expression nor was it decline of classic , nor the codification of symbolic form, it was instead expressive and naturalistic, dynamic not static. RENAISSANCE ART The term RENAISSANCE in connection with the art of northern Europe is used as a chronological device , for there was no parallel to the rebirth of interest in the antiquities of the past . Painting was the dominant art of the Renaissance period in the north and the only one to develop in new directions, for sculpture and architecture remained traditional. CONTEMPORARY ART • Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realisation of its unattainability. Relativity was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the Postmodern period, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with irony. Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than regional cultures. The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain. Art Through Ages The history of art usually refers to the history of the visual arts, such as painting, sculpture and architecture. The term also encompasses theory of the visual arts. It is not usually taken or intended to refer to the performing arts or literary arts. The history of art attempts an objective survey of art throughout human history, classifying cultures and periods and noting their distinguishing features and influences. In this topic “The history of art” we discuss about : Prehistoric Art Art of Renaissance Egyptian Art Art of Baroque and Rococo Art of the Greek Modern Art Christian and Gothic Art Realism Art Contemporary Art Prehistoric Art In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Paleolithic Evidence of artistic expression is known only from the Upper Paleolithic, created by Homo sapiens. The symmetry and attention given to the shape of a tool has led authors to see Middle Palaeolithic hand axes and especially laurel points as artistic expressions as well. Blombos cave, situated in South Africa, stones were discovered engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns, suggesting that early Homo sapiens were capable of abstraction and production of abstract art or symbolic art. These impressive works date to 70,000 years ago, which makes them about 40,000 years older than the Lascaux - type cave paintings. Upper Paleolithic period (broadly 40,000 to 10,000 years ago) It includes both cave painting (such as the famous paintings at Chauvet, Altamira, Pech Merle, and Lascaux), portable art (such as animal carvings and so - called Venus figurines like Venus of Willendorf), Open air art (such as the monumental Côa Valley in Portugal, Domingo García and Siega Verde, both in Spain, Mazouco in Mexico, Fornols-Haut in France). Neolithic According to archaeological evidence, the Jōmon people in ancient Japan were the first to develop pottery, dating to the 11th millennium BCE. The Jōmon people were making clay figures and vessels decorated with patterns made by impressing the wet clay In Central Europe, many Neolithic cultures, like Linearbandkeramic, Lengyel and Vinča, produced female (rarely male) and animal statues that can be called art. Whether the elaborate pottery decoration of, for example, the Želiesovce and painted Lengyel style are to be classified as art is a matter of definition. Free standing sculpture had already begun by the Neolithic, the earliest being the anthropomorphic figurines, often embellished by animals from the ver y beg in n in g of the Neolith i c discovered in Nevali Cori and Göbekli Tepe near Urfa in eastern Turkey, dating to ca. 10th millennium BCE. Monuments are found in the Neolithic from Portugal, through France, and across southern England to most of Wales and Ireland. They are also found in northern Germany and Poland, as well as in Egypt in the Sahara desert (at Nabata and other sites). The temples of Malta dating back to 3600 BCE these are the oldest free standing monuments in all the world . ANCIENT ART • The period of ancient art began when ancient civilizations developed a form of written language. • The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the six great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these centres of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art. Because of their size and duration these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. They have also provided us with the first records of how artists worked. • Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i.e. Zeus' thunderbolt). BYZANTINE ART Byzantine art is expressionistic art in the fullest sense. It was not a popular art but a princely, opulent and aristocratic style, glorying in its restrictions , expanding imaginatively within the dogmatic theology and unchanging ritual of the eastern church It did not flourish constantly but it did last until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. But elements of style have survived in central and eastern Europe until the present century. The subjective mood and mystic attitude induced by Byzantine use of interior domed space and colored symbolic decoration were typically oriented. EGYPTIAN ART The history of Ancient Egypt, long more than 3000 years, is divided into 8 or 9 periods, sometimes called Kingdoms. The Ancient Egyptians themselves rather . The importance of religion and the respect for death ruled their art. They built mostly temples, graves and adopted strict controlled by The priests. The Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B.C.) The old kingdom is an important period in political and cultural development of Ancient Egypt. Centuries of uninterrupted rise, established one of the most powerful cultures of the ancient world. During this period Hieroglyphic writing reached its sophistication. The techniques of crafts developed to a high professionalism. King Djoser, builder of the step pyramid at Saqqara, is the first and most celebrated king of the third dynasty. The works of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus, the creators of the three pyramids at Giza represents the peak of achievements in the architectural field. The Middle Kingdom (2050-1800 B.C.) Pyramid building was also revived, but much humbler then in the old kingdom. This rise was followed by the ultimate downfall and the country fell into the hands of foreign rulers. The New Kingdom (1550-1080 B.C.) During this period Egypt reached the zenith of its power. Egypt extended further south in Africa and into the Middle East under Late Period (after 1080 B.C.) The late period was a period of deterioration. Kingship suffered a decline in prestige, and the political and social systems were unstable Art of Renaissance Early Renaissance Renaissance marks the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the Modern world. It represents a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries. Early Renaissance, mostly in Italy, bridges the art period during the fifteenth century, between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance in Italy. It is generally known that Renaissance matured in Northen Europe later, in 16th century. The main idea of rebirth lies at the belief that through the study of the intellectual and artistic treasures of the Greco-Roman antiquity, inspired by Humanism, can be reached the artistic greatness, wisdom and enlightenment. The rediscovery of classical world radically altered the art of painting. The spiritual content of painting changed - subjects from Roman history and mythology were borrowed. Classical artistic principles, including harmonious proportion, realistic expression, and the rational postures were emulated. During this artistic period two regions of Western Europe were particularly active: Flanders and Italy. Most of the Early Renaissance works in northern Europe were produced between 1420 and 1550. High Renaissance High Renaissance in Italy is the climax of Renaissance art, from 1500-1525. It is also considered as a sort of natural evolution of Italian Humanism. It has been characterized by explosion of creative genius. Painting especially reached its peak of technical competence, rich artistic imagination and heroic composition. The main characteristics of High Renaissance painting are harmony and balance in construction. Italian High Renaissance artists achieved ideal of harmony and balance comparable with the works of ancient Greece or Rome. Forms, colors and proportions, light and shade effects, spatial harmony, composition. Along with forms, colors and proportions, light and shade effects, spatial harmony, composition A new technique of drawing perspective was developed during this period. ART OF BAROQUE & ROCOCO A term "Rococo" describes a movement in the arts in the early 18th century, in France. Rococo has been born from the Baroque era, during the age of Enlightenment, The word "rococo" is derived from "rocaille", meaning "rock work" or "shell work," a favorite motif of the time. Rococo stresses purely ornamental, light, casual, irregular design. Rococo art portrayed a world of artificiality, make-believe, and game-playing. (all of which can be found in the baroque). The Rococo style is characterized by pastel colors, gracefully delicate curving forms . Extreme highlights are placed on the subject matter and the overall work is light in color, effect, and emotion. Baroque Baroque was born in Italy, and adopted in France, Germany, Netherlands, and Spain.Baroque covers a wide range of styles and artists.In painting and sculpture we recognize three main forms of Baroque: Baroque that use revolutionary technique of dramatic, selective illumination of figures out of deep shadow - a hallmark of Baroque painting. Baroque favors higher volumes, exaggerates decorations, adds colossal sculptures, huge furniture etc. Sense of movement, energy, and tension are dominant impressions. Strong contrasts of light and shadow often enhance dramatic effects. In architecture, there was a special attention given to animation and grandeur achieved through scale, the dramatic use of light and shadow. Modern Art Modern Art is a term that refers to artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s through the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The birth of modern art is 1863, the year that Édouard Manet exhibited his painting Le déjeuner sur l'herbe in the Salon des Refusés in Paris. Earlier dates have also been proposed, among them 1855 The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing, and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. Romanticism In a general sense, the term "Romanticism" has been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writers, musicians, as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers of the late eighteenth and to mid nineteenth centuries. It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trends of that era. Romanticism found themes in evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of the "sensibility" with its emphasis on women and children, the heroic isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for a new, wilder, untrammeled and "pure" nature. Romanticism played an essential role in the national awakening of many Central European peoples lacking their own national states, which had recently lost its independence when Russia's army crushed the Polish Rebellion. Art Of Realism Realism appears in art as early as 2400 BC in the city of Lothal in what is now India, and examples can be found throughout the history of art. In the broadest sense, realism in a work of art exists wherever something has been well observed and accurately depicted. . For example, the proto-Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone brought a new realism to the art of painting by rendering physical space and volume far more convincingly than his Gothic predecessors In spite of its social inclinations Realism produces NEW style in architecture and few of the valuable sculptures lesser then expected. It was the time of introduction of new technologies and techneques in constructions. The revolutionary modular construction and largest spans in structural skeleton that could then be mass- produced - used on exhibition halls, railway stations; The use of cast iron as building material and invention of twisted-wire cable that extended main spans of bridges in countries like Europe and United States. Less positive attitude toward technological progress can be seen in the first attempts to incorporate structural iron into the proper achitecture of history. Contemporary Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time produced since World War II. The definition of word would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced since World War II. Shenzhen museum Contemporary art is exhibited by commercial contemporary art galleries, private collectors, corporations, publicly funded arts organizations, contemporary art museums or by artists themselves in artist-run spaces. Contemporary artists are supported by grants, awards and prizes as well as by direct sales of their work.
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