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MENU PLANNING (PowerPoint)

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					MENU PLANNING
                GOALS


To introduce the student to menu planning
            OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this presentation, the
student will be able to:
• Plan menus for large quantities of
  clientele/patients
• Plan cycle menus
                    Menu
A menu is a detailed list of foods to be served
at a meal or a list of items offered by a
facility’s foodservice department.

The menu controls purchasing and production.

The menu determines
• Personnel needed
• The personnel work schedules
• The cost for personnel
    FACTORS AFFECTING MENU
          PLANNING
It is important to consider the following when
planning menus:
• The clientele-their nutritional needs, habits, and
   preferences
• The availability of food
• The availability of equipment and the physical
   arrangement of the kitchen
• The availability of personnel skills
• The aesthetic appearance of food to the client
   the style of service
• The money budgeted for food
                   Clientele
The primary consideration is the health of the
clients. Include the six nutrients:
• Protein
• Carbohydrates
• Fat
• Vitamins
• Minerals
• Water
Include the daily food choice pattern:
• USDA’s Food Guide Pyramid
                          Fats, Oils, and Sweets
                           Use Sparingly


          Milk and Milk Group            Meat, Poultry, and Fish Group
          Milk, Yogurt and Cheese        Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts
          (2-3 servings)                         (2-3 servings)

        Vegetable Group
                                                   Fruit Group
        (3-5 servings)
                                                   (2-4 servings



                                             Grains and Starchy
                                             Vegetable Group
                                             Bread, Cereal, Rice, & Pasta
                                             (6-11 servings)
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
 • EAT A VARIETY OF FOODS

 • BALANCE THE FOOD YOU EAT WITH
   PHYSICAL ACTIVITY-MAINTAIN OR
   IMPROVE YOUR WEIGHT

 • CHOOSE A DIET WITH PLENTY OF GRAIN
   PRODUCTS, VEGETABLES, AND FRUITS

 • CHOOSE A DIET LOW IN FAT, SATURATED
   FAT, AND CHOLESTEROL
• CHOOSE A DIET MODERATE IN SUGAR

• CHOOSE A DIET MODERATE IN SALT AND
  SODIUM

• IF YOU DRINK ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES,
  DO SO IN MODERATION
Other considerations are:
• Three meals, plus snacks
• Modified versions for special needs
• Fixed food habits and food preferences
• Different cultural and ethnic backgrounds
• Racial and regional foods
• Customs and religious restrictions
        Availability of Food

• Fresh foods
• Seasonal foods
• New foods
 Availability of Equipment and
Arrangement of Physical Facilities

• Plan menus according to the kitchen and
  serving area arrangements.
• Equipment
• Refrigeration space
• Freezer space
             Personnel Skills

• Plan menus that require preparation that are
  within the skills of the personnel
   Money Budgeted for Food

• Balance higher-cost meals with lower-cost
  meals
            Style of Service

Consider the style of service:
• Tray service
• American service
• Buffet service
            The Cycle Menu
• A set of carefully planned menus rotated
  according to a definite pattern.
• After a pre-planned period of time, the menu
  repeats itself.
• Cycles maybe four, five, or six weeks.
  Five week cycles are the most popular
• Usually a non-selective cycle menu
• A record of individual preferences are
  important.
   Advantages of the Cycle Menu
• Time is available to revise menus for
  –   holidays
  –   personnel
  –   season of the year
  –   plan for the use of leftovers
  –   plan for use of new foods and recipes
  –   to take advantage of lower-cost foods
• Time is available for supervision of
  personnel.
• Recipes and preparation procedures are
  standardized.
• Equipment use is more efficient.
• Workloads are more evenly distributed and
  improved with repeated use.
• Forecasting and purchasing are simpler
  and better.
• Money is saved because unpopular foods
  are eliminated and the amount of food
  actually needed is planned and purchased.
 Disadvantage of the Cycle Menu
• Menus can become monotonous
  – If the cycle is too short.
  – If the same food is served on the same
    day each week.
    Procedures for Good Menus
• Plan or revise menu in advance
• Set a time for menu planning and revising
• Set a place for menu planning and revising
• Have standardized recipes, menu and idea files,
  and suggestions from clients.
• Review the menus used during the past 2 weeks
  to avoid repetition and monotony.
• Know the market and foods in season.
• Be alert to new foods and products
• Review the records of food on hand and take
  inventory, if necessary.
• Add new foods to the menu at least once a week.
• Provide a recipe for all food items.
• Provide a time schedule for cooking vegetables
  and meats.
What to Consider in Planning Menus
 •   Color
 •   Texture
 •   Temperature
 •   Consistency
 •   Size, Shape, and form
 •   Flavor Combinations
 •   Light and Heavy Foods
 •   Preparation Methods
 •   Presentation
              Writing Menus
The following steps are one approach to writing
menus in an orderly manner.
• Write the meat or main dishes for lunch and
  supper throughout the cycle.
• Select vegetables.
• Select the salad and breads.
• Select the dessert.
• Write the breakfast menu.
• Include at least two foods in each meal that can
  be used for soft diets and little change for other
  modified diets.
• Check menus for repetition to be sure that one food
  is not used more than once on the same day, 2 days
  in a row, or on the same day each week.

• Evaluate the menu using a checklist.
  – Do the menus provide for the nutritional needs of the
    clients?

  – Are the foods in season, available, and within budget?

  – Can the foods be prepared with the equipment and
    personnel available?
– Do the foods offer contrasts
   •   in color?
   •   in texture?
   •   in temperature?
   •   in consistency?
   •   in size, shape, and form?
   •   in flavor?
   •   in lightness and heaviness?
   •   in preparation methods?


– Are personnel and equipment workloads balanced?

– Is there a repetition of a food item or flavor within a day
  or meal?
– Do flavors complement each other?

– Are suitable garnishes and accompaniments used for
  interest?

– Are new ideas in combinations or preparation
  methods included?
             Evaluating Menus
Such records should include:
• Any changes and why they were made
• Balanced use of equipment available for food
  preparation
• The appearance of tray or plate
• Any last-minute preparation delays
Evaluating menus should be an ongoing process.
• Observing plate waste
• Surveying the clients for food likes and dislikes
• Using comment cards

				
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