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					                                                                                                                              AIS-AIMSG/3-SN No. 6
                                                                                                                                             Appendix B
                                                                  AIM DEFINITIONS

LEGEND:                IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission
                       IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (See SEVOCAB)
                       ISO: International Organization for Standardization (ISO Concept Database:
                       http://cdb.iso.org/cdb/search.action?mc=lo)
                       ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993. Information technology – Vocabulary – Part 1: Fundamentals
                       NCOIC: Network Centric Operating Industry Consortium (Involves DoD, industry, others)
                       http://wiki.ncoic.net/index.php/Lexicon
                       SEVOVAB: Software and Systems Engineering Vocabulary (A project of the IEEE Computer Society and
                       ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC7, SEVOCAB includes definitions from international standards. Online:
                       http://pascal.computer.org/sev_display/search.action)

       Source                                         Term/Definition for Amendment 37                                               Remarks

                       Aeronautical data.
                       A representation of aeronautical facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for
Annex 15               communication, interpretation or processing.                                                           ACCEPTED
Roadmap                Same as Annex 15.
As of 3rd Meeting of
the Ad-hoc Group       Accepts the Annex 15 definition

                       Aeronautical information.
Annex 15               Information resulting from the assembly, analysis and formatting of aeronautical data.
Roadmap                Same as Annex 15.

                                                                                                                              Further study required to
                                                                                                                              accept and determine
                                                                                                                              need for a clarification
As of 3rd Meeting of                                                                                                          note. Recommend
the Ad-hoc Group       Information resulting from the assembly, analysis and processing of aeronautical data.                 adoption as is.

                       Aeronautical information management (AIM).
Annex 15               None
                       The dynamic, integrated management of aeronautical information services — safely, economically and
                       efficiently — through the provision and exchange of quality-assured digital aeronautical data in
Roadmap                collaboration with all parties.
                                                                                                                                Rejected in favor of
                                                                                                                                retaining the definition in
                        The management of resources and processes for the timely collection, integration, exchange and delivery the Roadmap with a
                        of accredited, quality-assured aeronautical information and data necessary for the safe, efficient, and minor revision as noted
Offered for 3rd Meeting economic operation of the ATM system.                                                                   below.
                        The dynamic, integrated management of aeronautical information services — safely, economically and      Retain the definition in
As of 3rd Meeting of    efficiently — through the provision and exchange of quality-assured digital aeronautical data and       the Roadmap with a
the Ad-hoc Group        information.                                                                                            minor revision.
                        This Roadmap and 3rd Meeting definitions state in part: management of... services "safely, etc." The
                        purpose is not to have "safe services." An alternative could be: The dynamic, integrated management of
                        aeronautical information services to ensure the provision and exchange of quality-assured digital
                        aeronautical data and information necessary for the safe, economic and efficient operation of the ATM
Recommendation          system.                                                                                                 Recommended

                        AIS product.
                        Aeronautical information provided in the form of the elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information
                        Package (except NOTAM and PIB), including aeronautical charts, or in the form of suitable electronic
Annex 15                media.
Roadmap                 None
As of 3rd Meeting of    Aeronautical information provided in the form of the elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information    Further discussion
the Ad-hoc Group        Package including aeronautical charts, or in the form of suitable electronic media.                         needed
                                                                                                                                    Paper products will be
                        The definition needs to allow for paper/physical products: Aeronautical information provided in the form of needed before and after
                        the elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package, including aeronautical charts              the transition to
Recommendation          conforming to specification for paper/physical products, or in the form of suitable electronic media.       automated provision.

                        Data.
Annex 15                None
Roadmap                 None
                        A representation of fact, concept, or instruction represented in a formalized form suitable for
As of 3rd Meeting of    communication, interpretation or processing either by human and/or by automated systems.           Note.
the Ad-hoc Group        — This is the lowest level of abstraction, compared to information and knowledge."                         ACCEPTED

                        Representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication,
ISO                     interpretation or processing by human or automatic means. (ISO 1213-1:1993. Entry No. 11.1.12)
                        A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication,
ISO/IEC                 interpretation, or processing. (ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993. Entry No. 01.01.02)
                        A collection of facts in an information system from which conclusions may be drawn and shared in basic
NCOIC                   form. (NCOIC Lexicon Version 2.0, July 2008)
                        (1) a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a manner suitable for communication,
                        interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means (ISO/IEC 24765:2009 Systems and
                        software engineering vocabulary) (2) collection of values assigned to base measures, derived measures
                        and/or indicators (ISO/IEC 25000:2005 Software Engineering -- Software product Quality Requirements
                        and Evaluation (SQuaRE) -- Guide to SQuaRE, 4.9) (ISO/IEC 15939:2007 Systems and software
                        engineering--Measurement process, 3.4) (3) the representation forms of information dealt with by
                        information systems and users thereof (ISO/IEC 10746-2:1996 Information technology -- Open
                        Distributed Processing -- Reference Model: Foundations, 3.2.6) (4) a reinterpretable representation of
                        information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or communication, or
                        processing. (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--Vocabulary--Part 1: Fundamental terms,
SEVOVAB                 01.01.02) See Also: data type

                        The term data means groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a
                        variable or set of variables. Data (plural of datum, which is seldom used) are typically the results of
                        measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are
                        often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and knowledge are derived. Raw
                        data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect
Dictionary/online       information to convert physical quantities into symbols that are unprocessed. (Wikipedia)

                        Database.
                        One or more files of data so structured that appropriate applications may draw from the files and update
                        them.                                                                                             Note. —
                        This primarily refers to data stored electronically and accessed by computer rather than in files of
Annex 15                physical records.

                        A usually large collection of data stored in structured digital format so that appropriate applications may
                        quickly retrieve and update it.
Roadmap                 Note. — This primarily refers to digital data (accessed by computers) rather than files of physical records.
                                                                                                                                    Suggested that ISO &
                                                                                                                                    IEEE definitions be
                                                                                                                                    consulted (as provided
                       A collection of data stored in structured digital format so that appropriate applications may retrieve and   below) prior to further
                       update it.                                                                                                   discussion. Recommend
Draft from 3rd Meeting Note. — This primarily refers to digital data (accessed by computers) rather than files of physical records. adoption.
                       Collection of data objects stored together, in electronic form, according to one schema and made
ISO                    accessible by computer. (ISO 690-2:1997 Entry No. 3.5)
                       A collection of data organized according to a conceptual structure describing the characteristics of these
                       data and the relationships among their corresponding entities, supporting one or more application areas.
ISO/IEC                 (ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993 Entry No 01.08.05)
                        An organized body of related information resident in an information system. (NCOIC Lexicon Version 2.0,
NCOIC                   July 2008)
                        (1) a collection of interrelated data stored together in one or more computerized files (ISO/IEC
                        24765:2009 Systems and software engineering vocabulary) (2) a collection of data organized according
                        to a conceptual structure describing the characteristics of the data and the relationships among their
                        corresponding entities, supporting one or more application areas (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information
                        technology--Vocabulary--Part 1: Fundamental terms, 01.08.05) (3) collection of data describing a specific
                        target area that is used and updated by one or more applications (ISO/IEC 29881:2008 Information
                        technology--Software and systems engineering--FiSMA 1.1 functional size measurement method, A.5)
SEVOVAB                 Syn: data base

                        One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and
                        query the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many records, each of which contains
Dictionary/online       the same set of fields where each field is a certain fixed width. (Free Online Dictionary of Computing)

                        Data management.
Annex 15                None
Roadmap                 None
                                                                                                                                     No consensus as to a
                                                                                                                                     definition or if the term is
                                                                                                                                     actually required or
                                                                                                                                     needed. Suggested
                       The management of resources and processes for the development and execution of the architectures,             research of the ISO
                       policies, practices and procedures that properly manage the full data lifecycle throughout the collection,    definition and continue
                       validation, integration, storage, protection, exchange and delivery of accredited, quality-assured and        discussion. Recommend
Draft from 3rd Meeting timely data.                                                                                                  adoption.
                       (1) In a data processing system, the functions that provide access to data, performs or monitors the
                       storage of data, and controls input-output operations. (ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993 Entry No 01.08.02) (2) the
                       activities of defining, creating, storing, maintaining and providing access to data and associated
ISO/IEC                processes in one or more information systems. (ISO/IEC TR 10032:2003 Entry No. 2.26)
NCOIC                  None

                        (1) in a data processing system, the functions that provide access to data, perform or monitor the storage
                        of data, and control input-output operations. (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--Vocabulary--
                        Part 1: Fundamental terms, 01.08.02) (2) the disciplined processes and systems that plan for, acquire,
                        and provide stewardship for business and technical data, consistent with data requirements, throughout
SEVOVAB                 the data lifecycle (ISO/IEC 24765:2009 Systems and software engineering vocabulary)
                        The official definition provided by DAMA or Boucher: "Data Resource Management is the development
                        and execution of architectures, policies, practices and procedures that properly manage the full data
                        lifecycle needs of an enterprise.‖ This definition is fairly broad and encompasses a number of professions
                        which may not have direct technical contact with lower-level aspects of data management, such as
                        relational database management. Alternatively, the definition provided in the DAMA Data Management
                        Body of Knowledge (DAMA-DMBOK) is: "Data management is the development, execution and
                        supervision of plans, policies, programs and practices that control, protect, deliver and enhance the value
Dictionary/online       of data and information assets. (Wikipedia)

                        Data set.
Annex 15                Identifiable collection of data (ISO 19101*)                                                                    ACCEPTED
Roadmap                 Identifiable collection of related digital data.

Draft from 3rd Meeting Accepted current definition in Annex 15.
ISO/IEC                Named collection of data structures for interoperability (ISO/IEC 24727-1:2007 Entry No 3.7)
NCOIC                  None
                       Only a related definition: data structure-centered design. (1) a software design technique in which the
                       architecture of a system is derived from analysis of the structure of the data sets with which the system
                       must deal (ISO/IEC 24765:2009 Systems and software engineering vocabulary) See Also: input-process-
                       output, modular decomposition, object-oriented design, rapid prototyping, stepwise refinement, structure
SEVOVAB                clash, structured design, transaction analysis, transform analysis
                       1) A data file or collection of interrelated data. The term is used in the mainframe community, whereas file
                       is used almost everywhere else. (2) A modem in AT&T terminology. (The Free Dictionary by Farlex
Dictionary/online      reference taken from the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia.)

                        Digital.
Annex 15                None
Roadmap                 Involving or relating to the use of computer technology or digital communications.

                                                                                                                                        Tentatively accepted;
                                                                                                                                        however need to review
                                                                                                                                        ISO. IEEE, etc
                       A description of data as a sequence of discrete values stored or transmitted in automation and                   definitions (as provided
Draft from 3rd Meeting communication systems.                                                                                           below). Recommend this.
                       Pertaining to data that consist of digits as well as to processes and functional units that use those data.
ISO/IEC                ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993 Entry No 01.02.04
NCOIC                  None.

                        (1) pertaining to data that consists of digits as well as to processes and functional units that use the data
SEVOVAB                 (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--Vocabulary--Part 1: Fundamental terms, 01.02.04)
                         A description of data which is stored or transmitted as a sequence of discrete symbols from a finite set,
                         most commonly this means binary data represented using electronic or electromagnetic signals. (Free
Dictionary/online        Online Dictionary of Computing)

                       Digital Aeronautical Data.
Annex 15               None
Roadmap                None
                       No consensus on whether to include or discard the definition recommended to the group: Aeronautical                  Not required.
Draft from 3rd Meeting data formatted in a manner suitable for transmission and interpretation by automated systems.                        Recommend delete.
NCOIC                  No related term.
SEVOVAB                No related term.
                       No term. Related term - digital data. Data in digital form. All data in the computer is in digital form.
Dictionary/online      Contrast with analog data. (Computer Desktop Encyclopedia)

                         Information.
Annex 15                 None
Roadmap                  None
                                                                                                                                            Tentatively accepted;
                                                                                                                                            however need to review
                                                                                                                                            ISO. IEEE, etc
                       A fact, concept or instruction that is the result of the assembly, analysis and suitable formatting of data.         definitions (as provided
                                                                                                              Note- It is used by           below). Recommend
Draft from 3rd Meeting humans for decision making.                                                                                          adoption.

ISO                      knowledge concerning such things as facts, concepts, objects, events, ideas (ISO 1087-2:2000 Entry no. 2.1)
                         〈information processing〉 knowledge concerning objects, such as facts, events, things, processes, or
                         ideas, including concepts, that within a certain context have a particular meaning (ISO/IEC 2382-
ISO/IEC                  1:1993) Also: ISO/IEC 25012:2008 Entry No 4.10
                         Facts, data, or instructions in any medium or form. Also, the meaning that a human assigns to data by
                         means of the known conventions used in their representation in information systems or by externally, e.g.,
NCOIC                    cognitively, applied inference and socialization. (NCOIC Lexicon Version 2.0, July 2008)

                         (1) knowledge that is exchangeable amongst users about things, facts, concepts, and so on, in a universe
                         of discourse (ISO/IEC 10746-2:1996 Information technology -- Open Distributed Processing -- Reference
                         Model: Foundations, 3.2.5) (2) In information processing, knowledge concerning objects, such as facts,
                         events, things, processes, or ideas, including concepts, that within a certain context has a particular
                         meaning (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--Vocabulary--Part 1: Fundamental terms ,
                         01.01.01) Note: Although information will necessarily have a representation form to make it
SEVOVAB                  communicable, it is the interpretation of this representation (the meaning) that is relevant in the first place.
                        In general, raw data that (1) has been verified to be accurate and timely, (2) is specific and organized for
                        a purpose, (3) is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and which (4) leads to
                        increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. The value of information lies solely in its ability to
                        affect a behavior, decision, or outcome. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it,
                        things remain unchanged. For the technical meaning of information see information theory. (Business
Dictionary/online       Dictionary.com)

                        Information Management.
Annex 15                None.
                        The processes defined to ensure the collection, utilization and transmission of quality data that are
Roadmap                 tailored to the needs of each component of the air traffic management system.
                                                                                                                               Tentatively accepted;
                                                                                                                               however need to review
                                                                                                                               ISO. IEEE, etc
                                                                                                                               definitions (as provided
                       The management of resources and processes for the timely collection, integration, exchange and delivery below). Recommend
Draft from 3rd Meeting of quality-assured data, information and services.                                                      adoption.
NCOIC                  None.
                        planning, control and exploitation of information (1) (1.1.3.08) sources within an institution (ISO 5127:2001 Entry
ISO                     No. 1.2.04)
                        (1) in an information processing system, the functions of controlling the acquisition, analysis, retention,
                        retrieval, and distribution of information (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--Vocabulary--Part
SEVOVAB                 1: Fundamental terms, 01.08.01)
                        The planning, budgeting, control and exploitation of the information resources in an organisation. The
                        term encompasses both the information itself and the related aspects such as personnel, finance,
                        marketing, organisation and technologies and systems. Information Managers are responsible for the
                        coordination and integration of a wide range of information handling activities within the organisation.
                        These include the formulation of corporate information policy, design, evaluation and integration of
                        effective information systems and services, the exploitation of IT for competitive advantage and the
Dictionary/online       integration of internal and external information and data. (Free Online Dictionary of Computing)

                        Interoperability.
Annex 15                None.
                        The capacity for diverse systems and organizations to exchange information by transferring data and
                        requesting remote services in a manner that requires the client system to have little or no knowledge of
                        the unique characteristics of the server system.                                                Note. —
                        This is usually achieved by common understanding of the semantics, the syntax and the protocols for the
Roadmap                 exchange of data.

Draft from 3rd Meeting Further discussion required and review of ISO, IEEE, etc. definitions (as provided below).
                                                                                                                                      Definition originally
ICAO Manual on Air    Within the ATM system, is the ability to transfer information or to effect a functionality across any           presented at the 11th Air
Traffic Management    discontinuity (perceived or otherwise), in order to enable operations, thereby eliminating the effect of the    Navigation Conference
System Requirements   discontinuity.                                                                                                  (working paper 9)
SESAR                 The ability of one device or system to work with another.
                      The capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a
                      manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units.
ISO/IEC               ISO/IEC 2382-1 1993 Entry No 01.01.47

                      Ability of a system or a product to work with other systems or products without special effort on the part of
                      the customer. Interoperability is made possible by the implementation of standards. (IEEE Standards
IEEE                  Glossary: http://www.ieee.org/education_careers/education/standards/standards_glossary.html)
                      (1) (NATO and DOD) The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services
                      from other systems, units, or forces and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate
                      effectively together. (2) (DOD only) The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems
                      or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged
                      directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. The degree of interoperability and its
                      purpose(s) should be defined when referring to interoperability among specific sets of systems,
                      presumably interconnected with each other through a network. See also the LISI model. (NCOIC Lexicon
NCOIC                 Version 2.0, July 2008)

                      (1) the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information
                      that has been exchanged (ISO/IEC 24765:2009 Systems and software engineering vocabulary) (2) the
                      ability for two or more ORBs to cooperate to deliver requests to the proper object (ISO/IEC 19500-2:2003
                      Information technology -- Open Distributed Processing -- Part 2: General Inter-ORB Protocol
                      (GIOP)/Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP), 3.2.19) (3) the capability to communicate, execute programs,
                      and transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no
                      knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units. (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993 Information technology--
SEVOVAB               Vocabulary--Part 1: Fundamental terms, 01.01.47) See Also: compatibility
                      (1) The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines from multiple vendors to communicate.
                      (Free Online Dictionary of Computing) (2) A property referring to the ability of diverse systems and
                      organizations to work together (inter-operate). (Wikipedia) (3) The capability of a product or system --
                      whose interfaces are fully disclosed -- to interact and function with other products or systems, present or
Dictionary/online     yet to come, without any access or implementation restrictions. (Wikipedia)

                      Metadata.
                      Data about data (ISO 19115*).                                                                       Note. —
Annex 15              Data that describes and documents data.
Roadmap               A structured description of the content, quality, condition or other characteristics of data.
                                                                                                                                         ACCEPTED (With
                                                                                                                                         inclusion of the
                       Data about data (ISO 19115*).                                                                        Note. —      Roadmap definition as a
Draft from 3rd Meeting A structured description of the content, quality, condition or other characteristics of data.                     note.)
ISO                    Data that defines or describes other data (ISO 11179). Data about data (ISO 19115).

                         Data about data or data elements, possibly including their data descriptions, and data about data
ISO/IEC                  ownership, access paths, access rights and data volatility. (ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999 Entry No. 17.06.05)
                         1. Information describing the characteristics of data; data or information about data such as classification,
                         format, size and keywords. 2. Data that represents models, e.g., a UML model; a CORBA object model
NCOIC                    expressed in IDL or and a relational database schema expressed using CWM
SEVOVAB                  None
                         Data about data. In data processing, metadata is definitional data that provides information about or
                         documentation of other data managed within an application or environment. (Free Online Dictionary of
Dictionary/online        Computing)

                         System-wide information management (SWIM).
Annex 15                 None
Roadmap                  None

                         A service delivery management infrastructure for the digital exchange of information among the system
                         components of ATM to support interoperability and collaborative decision making on a system-wide basis.
                         (Reference Global ATM Concept Doc. 9854, paragraph 2.1.9 a) - services to be delivered by the ATM
                         service delivery management component will be established on an as-required basis subject to ATM
Initial draft            system design. Once established, they will be provided on an on-request basis;)
                                                                                                                                         Further discussion
                                                                                                                                         needed although group
                                                                                                                                         reached tentative
                       The system wide infrastructure services to facilitate the delivery of data and information across the ATM         consensus on this
Draft from 3rd Meeting information domains.                                                                                              definition.
Proposed definition
from EUROCONTROL The common and system wide infrastructure services to facilitate the delivery of shared data and
AIM                    information across the ATM information domains.                                                                   Consider this as well.
                        The EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy 2000+ defined SWIM as: ―The 'horizontal' support process, whose
                        aim it is to establish the concepts and mechanisms which combine the forces of all suppliers of shared
                        ATM information so as to assemble the best possible integrated picture of the past, present and
                        (planned) future state of the ATM situation, as a basis for improved decision making by all ATM
                        stakeholders during their strategic, pre-tactical and tactical planning processes, including real-time
                        operations and post-flight activities.‖ The term SWIM has been interpreted differently over time by various
                        organisations. In the interest of clarity, in this document SWIM represents the overall concept that is
                        comprised of Information Management, and the SWIM Infrastructure. (18 EUROCONTROL Strategic
                        Guidance in Support of the Execution of the European ATM Master Plan, Annex C - ATM Information
EUROCONTROL             Management – Glossary)
                        The ATM operational concept envisages the application of a system-wide information management
                        concept, where information management solutions will be defined at the overall system level, rather than
                        individually at each major subsystem (programme/project/process/function) and interface level, as has
ICAO Global Air         happened in the past. (Appendix I, Paragraph 11.1) This goal will be achieved by integrating the
Traffic Management      capabilities of all suppliers of ATM information in order to assemble and continuously maintain the best
Operational Concept     possible integrated picture of the past, present and future (planned) state of the ATM situation. (Appendix
(Doc 9854)              I, Paragraph 11.3, in part)                                                                                 Another thought.
                        A service-oriented environment for implementing and operating NAS software-based systems that
FAA                     enables information-sharing. (FAA SWIM Governance Policies July 27, 2009 Glossary)
ISO                     None
IEEE                    None
NCOIC                   None
SEVOVAB                 None
Dictionary/online       No specific definition.


New recommended
definition              Service (network function).
                        An implementation-independent reusable operational function that may be discovered as self-describing
                        interfaces, and invoked using open standard protocols across networks. Services can be combined and
                        orchestrated to produce composite services and operations processes, in accordance with predefined
                        policies, security and service level agreements. (Derived from the Glossary, FAA SWIM Governance
                        Policies July 27, 2009 with ―network function‖ added to differentiate from the definitions of the ATM
Recommended             services.)                                                                                                 Too complicated.
Annex 15                None
Roadmap                 None

Draft from 3rd Meeting Not discussed due to time limitations.
ICAO Global Air
Traffic Management     The function of information services deals with the exchange and management of information used by the
Operational Concept    different processes and services. It will ensure the cohesion and linkage between the seven concept
(Doc 9854)             components described above. (Chapter 2, Paragraph 2.9.1)
                       (1) Results generated by activities at the interface between a supplier and a customer and by supplier
                       internal activities to meet customer needs. (ISO 5127:2001 Entry 5.5.01) (2) A service comprises one or
                       more applications; a service is a defined flow (from the service provider) of information meant for either
ISO                    the general public or a special target group. (ISO/TS 18234-3:2006 Entry No. 3.2)
                       (1) A logical entity in the system that provides function(s) and interface(s) in support of one or more
                       applications. The distinction of a service from other objects is that end-user access to it is controlled by a
                       Service Gateway. (ISO/IEC 13818-6:1998 Entry No. 1.3.17) (2) Software program that provides
                       responses to requests from other software programs, which are frequently on other remotely connected
ISO/IEC                computers. (ISO/IEC 19762-1:2008 Entry No. 01.01.79.)                                                          Begin with this.
                       A function, capability or behavior that is provided by a producer to a consumer. NAF V3 (NCOIC Lexicon
                       Version 2.0, July 2008) NOTE: See table of further definitions related to service at the end of this
NCOIC                  spreadsheet.
                       (1) performance of activities, work, or duties associated with a product (ISO/IEC 12207:2008 Systems
                       and software engineering--Software life cycle processes, 4.40) (ISO/IEC 15939:2007 Systems and
SEVOVAB                software engineering--Measurement process, 3.36) See Also: product, result, deliverable
                       (1) A service is a process that provides a specific system function and often an API. (WestNet Glossary)
                       (2) An application that provides information and/or functionality to other applications. Services are typically
                       non-human-interactive applications that run on servers and interact with applications via an interface. A
                       service may expose a synchronous, programmatic interface (i.e., an API), allowing it to be tightly-coupled
                       with a consumer, or use asynchronous, message-based communications (e.g., HTTP, XML, and SOAP)
                       to remain very loosely-coupled with consumers. Services are an essential part of distributed architecture
                       program design. (Microsoft.NET Glossary - Developer.com) Note: API = Application Program Interface.
Dictionary/online      (Microsoft.NET Glossary - Developer.com)


NCOIC                Further defintions related to "service."
Service              A function, capability or behavior that is provided by a producer to a consumer. NAF V3
                     Service Choreography relates to describing externally observable interactions between services. One
                     could say that choreography is about multi-party collaboration.
                     E.g. WS-CDL is a language for describing multi-party contracts and is somewhat like an extension of
                     WSDL: WSDL describes web services interfaces, WS-CDL describes collaborations between web
Service Choreography services.
                     The service description is what is advertised to consumers on a fabric to make it discoverable. Each
                     logical service should have at least one canonical service description. The service description according
                     to for example OASIS is comprised of three logical parts:




Service Description
                                      Data Model: The logical expression of a set of information items associated with the
                            consumption of a service or services;
                                      Policy: Assertions and obligations that service consumers and/or providers must adhere to or
                            provide; and
                                      Contract (and/or offer thereof): the syntactic, semantic and logical constraints governing on
Service Description         the use of a service.
                        The Service Interface provides an entry point that consumers use to access the functionality exposed by
                        a service. The Service Interface is usually network addressable, meaning that it is capable of being
                        accessed by the consumer over some sort of communication network.
                        The service interface implements the contract between the consumer and provider. This contract allows
                        them to exchange information even if they are on different systems. The service interface is responsible
                        for all of the implementation details needed to perform this communication. Such details include but are
                        not limited to Network protocol.
                                      Data formats
                                      Security
Service Interface                     Service level agreements
                        An SLA sets the expectations between the consumer and provider. It helps define the relationship
                        between the two parties. It is the corner stone of how the service provider sets and maintains
                        commitments to the service consumer. A good SLA addresses five key aspects:
                                      What the provider is promising
                                      How the provider will deliver on those promises.
                                      Who will measure delivery, and how.
Service Level                         What happens if the provider fails to deliver as promised?
Agreement                             How the SLA will change over time.
                        Service Orchestration relates to the execution of specific business processes. One could say that
                        orchestration is about executable processes.

Service Orchestration   E.g. WS-BPEL is a language for defining processes that can be executed on an orchestration engine.
                        Service-orientation has emerged as a distinct design paradigm that, when applied, fosters the creation of
                        service-oriented automation logic in the form of services. The service-orientation paradigm is comprised
                        of a set of common design principles that realize specific design characteristics in support of the strategic
                        goals.

                        Like previous design paradigms, service-orientation provides a distinct means of achieving a separation
                        of concerns (SoC). This theory is based on the notion that it is beneficial to break down a large problem
Service Orientation     into a series of individual concerns. Service Orientation has a perspective of a provider and a consumer.
Service Oriented        Service Oriented Architecture is a type of architecture that is loosely coupled and offer services to support
Architecture            the requirements of business processes and users.

       Source                                      New Terms/Definitions for Amendment 38                                               Remarks
               Confidence Level.
Proposed       A degree of assurance that a value of a data item meets its required data quality characteristics.
               This definition may not be required since its meaning is understood in existing Annex 15 definitions and
               SARPS, including: (1) Data quality. A degree or level of confidence that the data provided meets the
               requirements of the data user in terms of accuracy, resolution and integrity. (2) Annex 15, paragraph
               3.2.6: The order of accuracy for aeronautical data, based upon a 95 per cent confidence level, shall be as
Annex 15       specified in Annex 11, Chapter 2, and Annex 14, Volumes I and II, Chapter 2

Proposed       Safety Management.
               Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to safety.
               The following existing definition in the ICAO Lexicon should be sufficient: Safety management system.
               A systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures,
ICAO Lexicon   accountabilities, policies and procedures.

Proposed       Schematron.
               A rule-based validation language used to describe business logic and rules for data models described
               using XML.
               This programming language definition may not be appropriate for Annex 15 but could be used in
               guidance materials.
               This definition is in line with the Wikipedia entry: In markup languages, Schematron is a rule-based
               validation language for making assertions about the presence or absence of patterns in XML trees. It is a
Wikipedia      structural schema language expressed in XML using a small number of elements and XPath

Proposed       Security Management.
               Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to security.
               There is an existing ICAO definition in the Lexicon: Security management. An ATN systems
ICAO Lexicon   management facility for access control, authentication and data integrity.
               Harmonization of the definitions would be required. Additionally, this should be considered if ICAO
               develops a formal definition for the ―security management system.‖
               The purpose of security management is to support the application of security policies by means of
European ATM   functions which include the creation, deletion and control of security services and mechanisms, the
definition:    distribution of security-relevant information and the reporting of security-related events.
               Security Management is a broad field of management related to asset management, physical security
               and human resource safety functions. It entails the identification of an organization's information assets
               and the development, documentation and implementation of policies, standards, procedures and
Wikipedia      guidelines.


                                                                — END —

				
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