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					                Temperature

• Temperature

• Air Temperature

• Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

• The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

• World Patterns of Air Temperature

• Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
                Temperature
 A measure of the level of
sensible heat of matter

 Determined by the
balance of energy flows
               Temperature




United States scale Vs The rest of the World
                Temperature

• Temperature

• Air Temperature

• Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

• The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

• World Patterns of Air Temperature

• Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
 Five key factors influence Air Temperature

Insolation - daily and seasonal variations

Latitude - also daily and seasonal variations, and
energy deficit
Surface type - albedo of surface as well as surface
moisture
Location (coastal vs. interior) - temperature range is
lower at coasts
Elevation - thinner atmosphere means less
greenhouse effect
   Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Insolation
 Insolation
varies with time of
day, season and
location


During the day
Insolation is
positive, During
the night it is
negative

 Net Radiation- the balance between incoming and
 outgoing radiation
Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Net Radiation
 When net
radiation is
Positive
(surplus) a
surface gains
heat

 when net
radiation is
negative
(deficit) a
surface loses
heat
Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Temperature

 Positive net
radiation leads to
an increase in
temperature
(notice that there
is a time lag)
  Air Temperature – The Urban Heat Island




Water is channeled so surfaces tend to be dry
 Surfaces are often dark (asphalt)
 Building materials store heat, and heat is released
from buildings
Cooler Temperatures - rural areas
Transpiration (or evaporation from leaves) cools
the surface and the air around the plant
Evaporation from moist soils also cools the area
     These two combined = Evapotranspiration
The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
Location: Land and Water Contrasts
Land heats and cools quickly while water heats and cools slowly




                                                     Figure 3.15, p. 101
 The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature: Land and
 Water Contrasts

 Maritime locations
experience a smaller
annual range of
temperature (maritime
climates)

 Continental locations
experience a larger
annual range of
temperature (continental
climates)
     Elevation and Temperature
 Generally   temperatures drop with altitude
 Daily temperature range also increases
                Temperature

• Temperature

• Air Temperature

• Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

• The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

• World Patterns of Air Temperature

• Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
Heat is transferred through the atmosphere by:

Conduction (direct heat transfer from the heated
ground surface to the atmosphere)

Convection (heat transfer by warm air moving to
colder upper atmosphere)

Advection (heat transfer by warm air mixing with
colder adjacent air)
Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
 Atmosphere =
gaseous envelope
surrounding the Earth
 Made up of a series
of layers
 Atmosphere is held
down by gravity
 Most of the
atmosphere’s mass is
near the surface
Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
 The atmosphere is
 largely warmed from
 below
 Thus the farther away the
 air is from the surface the
 colder it will be.
 The decrease in air
 temperature with the
 increase in altitude is called
 the environmental lapse rate
                Temperature

• Temperature

• Air Temperature

• Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

• The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

• World Patterns of Air Temperature

• Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
Net Radiation and Temperature

Tilt of earth causes annual
variation in insolation
Which causes annual cycle
of net radiation       Which
causes annual cycle of air
temperatures.

Varying by latitude and
location:
• As latitude increases
temperature range increases
                Temperature

• Temperature

• Air Temperature

• Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

• The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

• World Patterns of Air Temperature
      World Patterns of Air Temperature
                       Isothermal Map
Distribution of air
temperatures shown
on a map use
isotherms (lines of
equal temperature)

Reveals centers
of low or high
temperatures, and
temperature
gradients
   World Patterns of Air Temperature
Air Temperature patterns are determined by:


1. Latitude- as latitude increases annual insolation
   decreases (temperatures decrease from the
   equator to the poles)


2. Elevation- higher elevations have cooler temps.
3. Principle of continentality: coastal areas have
  more uniform temps while inland locations show a
  much larger variation in annual temperature
4. Ocean
Currents