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43rdCCFA-GSFA_eWG_Sulfites + CEFS comments

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43rdCCFA-GSFA_eWG_Sulfites + CEFS comments Powered By Docstoc
					Notes for Sulfites

Note 44:     As residual SO2.

Note 76:     Use in potatoes only.

Note 103:    Except for use in special white wines at 400 mgkg.

Note 105:    Except for use in dried gourd strips (KAMPYO) at 5000 mg/kg.

Note 106:    Except for use in Dijon mustard at 500 mg/kg.

             Excluding dried glucose syrup used in the manufacture of sugar confectionery at 150 mg/kg and glucose syrup used in the
Note 111:    manufacture of sugar confectionery at 400 mg/kg.

Note 122:    Subject to national legislation of the importing country.

Note 127:    As served to the consumer.

Note 135:    Except for use in dried apricots at 2000 mg/kg, bleached raisins at 1500 mg/kg and dessicated coconut at 50 mg/kg.

Note 136:    To prevent browning of certain light coloured vegetables.

Note 137:    Except for use in frozen avocado at 300 mg/kg.

Note 138:    For use in energy-reduced products only.

Note 139:    For use in mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms only.

Note 140:    Except for use in canned abalone (PAUA) at 1000 mg/kg.

Note 143:    For use in fruit juice-based drinks and dry ginger ale only.

Note 155:    For use in frozen, sliced apples only.

Note 170:    Acceptable maximum level based on combined state of total sulfites. This is equivalent to 70 mg/kg in the free state.
                                                                           Sulfites (INS 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 539) Antioxidant, Bleaching Agent (not for flour), Preservative, Flour Treatment Agent

Food Cat No. ^                                    Food Category                                Max Level        Comments          Step      Year                  JECFA Information * ** ***                     Source of GSFA Max Level                Support or Do Not Support
04.1.1.2       Surface-treated fresh fruit                                                     50 mg/kg       Note 44              8        2006    Levels reported: ND - 93 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                          38CCFAC ^^
04.1.2.1       Frozen fruit                                                                    500 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 155       8        2007    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                         Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                              EU [For Note 135: Codex, EU (dried
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999 &      apricots 2000 mg/kg), Codex
04.1.2.2        Dried fruit                                                                    1000 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 135        8       2006    JECFA 2009), especially for children and teenagers (JECFA   (bleached raisins 1500 mg/kg),
                                                                                                                                                    2009). Levels reported: ND - 3420 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).      Australia, Codex, EU, Singapore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                (dessicated coconut 50 mg/kg)]
04.1.2.3        Fruit in vinegar, oil, or brine                                                 100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                        Codex, EU
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999).
04.1.2.5        Jams, jellies, marmelades                                                       100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2008                                                                    EU, Mexico, Singapore
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: ND - 200 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).
                Fruit-based spreads (e.g., chutney) excluding products of food category
04.1.2.6                                                                                        500 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    Levels reported: 6 - 12 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                                   Canada
                04.1.2.5
04.1.2.7        Candied fruit                                                                   100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                           EU, Singapore
                Fruit preparations, including pulp, purees, fruit toppings and coconut                                                              Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999).
04.1.2.8                                                                                        500 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006                                                                              38CCFAC ^^
                milk                                                                                                                                Levels reported: ND - 72 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).
04.1.2.9        Fruit-based desserts, including fruit-flavoured water-based desserts            100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2008    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                             Singapore
04.1.2.10       Fermented fruit products                                                        100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2008    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                               Codex
04.1.2.11       Fruit fillings for pastries                                                     100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                                EU
                Peeled, cut or shredded fresh vegetables (including mushrooms and
                                                                                                              Notes 44, 76 &
04.2.1.3        fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweeds,          50 mg/kg                            8       2006    Levels reported: <10 - 41 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                         Australia, EU, Singapore
                                                                                                              136
                and nuts and seeds
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potatoes identified as major contributor to intake
                Frozen vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers,                           Notes 44, 76,                         for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:      EU [For Note 137: Australia (frozen
04.2.2.1                                                                                        50 mg/kg                            8       2006
                pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweeds, and nuts and seeds                              136 & 137                             ND - 6 mg/kg (24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category             avocado 300 mg/kg)]; EU (04.2.2)
                                                                                                                                                    04.2.2) (JECFA 2009).
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999).
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potaties identified as major contributor to intake    Australia, EU [For Note 105: Japan
                Dried vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers,
04.2.2.2                                                                                        500 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 105        8       2006    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:      (dried gourd strips (KAMPYO) 5000
                pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweeds, and nuts and seeds
                                                                                                                                                    <10 - 34 mg/kg (24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category                 mg/kg)]; Canada (04.2.2)
                                                                                                                                                    04.2.2) (JECFA 2009).
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potatoes identified as major contributor to intake
                Vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses
                                                                                                                                                    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:      Codex, EU, Singapore, Thailand;EU
04.2.2.3        and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds in vinegar, oil, brine, or            100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006
                                                                                                                                                    ND - 85 mg/kg (24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category                   & Mexico (04.2.2)
                soybean sauce
                                                                                                                                                    04.2.2) (JECFA 2009).
                Canned or bottled (pasteurized) or retort pouch vegetables (including                                                               Processed potatoes identified as major contributor to intake
04.2.2.4        mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe             50 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:                EU; EU (04.2.2)
                vera), and seaweeds                                                                                                                 24 - 4209 for "parent" category 04.2.2 (JECFA 2009).

                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999).
                Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potaties identified as major contributor to intake
04.2.2.5        legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed purees and spreads           500 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 138        8       2006                                                                        38CCFAC ^^; EU (04.2.2)
                                                                                                                                                    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:
                (e.g., peanut butter)
                                                                                                                                                    24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category 04.2.2 (JECFA 2009).
                Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potatoes identified as major contributor to intake
                legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed pulps and
04.2.2.6                                                                                        500 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:         38CCFAC ^^; Canada (04.2.2)
                preparations (e.g., vegetable desserts and sauces, candied vegetables)
                                                                                                                                                    24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category 04.2.2 (JECFA 2009).
                other than food category 04.2.2.5
                Fermented vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers,
                                                                                                                                                    Processed potatoes identified as major contributor to intake
                pulses and legumes, and aloe vera) and seaweed products, excluding
04.2.2.7                                                                                        500 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    for children and teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported:         38CCFAC ^^; Canada (04.2.2)
                fermented soybean products of food categories 06.8.6, 06.8.7, 12.9.1,
                                                                                                                                                    24 - 4209 mg/kg for "parent" category 04.2.2 (JECFA 2009).
                12.9.2.1 and 12.9.2.3
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: 3 - 18 mg/kg for "parent" category 06.2
06.2.1          Flours                                                                          200 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006                                                                        Codex, Mexico, Singapore
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: 3 - 18 mg/kg for "parent" category 06.2
06.2.2          Starches                                                                        50 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006                                                                                   EU
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: 3 - 18 mg/kg for "parent" category 06.2
06.4.3          Pre-cooked pastas and noodles and like products                                 20 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006                                                                        Codex, Malaysia, Thailand
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: 4 - 23 mg/kg (ND - 400 mg/kg for sub-
07.2            Fine bakery wares (sweet, salty, savoury) and mixes                             50 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006    category 07.2.1 & ND - 8 mg/kg for sub-category 07.2.2)                   38CCFAC ^^
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
09.1.2          Fresh mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms                                    100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    Levels reported: ND - 557 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                             Australia, Japan
                Frozen fish, fish fillets, and fish products, including mollusks,                                                                   Levels reported: 8 - 557 mg/kg for "parent" category 09.2
09.2.1                                                                                          100 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 139        8       2006                                                                      Codex, Canada, Japan, Mexico
                crustaceans, and echinoderms                                                                                                        (JECFA 2009)
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: 8 - 557 mg/kg for "parent" category 09.2
09.2.4.2        Cooked mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms                                   150 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2007                                                                               39CCFA ^^
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
                Smoked, dried, fermented, and/or salted fish and fish products, including                                                           Levels reported: <10 - 20 mg/kg (8 - 557 mg/kg for "parent"
09.2.5                                                                                          30 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2007                                                                              38CCFAC ^^
                mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms                                                                                              category 09.2) (JECFA 2009)
                                                                           Sulfites (INS 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 539) Antioxidant, Bleaching Agent (not for flour), Preservative, Flour Treatment Agent

Food Cat No. ^                                  Food Category                                  Max Level         Comments         Step      Year                  JECFA Information * ** ***                         Source of GSFA Max Level                 Support or Do Not Support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39CCFA ^^ [For Note 140: Australia
                 Fully preserved, including canned or fermented fish and fish products,
09.4                                                                                            150 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 140        8       2007    Levels reported: 8 - 557 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                     (canned abalone (PAUA) 1000
                 including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mg/kg)]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CEFS comment: REVISE. While the permitted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       maximum level of 15 mg SO2/kg is in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       accordance with the Codex Standard for Sugars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       STAN 212-1999 (rev. 2001), CEFS would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       recommend lowering it to 10 mg/kg. Higher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       levels are no longer requred from a technological
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       point of view. The European Directive 95/2/EC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       establishes a maximum permitted level of 10 mg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SO2/kg in sugars as defined in the EU Sugars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Directive 2001/111/EC (except glucose syrup
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.                                        for which a specific derogation exists ),
11.1.1                                                                                          15 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2005                                                                             Codex, CEFS               According to EU law and as far as sulphites are
                 White sugar, dextrose anhydrous, dextrose monohydrate, fructose                                                                    Levels reported: ND - 12 mg/kg for "parent" category 11.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       concerned, this level is considered as not being
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).                                                                                      present.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CEFS comment: SUPPORT. This is in line with
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.                                        the Codex Standard for Sugars STAN 212-1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (rev. 2001). Powdered sugar/dextrose ('icing'
11.1.2           Powdered sugar, powdered dextrose                                              15 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2005    Levels reported: ND - 12 mg/kg for "parent" category 11.1                Codex, CEFS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sugar) is only marginally consumed and therefore
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).                                                                                      not a major contributor to the dietary intake of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sulphites.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Codex, EU, CEFS [For Note 111:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Codex, CEFS, ESA (dried glucose     CEFS comment: SUPPORT. This is in line with
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.                                        the Codex Standard for Sugars STAN 212-1999
                 Soft white sugar, soft brown sugar, glucose syrup, dried glucose syrup,                                                                                                                            syrup used in the manufacture of
11.1.3                                                                                          20 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 111        8       2006    Levels reported: ND - 12 mg/kg for "parent" category 11.1                                          (rev. 2001). EU law allows the use of sulphites
                 raw cane sugar                                                                                                                                                                                   sugar confectionery 150 mg/kg, and   in glucose syrup up to a maximum level of 20 mg
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        glucose syrup used in the      SO2/kg.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  manufacture of sugar confectionery
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.               400 mg/kg)]
11.1.5           Plantation or mill white sugar                                                 70 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2005    Levels reported: ND - 12 mg/kg for "parent" category 11.1                 Codex, CEFS
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CEFS comment: SUPPORT. This is in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       accordance with EU legislation. Products
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.                                        covered by category 11.2 are marginally
11.2             Brown sugar excluding products of food category 11.1.3                         40 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006                                                                                 CEFS
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported: <10 - 12 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                                                      consumed and therefore their contribution to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       overall dietary intake of sulphites is also very
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       limited.



                 Sugar solutions and syrups, also (partially) inverted, including treacle                                                           Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) ^^^.                                        CEFS comment: SUPPORT. This is in
11.3                                                                                            70 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2007                                                                          EU, Singapore, CEFS
                 and molasses, excluding products of food category 11.1.3                                                                           Levels reported: <10 - 12 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                                                      accordance with EU legislation.


11.4             Other sugars and syrups (e.g., xylose, maple syrup, sugar toppings)            40 mg/kg      Note 44               8       2006    Levels reported: <10 - 12 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                            Canada, EU
12.2.1           Herbs and spices                                                               150 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    Levels reported: 75 - 317 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                            38CCFAC ^^
12.2.2           Seasonings and condiments                                                      200 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    Levels reported: 150 - 817 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                                EU
12.3             Vinegars                                                                       100 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                         Australia, EU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EU,CIMCEE [For Note 106: EU,
12.4             Mustards                                                                       250 mg/kg     Notes 44 & 106        8       2007    Levels reported: 87 - 245 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                  Japan, CIMCEE (Dijon mustard 500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              mg/kg)]
                                                                                                                                                    Levels reported for sub-categories: ND - 12 mg/kg (12.6.1),
12.6             Sauces and like products                                                       300 mg/kg     Note 44               8       2007    ND - 10 mg/kg (12.6.2), ND - 1 mg/kg (12.6.3 & 12.6.4)                     Singapore
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009)
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake for children and
14.1.2.1         Fruit juice                                                                    50 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 122        8       2005    teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported: ND - 348 mg/kg        Codex, EU, CESDA; IFU (14.1.2)
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).
14.1.2.2         Vegetable juice                                                                50 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 122        8       2006    Levels reported: 42 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                                 EU; IFU (14.1.2)
                                                                                                                                                    Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999).
                                                                                                              Notes 44, 122 &                       Identified as major contributor to intake for children and
14.1.2.3         Concentrates for fruit juice                                                   50 mg/kg                            8       2005                                                                          Codex; IFU (14.1.2)
                                                                                                              127                                   teenagers (JECFA 2009). Levels reported: 4 - 589 mg/kg
                                                                                                                                                    (JECFA 2009).
                                                                         Sulfites (INS 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 539) Antioxidant, Bleaching Agent (not for flour), Preservative, Flour Treatment Agent

Food Cat No. ^                                   Food Category                                Max Level          Comments          Step      Year                   JECFA Information * ** ***                          Source of GSFA Max Level                 Support or Do Not Support
                                                                                                              Notes 44, 122 &
14.1.2.4         Concentrates for vegetable juice                                              50 mg/kg                             8        2006    Levels reported: ND (JECFA 2009).                                   38CCFAC ^^; IFU (14.1.2)
                                                                                                              127
14.1.3.1         Fruit nectar                                                                  50 mg/kg       Notes 44 & 122        8        2005    Levels reported: 4 - 72 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                            Codex; IFU (14.1.3)
14.1.3.2         Vegetable nectar                                                              50 mg/kg       Notes 44 & 122        8        2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009).                                    37CCFAC ^^; IFU (14.1.3)
                                                                                                              Notes 44, 122 &
14.1.3.3         Concentrates for fruit nectar                                                 50 mg/kg                             8        2005    No levels reported (JECFA 2009).                                       Codex; IFU (14.1.3)
                                                                                                              127
                                                                                                              Notes 44, 122 &
14.1.3.4         Concentrates for vegetable nectar                                             50 mg/kg                             8        2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009).                                    38CCFAC ^^; IFU (14.1.3)
                                                                                                              127
                                                                                                                                                     Identified as major contributor to intake for children and
                                                                                                                                                     teenagers. Nonalcoholic beverages identified as major
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ICGMA, ISDC; Singapore, ILSI
                 Water-based flavoured drinks, including "sport," "energy," or                                Notes 44, 127 &                        contributor to intake in certain countries (JECFA 2009).
14.1.4                                                                                         70 mg/kg                             8        2006                                                                       (14.1.4.1 and 14.1.4.2); ILSI
                 "electrolyte" drinks and particulated drinks                                                 143                                    Levels reported: ND (ND - 33 mg/kg for sub-category
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (14.1.4.3)
                                                                                                                                                     14.1.4.1, <10 - 256 mg/kg for sub-category 14.1.4.2 & 6 -
                                                                                                                                                     268 mg/kg for sub-category 14.1.4.3) (JECFA 2009).
                                                                                                                                                     Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 2009).
14.2.1           Beer and malt beverages                                                       50 mg/kg       Note 44               8        2006                                                                                    EU
                                                                                                                                                     Levels reported: ND - 28 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).
14.2.2           Cider and perry                                                               200 mg/kg      Note 44               8        2006    Levels reported: 16 - 140 mg/kg (JECFA 2009).                             EU, Singapore
                                                                                                                                                     Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999) and
                                                                                                                                                     major contributor to intake in countries where wine is         Japan, Mexico, USA [For Note 103:
14.2.3           Grape wines                                                                   350 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 103        8        2006    regularly consumed (JECFA 2009). Levels reported: <10 -       Australia, OIV (14.2.3), EU (14.2.3.1)
                                                                                                                                                     1334 mg/kg (55 - 186 mg/kg for sub-category 14.2.3.2)           (special white wines 400 mg/kg)]
                                                                                                                                                     (JECFA 2009).
                                                                                                                                                     Identified as major contributor to intake (JECFA 1999). No
14.2.4           Wines (other than grape)                                                      200 mg/kg      Note 44               8        2006                                                                               Australia, EU
                                                                                                                                                     levels reported (JECFA 2009).
14.2.5           Mead                                                                          200 mg/kg      Note 44               8        2006    No levels reported (JECFA 2009)                                            Australia, EU
14.2.6           Distilled spirituous beverages containing more than 15% alcohol               200 mg/kg      Note 44               8        2006    Levels reported: ND - 30 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                                38CCFAC ^^
                 Aromatized alcoholic beverages (e.g., beer, wine and spirituous cooler-
14.2.7                                                                                         350 mg/kg      Notes 44 & 170        8        2007    Levels reported: 57 - 198 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                              Japan, Mexico
                 type beverages, low alcoholic refreshers)
                 Snacks - potato, cereal, flour or starch based (from roots and tubers,
15.1                                                                                           50 mg/kg       Note 44               8        2006    Levels reported: ND - 63 mg/kg (JECFA 2009)                                EU, ICGMA
                 pulses and legumes)

^ Does not include proposals for new uses or higher maximum use levels than currently in the GSFA (see ALINORM 10/33/12 para. 68).



* WHO Technical Report Series No. 891 (51st JECFA), pp. 128-132 & 158, WHO, Geneva, 2000; WHO Food Additive Series No. 42 (51st JECFA), pp. 441-452, WHO, Geneva, 1999. Eleven countries provided intake estimates: Australia/New Zealand, China, Finland, France, India, Japan,
Spain, UK, and USA. Of these, Australia/New Zealand, China, France, Japan, UK and USA provided intakes based on model diets and/or individual dietary records.



** WHO Technical Report Series No. 952 (69th JECFA), pp. 55-66, 167-168, WHO, Geneva, 2009; WHO Food Additive Series No. 60 (69th JECFA), pp. 221-243, 244-259, WHO, Geneva, 2009. Seven countries provided intake estimates: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Lebanon,
and the UK. Australia provided an intake estimate based on a total diet study; and Brazil, France, Italy, and Lebanon provided intakes based on model diets and/or individual dietary records. JECFA also reported that processed potatoes, sausages, and nuts were major contributors to sulfite
intake, especially for children and teenagers. Processed potatoes are included in food catgories 04.2.2.1 - 04.2.2.8; however food category 04.2.2.8 (Cooked or fried vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera) and seaweeds) is not included
in the GSFA. Sausages are included in food category 08.3 (Processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game products) and its sub-categories 08.3.1 (Non-heat treated processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game products), 08.3.2 (Heat-treated processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game
products), and 08.3.3 (Frozen processed commintued meat, poultry, and game products); however these food categories are not included in the GSFA. Nuts are included in food category 15.2 (Processed nuts, including coated nuts and nut mixtures (with e.g., dried fruit)); however, this food
category is not included in the GSFA.


*** Range of sulfite levels reported as mg/kg sulfur dioxide [Ref: WHO Food Additive Series No. 60, Appendix 1]. ND = not detected. The limit of detection (LOD) depends upon the method used. LODs range from 1 mg/kg (high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems) to 10
mg/kg (AOAC Monier-Williams method or AOAC differential pulse polarographic method); kits with an LOD of 50 mg/kg are also available [Ref: WHO Food Additive Series No. 60, pp. 223 - 226].


^^ 38CCFAC, 39CCFA, and 37CCFAC refer to a level that was not specifically proposed in the particular food category by a Member or NGO, but was discussed and agreed upon by the Committee in plenary.

^^^ The JECFA reports indicated food category 11.1 (White and semi-white sugar). The food category system has been subsequently revised such that foods that were included under food category 11.1 (White and semi-white sugar) are now included under food categories 11.1 (Refined and
raw sugars) [including its sub-categories 11.1.1 - 11.1.5, as identified in the above table], 11.2, and 11.3.

				
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