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					ISSN:
Interoperability,
Identification, Innovation

  Regina Romano Reynolds
  National Serials Data Program
  Library of Congress
     Or…
ISSN: Sew What?
                            Suits many brands and models




“Plastic bobbins can be
used on all machines that
used metal bobbins
except those with
magnetic bobbin winders”
Standardized, Interchangeable Parts
          (Industrial Age)
Interoperability (Digital Age)
Interoperability
 The ability of two or more systems
 or components to exchange
 information and to use the
 information that has been
 exchanged. [IEEE 90]
Standards in a Non-Standard
World
   Libraries now less standardized:
    • Different ILS implementations; handling
     of e-resources in or outside of catalog;
     single vs. multiple record approach;
     “home-grown” or purchased link
     resolution, etc.
   Libraries now interact with a greater
   variety of communities:
    • Publishers; vendors, information
     industry; more global partners
ISSN and Interoperability
 Importing and exporting data to and from
    various sources (PAMS, A&I services)
   Migrating to new systems
   Data Exchange, ONIX transactions
   Database management: merging, matching
     • ERMS
     • ILS, OPAC
     • De-duplication
   Linking!!
    •   Open URL, other reference linking (CrossRef, etc.)
    •   Linking from OPAC to external files, Web pages, etc
    •   Linking from databases to OPAC (“hook-to-
        holdings”)
ONIX for Serials
                   ISSN
                           OPACs

                                   ERMS



          SICI

  PAMS databases
                   A&I databases
Identifiers
 For “parties” (publishers, libraries,
  organizations, etc.) e.g., SAN: more are
  needed!
 For services and/or packages: can
  ISSN be used? (under consideration)
 For resources (including articles):
  ISBN, ISMN, ISSN, DOI, SICI
ISSN and Identification
 Original, basic function of the ISSN
 Numerical equivalent of a unique title
  (i.e., key title)
 Why identify?
   • Titles are difficult to search and match on
   • Many titles are the same or similar
 “So titles won’t get lost in databases”
Linking:
Connecting Users to Content
Getting Users From Citation
to Online Article
 Does the library subscribe to this
  journal?
 In which aggregation(s) or package(s)
  can this journal be found?
 Which aggregations or packages
  contain the volume and issue in which
  the article appears?
 If the library does not have the article in
  online form, does it have it in print?
OpenURL & Link Resolvers
Link resolution software resolves OpenURL
“requests” by:
    - Identifying the bibliographic elements
    of an OpenURL, especially the ISSN
    - Comparing those elements to
    institution-specific resolution tables
    - Identifying the most appropriate
    “services” to present to a user


                             Based on a slide by Steve Shadle
            OpenURL & Link Resolution
                             Database SFX buttonURL producing search
                             Clicking validates user andOpen URL to
                             SFX selects individual search
                                  server resolves sends performs
                             User submits database citation
                             SFX server result
                             customized

                                                                       search       xyz.edu student
  XYZ.edu
  SFX user

                         http://sfxserver.xyz.edu/…          result
                                                              server
                           OpenURL

ISSN
Record 15 of 286 in BIOSIS Previews
TI: Developmental expression of amylases during barley malting.
AU: Georg-Kraemer-J-E; Mundstock-E-C; Cavalli-Molina-S {a}
SO: Journal-of-Cereal-Science. [print] May, 2001; 33 (3): 279-288.
IS: 0733-5210
PY: 2001
AB: Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase
isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated
in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars….                                     Based on a slide by Steve Shadle
  “Murky Bucket Syndrome”
                              Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC




        OPAC Record          SFX Knowledge Base

ISSN 1234-567X (print)   =          ISSN
                               ISSN 5432-1234
                                       (Online)


     “The Library does not hold this title in print”
Current Situation
 Many publishers use only 1 ISSN
  for print and online
 Some OPACs have single record
  policy; others have separate
  records
 OpenURL linking, record merging,
  de-duping, etc. don’t work!
 Confusion, dissatisfaction
What Should ISSN Identify?
 Works?
  all related resources, regardless of title
    changes, medium, language
 Titles?
  all resources having the same title regardless
    of medium
 Bibliographic entities?
  resources that would be cataloged on a
    separate bibliographic record
 Products?
  any continuing resource or version a publisher
   needs to identify for selling purposes
Innovation
 Revise ISSN standard (ISO 3297):
  • Cover all continuing resources,
    integrating as well as serials
  • Provide for identification at multiple
    levels
  • Establish ISSN User Group
 Develop new services at ISSN
  International Centre (resolution and
  look-up)
 Clarify, communicate: what does ISSN
  identify?
         Possible ISSN
    Identification“levels”
      Title level: One ISSN
        for t-shirt and online
        version
       “Middle level”:
S       separate ISSN for t-
        shirt and online
        version
       Product level:
        separate ISSN for
        online, plus one each
        for small, medium and
        large size shirts!
“Middle Level” Identification
 ISSN will remain at this level
 Current level, per ISSN Manual: separate
    ISSN for print, online, CD-ROM, etc. versions
   Corresponds generally to same level at which
    bibliographic resources are now cataloged
   Reproductions remain an issue
   Title-level and product-level identification will
    be in addition to this existing base level
Title-Level Identification
 One of the “cluster” of multiple ISSN to be
  designated the “tISSN”
 Rules to be developed for choosing tISSN
 Informational “annex” containing instructions
  on how to use tISSN for title-level
    identification in conjunction with other
    standards such as DOI, OpenURL, and Info
    URI
   MARC 024 (other standard identifier) in new
    subfield for tISSN
Made-Up Example: 024 tISSN
Title-Level Identifier
 Embed “tISSN” in another identifier
according to instructions in the new
standard’s informational annex:
   E.g.,
   DOI: tISSN:1234-567X
   URN: tISSN:1234-567X
   Info URI: tISSN 1234-567X
                           URN
      OpenURL   Info URI




DOI
“Info” URI
 Intended to be used for bibliographic
    resources
   Supports identification without resolution
   Enthusiasm in the library/information world;
    ANSI/NISO support
   Syntax can embed ISSN
   Would require development work to enable
    resolution
   In development
Advantages To “Embedded”
Approach
 Keeps title-level identifier within the
  realm of the ISSN
 Avoids having to invent a totally new
  standard
 Demonstrates ISSN convergence with
  emerging standards and usage
 Capitalizes on functionality of the ISSN
  Register
Title-Level ISSN Uses
 OpenURL resolution regardless of
  multiple ISSN for manifestations
 Collocation in ERMS
 OPAC searching to retrieve all
  manifestations
 All situations where identification
  without regard to medium is desired
Product-Level ISSN
 To identify at a finer level of granularity,
  e.g., different sizes of diskettes,
  hardback vs. paperback version, PDF
  vs. HTML
 Needed by subscription agents,
  magazine distributors, others for precise
  ordering, claiming, licensing, pricing
 Potential to work with 13-digit EAN or
  other systems (RFID??)
EAN for a French serial
ISSN Link-Resolution and
Look-up Service
 Will use ISSN Register (Paris)
 Real-time or batch query look-up
 Human or computer look-up desirable
 Retrieval of all metadata associated
  with an ISSN
 Retrieval of all ISSN related to another
  ISSN
 Interest among OpenURL service
  vendors and others is being determined
Communication,
Clarification, Maintenance
 Revised standard should clearly state
  assignment policies
 Assignment policies should be posted
  on ISSN IC and NC Web sites
 New or re-stated policies will be easier
  to communicate to requestors and
  easier to enforce
 Possible development of an ISSN
  subscription service to “push” new and
  changed ISSN to subscribers ??
ISSN User Group


 Advisory group of user
  representatives
 5 – 12 members
 Representatives from industry
  organizations, union lists of serials
 Goal: first meeting April 2005
ISSN (ISO 3297) Revision Timetable
 Feb. 2005: WG meets (develops draft)
 March 2005: WG comments via email on
  working draft
 May 2005: WG meets to finalize draft
 June 2005: draft sent to SC9 members for
  voting
 Sept. 2005: voting ends; results sent to
  WG5
 Oct. 2005: WG meets to review comments
  and revise draft (if necessary)
Depending on Results of
Voting and Revision (if necessary):

 Jan. 2006: Voting on DIS (draft)
 June 2006: Voting ends; results
  compiled
 August: FDIS (final draft) voting begins,
  if necessary
 Dec. 2006: New edition published!
If the ISSN did not exist,
someone would have to
invent it
ISO Working Group 5:
ISSN Revision
Amsterdam, February 2005
rrey@loc.gov

				
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