What is Leadership?
• Leadership is the energetic process of getting
people fully and willingly committed to a new and
sustainable course of action, to meet commonly
agreed objectives while having commonly held
• A Leader is who reflects the key attributes of
leadership such as ideas, vision, values,
influencing and inspiring others with the ability to
take tough decisions.
• Koontz & Donell- “ Leadership is defined as the
ability to exert interpersonal influence by means
of communication towards achievement of goals.”
• “Leadership is the process of influencing and
supporting others to work enthusiastically
toward achieving objectives.”
• Leaders must possess equal parts of Vision,
Empowerment and Team Leadership.
Leadership According to Indian
• Leader- Rajrishi
• Rishi-Tyagi (seer)
• According to Dr. George Odiorne employees
are classified into 4 categories-
• Dead woods-Low Potential & Low
• Work Horses-Low Potential & High
• Problem Children-High Potential & Low
• Stars-High Potential & High Performance
Comparison Between A Manager and A Leader
A Manager A Leader
• Thinking Process
Takes initiative • Is originative
Is more focused on things • Is more focused on people
Prefers looking inward • Looks outward
Easily accepts reality • Believes in investigating reality
• Direction of Operation
Makes plans operational • Has a vision for the future
Tries to improve upon the existing setting • Tries to create a 'new' future
Focuses on immediate financials • Looks out for new markets
• Relationship with Employees
Tries to gain control
• Prefers to empower people Treats employees as associates
Considers employees as subordinates
• Helps employees to learn through trust and development
Instructs, directs and co-ordinates the efforts of the employees
• Mode of Operation
• Believes in effectiveness
Believes in efficiency
• Embraces complexity by asking 'what' and 'why'
Can deal with complexity by asking the 'how' and 'when'
• Creates change
Can manage change
• Decision Making/Taking
Decision method involves policy, rules and procedures • Decision method involves values and principles
Relies more on process and system • Relies more on 'ideas' and people
Strives to achieve what's expected • Strives to excel
Trait Theory: Some personality traits may lead people
naturally into leadership roles.
Great Events Theory: A crisis or important event may
cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out
extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person.
Transformational Leadership Theory: People those
who have unique leadership skills.
The Four Framework Approach to
Leadership (Bolman and Deal)
• Structural Framework – The leader is a social
architect whose leadership style is analysis and
• Human Resource Framework – The leader is a
catalyst and servant whose leadership style is
support, advocacy, and empowerment.
• Political Framework – The leader is an advocate
whose leadership is coalition (alliance) and
• Symbolic Framework – The leader is a prophet,
whose leadership style is inspiration.
Style Leadership Styles
Affiliative Style Pace Setting Style
Leadership Styles , their Impact on Employees
• The full authority lies with the leader. The leader takes
the decision, communicates the same to the subordinates
along with the instructions on how the decisions are to be
carried out and the subordinates are expected to do what is
told to them by the leader. This type of leadership is visible
in the Defense forces.
• The biggest advantage of this style is -Tasks can be
accomplished efficiently and quickly, without wasting
time in a two way communication process.
• The drawback of this style is- That employees are aware
of what to do but not why they are required to do so.
This leads to low employee morale, losing initiative and
avoiding shouldering of responsibility.
The Coercive Style
• This style is similar to the authoritative style. Here
the leader adopts an extreme top-down decision
making style, thereby killing all new ideas on the
other side. The subordinates feel very disrespected
even to think and come up with ideas since ultimately
they will all be ignored and their ideas shot down.
This is because the leader does not believe or
encourage a two way communication flow. He/she
will take all the decisions which have to be abided
without raising any doubts or questions.
It is effective in case of emergency like fire or instances when it
is absolutely imperative, say in case of a hostile takeover of the
company is looming. In such instances, the coercive leadership
style can help to break failed business habits and shock people
into new ways of working.
This leadership style is not effective in the long run as it is
insensitive to the morale and feelings of the followers which
can be ruinous in the long run.
Coercive leadership has a damaging effect on the reward
system, leaving high performance workers de-moralized, de-
motivated measured in terms of diminished clarity and
commitment and alienated from their own job
The leader confers final authority on the group. The
entire group functions as collectors of opinion and
together take a consensus decision. As per this style,
the leader delegates full authority to his/her
This style is effective for a high performing group
members who get highly motivated when they are
allowed to make decisions and experience feelings
of increasing self-worth and satisfaction due to this.
• When decision is arrived at through discussions and
employees participation, it not only gains more
acceptance but also paves the way for better quality
solutions to problems.
• The democratic style does not work always
especially when the leader is unwilling to delegate
authority completely to the subordinates. At times
when the subordinates are not mentally and
physically willing to shoulder the entire
responsibility of decision making this style does
• The leader provides complete independence to the
followers. They can do whatever they feel to
correct a business situation. The leader neither
motivates nor guides them. Only if any kind of
help is asked for, the leader helps. He never leads.
This style can be used if:
• The followers are quite capable, mature and are
ready to take the responsibility.
• Situations where the leader is there for a short
span of time.
Pace Setting Style
The pace setting style is admirable, Under this style, the leader sets
extremely high performance standards and exemplifies them
himself. The guidelines for working may be clear in the leader's head
but he may not state them clearly. The leader is usually obsessive
about doing things better and faster and expects the same from the
subordinates. The leader is quick in pointing out poor performers and
demands more from them. If the subordinates are not able to rise to the
occasion, the leader replaces them with people who can. Such an
approach is adopted by the leader so as to obtain quick results but this
does not usually happen.
This style works well when all employees are self motivated, highly
competent and need little direction or co-ordination. For instance, this
style is suitable when the work involves highly talented, skilled and
self motivated professionals like good R & D groups ,legal teams,
those who work for the project that it is completed on time or even
before the scheduled time
Pace Setting Style
• This style can destroy the organizational climate especially when the
employees are overwhelmed by the pace setter leader's demands for
excellence and this results in a drop in their morale.
• The employees feel that work is not something which one is required
to give his/ her best performance but is more of second guessing (or
mind reading) of what the leader wants.
• Without being given a chance to take initiative, the subordinates may
feel that the work is so task focused, and boring without any flexibility
and responsibility involved.
• The employees are not given any feedback on their work performance
and the leader merely will forcefully take over when he feels work is
lagging. Further, if such leader leave, the employees will feel
directionless as they are so used to the "expert" setting the rules.
This approach involves the leader listening
to the subordinates, trying to seek an
understanding of each key employee as a
person, exploring their lives, dreams and
An Affiliative leader is able to build rapport with the employees because he
can sense how the employees are feeling and respond in a way congruent to
that person's emotions.
• An Affiliative leader displays a natural ease in forming new relationships by
getting to know the employee as a person, cultivating a bond with them and
thus willingly extract the desired work performance.
• Affiliative leader displays high emotional intelligence, empathy in building
relationships and good communication which will work well in all types of
work environment and work groups.
Though the Affiliative style is good for the organization in the long run, in
case of emergencies or quick decisions to be taken and implemented, the
leader may have to combine this style with probably another style (like
authoritative style) to get a fast responses.
• Coaching leaders help employees to identify their
unique strengths and weaknesses and tie these up to
their personal and career aspirations. Such leaders
encourage and counsel employees about their role and
responsibilities in enacting development plans (or
goals), provide plentiful instructions and feedback so as
to attain their goals. Coaching leaders are ready to
delegate, provide challenging assignments to
subordinates and willing to put up with short term
failure if this could result in long term learning.
• Coaching style primarily focuses on personal
• Coaching style enables the employee to be aware
of what is expected of him and of how his job
will fill into the larger vision or strategy,
thereby ensuring clarity of work.
• Coaching style facilitates the employee
commitment to the job.
• Research has indicated that the coaching style is used
least often especially because the leaders do not have
the time in the existing high pressure economy to go
slow and adopt the tedious work of teaching people and
helping them grow.
• The coaching style makes little sense when the
employees for whatever reason are resistant to learn or
change their ways.
• This style may be unsuitable or ineffective if the leader
is unfamiliar or lacks the expertise to coach and give
constructive feedback to his subordinates.
• The leader is quite knowledgeable, experienced,
professional, and expert. Subordinates respect him
for his valuable advice and ready to listen to him.
He neither disturbs his followers nor liked to be
This style is successful
• when management is interested in R & D activities
and has faith on the leader.
• subordinates are qualified and matured.
• Depending on the situation, market scenario,
followers’ mentality and maturity level; a leader
adopts that style which is most suitable in a
particular situation. The same leader can be an
autocrat or democrat depending condition of the
environment within which he operate. He can be
the taskmaster or totally employee oriented
depending on the situations. There are Four
situational Styles as – Directive, Supportive,
Participative, Achievement Oriented. Depending
upon the situation leader decides.
Characteristics of Subordinates &
• Locus of Control-Internal & External
• Willingness to accept influence
• Self-Perceived Task Ability
Locus of Control
• Followers having internal locus of control believe
their success or failure is dependent on their own
action. They are more self-reliant and believe they
are the masters of their own fate. The People
having external locus of control believe more on
chance, luck factor. They feel achievement or
failure is the result of external forces.
• Followers with an internal locus -Participative
style and with an external locus of control
Directive style will be more effective.
Willingness to Accept Influence
• For followers who are ready to accept
influence, Directive style is useful, whereas
followers not interested to accept the
influence of the leader participative style
is to be followed.
Self-Perceived Task Ability
• If the followers confidence level is high,
if they perceive they can do the job, they are
having the required potential, they prefer
When task is unstructured, non-routine, the leader should
follow an instrumental approach.
• In directive style, the leader asks the followers what needs to
be done, and how to do it. He does planning, organizing,
directing, controlling, motivating in order to attain the
• In supportive style, the leader is interested in creating an
amiable, congenial atmosphere in the organization. He is
approachable and is concerned for the well being followers.
• In participative style, the leader takes the followers
suggestions, involves them in the decision-making process.
• In achievement-oriented style, leader sets challenging tasks
for the followers. He has high level of confidence in their
capability and expects outstanding performance from them.
Hersey and Blanchard Situational
• A leader follows different styles in different
situations and which style he will follow
depends on the follower’ maturity level.
Types of Maturity-
• Job Maturity (Knowledge, Skill &Ability)
• Psychological( willingness to do a job, self-
motivated to perform)
Styles Depending on the Situation
• Telling Style- No job maturity and no
psychological maturity( unable & unwilling
• Selling Style- No job maturity but having
psychological maturity( unable but interested
• Participative Style- Having job maturity and no
psychological maturity( able & not interested
• Delegating Style- Having both job maturity and
psychological maturity( able & willing followers)
Very High High Low Very Low
Maturity level of followers (need for achievement,
willingness to accept responsibility and
Current Issues in Leadership
• Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
• A good leader needs to possess the basic
intelligence and skills to manage people,
understand their feelings….
• EQ Component- Self Awareness, Self
Management, Self Motivation, Empathy ,
Current Issues in Leadership
• Kiran Mazumdar (CMD, Biocon India)
• Sulajja Firidia Motwani ( Kinetic
• Ekta Kapoor ( Creative Director, Balaji
1,9 Country Club
Concern 5,5 Middle
for People Road
1,1 Impoverished 9,1 Task
Concern for Production