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Levels of Support Levels of Prompting

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					 Levels of Support/
Levels of Prompting
Paraeducator Summer Institute
                August, 2006
Email Your Questions to:


   Para@pattan.net
Local Policy

Your local school district, IU, preschool or
  employing agency’s policies regarding
  paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and
  responsibilities provide the final word!
Paraeducator Development Plan Menu
(to be used in conjunction with Paraeducator’s Personal Development Plan)
 Directions: This menu is a tool for you to use as you progress through the Paraeducator Course. Whenever you come
 across topics about which you would like more information, place a checkmark next to the topic and indicate in the Notes
 column any specifics (for example, in #1 indicate which disability). For each topic checked make an entry in the
 Paraeducator Personal Development Plan.
      3                                        Topics                               Notes

            1.    Characteristics of the Disability

            2.    Instructional Strategies

            3.    Lifting

            4.    Feeding (food issues)

            5.    Toileting

            6.    Assistive Technology and Adaptive Equipment

            7.    Orientation and Mobility

            8.    Transportation

            9.    Sign Language

           10.    Behavioral Strategies

           11.    Data Collection

           12.    Job Coaching

           13.    Restraint Techniques

          14.    Confidentiality

           15.    Socialization Issues

           16.    Communication Issues

           17.    Safety Issues

           18.    Sensory Impairment

          19.    Early Intervention

          20. How to be a “Shadow” in a Child Care Center

          21. Basic Educational Terminology

          22. Other

          23.

          24.

          25.
                           Paraeducator Development Plan

What topics do I need to
                            Where can I get the    What action steps       When will I
know more about for my
                           information/training?   am I going to take?   complete this?
         job?
Agenda

   Define “student independence”

   Share strategies to build independence

   The Natural Cycle of Behavior:
    Case scenarios
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
 Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompts,
  modeling, shaping, wait time, use of
  reinforcers, and fading of support).
 Apply these instructional concepts to
  scenarios as strategies to teach
  independence.
 Apply strategies to instruction.
Student Independence
                            What is it?
                         Why build it?
              What does it look like?
   What is my role in building student
                      independence?
Our Goal…

   Our goal as paraeducators is to help students
    with disabilities become as independent as
    possible throughout the school, home, and
    community.
Student Independence
What is it?
   Freedom from the influence or control of
    others
   Completing a task without undo assistance
   Using resources to meet your personal needs
   Self-help aka Self-advocating
   Making appropriate choices and decisions
   Being able to say, “I can do it myself!”
Student Independence
What is it?
   Students…
    “need a supportive environment to function
    successfully in school—and later in the
    workplace. A supportive environment enables
    them to capitalize on their strengths and
    minimize or cope effectively with their
    weaknesses” (Larkin, 2001)
Student Independence
Why Build it?
   Builds self-esteem
   Motivates a student to achieve
   Gives student a sense of purpose
   Social acceptance
   Reduces stereotypic labels
   Allows teachers to focus on instruction
Student Independence
What does it look like?
   Use of a planner to write down assignments
   Use of magnification software to read a text
   Using a joystick to manipulate a computer
   Use of pictures to guide task completion
   Use of an orthopedic device for walking
   Taking the elevator rather than the stairs
   Tying ones own shoes
Student Independence
What is my role in building
student independence?

   Build your knowledge about strategies
   Help only when they cannot do it themselves
   Teach independence
   Offer support, as needed
   Build independence throughout the day
Scaffolding Instruction
Scaffolding Instruction
Defined
“Scaffolded instruction is the “systematic
  sequencing of prompted content, materials,
  tasks, and teacher and peer support to
  optimize learning.”
                          (Dickson, Chard, & Simmons, 1993, p. 12)
Scaffolding Instruction
Essential Features
   Interaction takes place in a collaborative
    environment and honors the child’s
    intentions
   Expectations are developmentally
    appropriate
   Support is gradually withdrawn as skills are
    gained
   The child internalizes the knowledge and
    becomes independent
Scaffolding Instruction
Guidelines for Implementation
   Identify what the student already knows
   Begin with what the student CAN do
   Help students achieve success quickly
   Help students to “be” like everyone else
   Know when it’s time to stop
   Help students be independent when they
    have command of the activity
Our Goal…

   Our goal as paraeducators is to help students
    with disabilities become as independent as
    possible throughout the school, home, and
    community.
Strategies to Build
    Independence
          Cues/Prompts
              Modeling
               Shaping
             Wait Time
                Fading
            Reinforcers
Strategies to build independence
Cues/Prompts
   Verbal or nonverbal signals that indicate what
    action is necessary

    Example:
       “Do you remember the 9/10 strategy
       we learned yesterday?”
Strategies to build independence
Modeling
   To demonstrate a behavior or completion of a
    task for the learner
    Example:
           25         50   75      $1.00
Strategies to build independence
Shaping
   To teach a behavior or task by providing
    cues, models, and consequences for steps
    demonstrated gradually until the final
    behavior or task is learned
    Example:

    Wider-lined paper      Narrower-lined paper
Strategies to build independence
Wait Time
   The amount of time given to the student to
    respond to a question or complete a task

    Example:
    Question (wait 20 seconds)
    No response? Rephrase the question.
Strategies to build independence
Fading
   A gradual reduction of cues/prompts and
    extrinsic (outside) reinforcers as the student
    demonstrates desired behavior or task

    Example:
Strategies to build independence
Reinforcers
     Any action or event that increases the likelihood that
      a behavior will occur

         Positive Reinforcer
          Adding something desirable
          Example: “You have earned extra free time!”

         Negative Reinforcer
          Taking away an aversive
          Example: “You only have to finish the first half of the
          worksheet”
Strategies to build independence
Reinforcers
   Reinforcers that occur naturally

    Example: David follows directions to silently
    read a story. He participates in class
    discussion. When the next story is assigned,
    David eagerly opens his book and reads.
Strategies to build independence
Reinforcers
   Reinforcers that are contrived (not naturally
    occurring) and are intentionally provided to
    increase the behavior or to ensure task
    completion

    Example: Accelerated Reader
             Videogames (Score!)
             Popcorn Party for good behavior
Making Connections
  to the Classroom
       Activity
Making Connections to the
Classroom Activity
Directions:
  With a partner, read the scenarios and
  determine which type of support has been
  offered to the student. Check the column of
  the appropriate strategy. I will model one for
  you!
Making Connections to the
Classroom Activity: I do!
Math is scheduled after language. Lisa has
 finished her language arts assignments and
 is sitting at her desk. The paraeducator points
 to a schedule taped to Lisa’s desk to indicate
 that it is 10:00 and time for math. Lisa takes
 out her math book, waiting for the teacher to
 begin the math lesson.
Making Connections to the
Classroom Activity: We do!
While accompanying the class to McDonald’s,
 Lisa selects the items to order, places her
 order, pays and checks her change. The
 clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at
 McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and
 other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa is
 excited about the possibility of coming back
 to McDonald’s again.
Making Connections to the
Classroom Activity: We do!
While accompanying the class to McDonald’s,
 Lisa selects the items to order, places her
 order, pays and checks her change. The
 clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at
 McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and
 other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa
 is excited about the possibility of coming
 back to McDonald’s again.
Making Connections to the
Classroom Activity: You do!
Complete the following 5 scenarios with your
 partner and check the column showing the
 strategy used.
The Natural Cycle
     of Behavior
       Case Scenarios
The Natural Cycle of Behavior
   Natural or Imposed Cue
   Behavior or Action
   Reinforcer
   Independence
Natural or Imposed Cue:     The Natural Cycle of Behavior
                                      Strategy for Independence
    Expected Behavior:




   Does the Student
   perform the skill
   correctly?                    No


      Reinforcer




Student connecting the natural
or imposed cue, behavior, and
reinforcer?
                                 No

Student demonstrates behavior               1998 LRConsulting
        independently
Strategies to build independence
The Natural Cue
   It’s raining outside…
Strategies to build independence
The Imposed Cue
   Questions
   Options
   Auditory Cue
   Visual Cue
   Tactile Cue
   Natural Cue:                 The Natural Cycle of Behavior
   It’s Raining Outside
                                       Cues/Prompts
                                       Draw attention to the natural
Student will take an umbrella
    when going outside.                cues/prompts in some way.

   Does the student                    Ask a question about
   perform the skill
   correctly?
                                       necessary action.
                                  No

                                       Give an option.
      Reinforcer:
   Student Stays Dry
                                       Tell the student what action
                                       to take.
 Student connecting the natural
 cue, behavior, and intrinsic
 reinforcer?                           Physically guide the student
                                  No
                                       through the process.
Student demonstrates behavior
        independently                             1998 LRConsulting
   Natural Cue:                 The Natural Cycle of Behavior
   It’s Raining Outside


                                       Modeling
Student will take an umbrella
    when going outside.                Point out someone who is
                                       doing the behavior correctly.
   Does the Student
   perform the skill
   correctly?                    No
                                       Demonstrate the action that
                                       needs to be taken.
      Reinforcer:
   Student Stays Dry




Student connecting the natural
cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

                                 No

Student demonstrates behavior
        independently
   Natural Cue:                 The Natural Cycle of Behavior
   It’s Raining Outside

                                       Shaping
Student will take an umbrella
    when going outside.
                                       Break the task/behavior into
                                       smaller steps
   Does the Student
   perform the skill
   correctly?                    No    Model steps

      Reinforcer:
   Student Stays Dry                   Have student complete initial
                                       or final step
Student connecting the natural
cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

                                 No    Gradually add steps for
                                       student to complete
Student demonstrates behavior
        independently
   Natural Cue:                 The Natural Cycle of Behavior
   It’s Raining Outside

                                       Wait Time
Student will take an umbrella
    when going outside.
                                       After questioning/modeling,
                                       paraeducator allows
                                       adequate time for the
   Does the Student
   perform the skill                   student to respond.
   correctly?                     No


      Reinforcer:
   Student Stays Dry




 Student connecting the natural
 cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

                                  No

Student demonstrates behavior
        independently
Instrinsic & Extrinsic
Reinforcers
   Draw attention to the natural consequences
    of performing the behavior
   Ask a question about what natural
    consequences resulted from performing the
    behavior
   Connect the behavior to a reinforcer
The Natural Cycle
of Behavior
Activity
        Natural Cue:              The Natural Cycle of Behavior
        It’s 10:00 – Math Time
                                            Cues/Prompts
                                            Draw attention to the natural
   Student will take out math book
     and prepare for the lesson
                                            cues/prompts in some way.

                                            Ask a question about
        Does the Student
        perform the skill                   necessary action.
        correctly?                     No
                                            Give an option.
           Reinforcer:
Student participates in math lesson         Tell the student what action
                                            to take.
      Student connecting the natural
      cue, behavior, and reinforcer?        Physically guide the student
                                       No   through the process.

     Student demonstrates behavior
             independently
        Natural Cue:              The Natural Cycle of Behavior
        It’s 10:00 – Math Time
                                            Modeling
                                            Point out someone who is
   Student will take out math book
     and prepare for the lesson
                                            doing the behavior correctly.

                                            Demonstrate the action that
        Does the Student
        perform the skill                   needs to be taken.
        correctly?                     No


           Reinforcer:
Student participates in math lesson




      Student connecting the natural
      cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

                                       No

     Student demonstrates behavior
             independently
        Natural Cue:              The Natural Cycle of Behavior
        It’s 10:00 – Math Time
                                            Shaping

   Student will take out math book          Break the task/behavior into
     and prepare for the lesson             smaller steps

        Does the Student
        perform the skill
        correctly?                     No
                                            Model steps


           Reinforcer:
Student participates in math lesson
                                            Have student complete initial
                                            or final step

      Student connecting the natural
      cue, behavior, and reinforcer?
                                            Gradually add steps for
                                       No
                                            student to complete
     Student demonstrates behavior
             independently
        Natural Cue:              The Natural Cycle of Behavior
        It’s 10:00 – Math Time
                                            Wait Time

   Student will take out math book
     and prepare for the lesson
                                            After questioning/modeling,
                                            paraeducator allows
                                            adequate time for the
        Does the Student
        perform the skill                   student to respond.
        correctly?                     No


           Reinforcer:
Student participates in math lesson




      Student connecting the natural
      cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

                                       No

     Student demonstrates behavior
             independently
        Natural Cue:              The Natural Cycle of Behavior
        It’s 10:00 – Math Time
                                            Intrinsic Reinforcers

   Student will take out math book
     and prepare for the lesson
                                            Draw attention to the natural
                                            consequences of performing
                                            the behavior
        Does the Student
        perform the skill
        correctly?                     No   Ask a question about what
                                            natural consequences
           Reinforcer:                      resulted from performing the
Student participates in math lesson         behavior

      Student connecting the natural
                                            Connect the behavior to a
      cue, behavior, and reinforcer?        reinforcer
                                       No

     Student demonstrates behavior
             independently
Case Scenarios
Works for Me!
   Think of a student with whom you work
   Think of a time in the day that is a challenge
    due to lack of independence in the student
   Consider the “Natural Cycle of Behavior” and
    determine how you can build student
    independence
   Consider which strategy you will use
   Complete the blank form based on your case
    scenario
Case Scenarios
Works for Me!
Classroom Connection
With a partner, share a way in which you could
 use the information learned today…

Consider:
The Strategies for Independence
The Natural Cycle of Behavior
Scaffolding your level of support
Learner Outcome
Participants will:
 Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompts,
  modeling, shaping, wait time, use of
  reinforcers, and fading of support).
 Apply these instructional concepts to
  scenarios as strategies to teach
  independence.
 Apply strategies to instruction.
References
   Lifelines, LRConsulting, Katy, TX. Further information is available at
    www.lrconsulting.com.

   Larkin, M. J., (2001). Providing support for student independence through
    scaffolded instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, (1). p. 30.

   Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment
    and Fade Plan presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, April 7,
    2005 by Janet Hull, Anne Arundel County Public Schools.

   Dickson, S. V., chard, D. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1993). An integrated
    reading/writing curriculum: A focus on scaffolding. LD Forum, 18(4), 12-16.

   Beed, P., Hawkins, E., & Roller, C., (1991). Moving learners toward
    independence: The power of scaffolded instruction. The Reading Teacher
    (44) 9, p. 648-655.
Upcoming Videoconferences
Upcoming Regional Training
Sessions
Wrap Up
   Complete the Paraeducator Development
    Plan
   Complete Evaluation Form