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Leadership Role Models by sanghaviharshil

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Leadership Role
        What is Leadership?
• Leadership is the energetic process of getting
  people fully and willingly committed to a new and
  sustainable course of action, to meet commonly
  agreed objectives while having commonly held
• A Leader is who reflects the key attributes of
  leadership such as ideas, vision, values,
  influencing and inspiring others with the ability to
  take tough decisions.
• Koontz & Donell- “ Leadership is defined as the
  ability to exert interpersonal influence by means
  of communication towards achievement of goals.”
• “Leadership is the process of influencing and
  supporting others to work enthusiastically
  toward achieving objectives.”
• Leaders must possess equal parts of Vision,
  Empowerment and Team Leadership.
 Leadership According to Indian
• Leader- Rajrishi
• Raja-King
• Rishi-Tyagi (seer)
• According to Dr. George Odiorne employees
  are classified into 4 categories-
• Dead     woods-Low        Potential &   Low
• Work Horses-Low Potential & High
• Problem Children-High Potential & Low
• Stars-High Potential & High Performance
            Comparison Between A Manager and A Leader
A Manager                                                          A Leader
•     Thinking Process
 Takes initiative                                                  •   Is originative
 Is more focused on things                                         •   Is more focused on people
 Prefers looking inward                                            •   Looks outward
 Easily accepts reality                                            •   Believes in investigating reality
•      Direction of Operation
Makes plans operational                                            •   Has a vision for the future
Tries to improve upon the existing setting                         •   Tries to create a 'new' future
Focuses on immediate financials                                    •   Looks out for new markets
•     Relationship with Employees
Tries to gain control
                                                                   •   Prefers to empower people Treats employees as associates
Considers employees as subordinates
                                                                   •   Helps employees to learn through trust and development
Instructs, directs and co-ordinates the efforts of the employees
•     Mode of Operation
                                                                   •   Believes in effectiveness
Believes in efficiency
                                                                   •   Embraces complexity by asking 'what' and 'why'
Can deal with complexity by asking the 'how' and 'when'
                                                                   •   Creates change
Can manage change
•     Decision Making/Taking
Decision method involves policy, rules and procedures              •   Decision method involves values and principles
Relies more on process and system                                  •   Relies more on 'ideas' and people
Strives to achieve what's expected                                 •   Strives to excel
            Leadership Theory
Trait Theory: Some personality traits may lead people
naturally into leadership roles.
Great Events Theory: A crisis or important event may
cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out
extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person.
Transformational Leadership Theory: People those
who have unique leadership skills.
  The Four Framework Approach to
    Leadership (Bolman and Deal)
• Structural Framework – The leader is a social
  architect whose leadership style is analysis and
• Human Resource Framework – The leader is a
  catalyst and servant whose leadership style is
  support, advocacy, and empowerment.
• Political Framework – The leader is an advocate
  whose leadership is coalition (alliance) and
• Symbolic Framework – The leader is a prophet,
  whose leadership style is inspiration.
Leadership Styles
                           Coercive Style
Coaching Style

                                              Democratic Style
Style                   Leadership Styles

    Affiliative Style              Pace Setting Style
Leadership Styles , their Impact on Employees

 Authoritarian Style
 • The full authority lies with the leader. The leader takes
   the decision, communicates the same to the subordinates
   along with the instructions on how the decisions are to be
   carried out and the subordinates are expected to do what is
   told to them by the leader. This type of leadership is visible
   in the Defense forces.
 • The biggest advantage of this style is -Tasks can be
   accomplished efficiently and quickly, without wasting
   time in a two way communication process.
 • The drawback of this style is- That employees are aware
   of what to do but not why they are required to do so.
   This leads to low employee morale, losing initiative and
   avoiding shouldering of responsibility.
         The Coercive Style
• This style is similar to the authoritative style. Here
  the leader adopts an extreme top-down decision
  making style, thereby killing all new ideas on the
  other side. The subordinates feel very disrespected
  even to think and come up with ideas since ultimately
  they will all be ignored and their ideas shot down.
  This is because the leader does not believe or
  encourage a two way communication flow. He/she
  will take all the decisions which have to be abided
  without raising any doubts or questions.
Coercive Style
• Advantages
  It is effective in case of emergency like fire or instances when it
  is absolutely imperative, say in case of a hostile takeover of the
  company is looming. In such instances, the coercive leadership
  style can help to break failed business habits and shock people
  into new ways of working.
• Drawbacks
  This leadership style is not effective in the long run as it is
  insensitive to the morale and feelings of the followers which
  can be ruinous in the long run.
  Coercive leadership has a damaging effect on the reward
  system, leaving high performance workers de-moralized, de-
  motivated measured in terms of diminished clarity and
  commitment and alienated from their own job
               Democratic Style
  The leader confers final authority on the group. The
  entire group functions as collectors of opinion and
  together take a consensus decision. As per this style,
  the leader delegates full authority to his/her
• Advantages
  This style is effective for a high performing group
  members who get highly motivated when they are
  allowed to make decisions and experience feelings
  of increasing self-worth and satisfaction due to this.
• When decision is arrived at through discussions and
  employees participation, it not only gains more
  acceptance but also paves the way for better quality
  solutions to problems.
             Democratic Style
• The democratic style does not work always
  especially when the leader is unwilling to delegate
  authority completely to the subordinates. At times
  when the subordinates are not mentally and
  physically willing to shoulder the entire
  responsibility of decision making this style does
  not work.
           Laissez-faire Style
• The leader provides complete independence to the
  followers. They can do whatever they feel to
  correct a business situation. The leader neither
  motivates nor guides them. Only if any kind of
  help is asked for, the leader helps. He never leads.
  This style can be used if:
• The followers are quite capable, mature and are
  ready to take the responsibility.
• Situations where the leader is there for a short
  span of time.
                   Pace Setting Style
  The pace setting style is admirable, Under this style, the leader sets
   extremely high performance standards and exemplifies them
   himself. The guidelines for working may be clear in the leader's head
   but he may not state them clearly. The leader is usually obsessive
   about doing things better and faster and expects the same from the
   subordinates. The leader is quick in pointing out poor performers and
   demands more from them. If the subordinates are not able to rise to the
   occasion, the leader replaces them with people who can. Such an
   approach is adopted by the leader so as to obtain quick results but this
   does not usually happen.
• Advantages
  This style works well when all employees are self motivated, highly
   competent and need little direction or co-ordination. For instance, this
   style is suitable when the work involves highly talented, skilled and
   self motivated professionals like good R & D groups ,legal teams,
   those who work for the project that it is completed on time or even
   before the scheduled time
                  Pace Setting Style
• This style can destroy the organizational climate especially when the
  employees are overwhelmed by the pace setter leader's demands for
  excellence and this results in a drop in their morale.
• The employees feel that work is not something which one is required
  to give his/ her best performance but is more of second guessing (or
  mind reading) of what the leader wants.
• Without being given a chance to take initiative, the subordinates may
  feel that the work is so task focused, and boring without any flexibility
  and responsibility involved.
• The employees are not given any feedback on their work performance
  and the leader merely will forcefully take over when he feels work is
  lagging. Further, if such leader leave, the employees will feel
  directionless as they are so used to the "expert" setting the rules.
          Affiliative Style
This approach involves the leader listening
to the subordinates, trying to seek an
understanding of each key employee as a
person, exploring their lives, dreams and
                      Affiliative Style
•  Advantages
  An Affiliative leader is able to build rapport with the employees because he
  can sense how the employees are feeling and respond in a way congruent to
  that person's emotions.
• An Affiliative leader displays a natural ease in forming new relationships by
  getting to know the employee as a person, cultivating a bond with them and
  thus willingly extract the desired work performance.
• Affiliative leader displays high emotional intelligence, empathy in building
  relationships and good communication which will work well in all types of
  work environment and work groups.

• Drawbacks
  Though the Affiliative style is good for the organization in the long run, in
   case of emergencies or quick decisions to be taken and implemented, the
   leader may have to combine this style with probably another style (like
   authoritative style) to get a fast responses.
               Coaching Style
• Coaching leaders help employees to identify their
  unique strengths and weaknesses and tie these up to
  their personal and career aspirations. Such leaders
  encourage and counsel employees about their role and
  responsibilities in enacting development plans (or
  goals), provide plentiful instructions and feedback so as
  to attain their goals. Coaching leaders are ready to
  delegate, provide challenging assignments to
  subordinates and willing to put up with short term
  failure if this could result in long term learning.
             Coaching Style
• Coaching style primarily focuses on personal
• Coaching style enables the employee to be aware
  of what is expected of him and of how his job
  will fill into the larger vision or strategy,
  thereby ensuring clarity of work.
• Coaching style facilitates the employee
  commitment to the job.
                Coaching Style
• Research has indicated that the coaching style is used
  least often especially because the leaders do not have
  the time in the existing high pressure economy to go
  slow and adopt the tedious work of teaching people and
  helping them grow.
• The coaching style makes little sense when the
  employees for whatever reason are resistant to learn or
  change their ways.
• This style may be unsuitable or ineffective if the leader
  is unfamiliar or lacks the expertise to coach and give
  constructive feedback to his subordinates.
     Functional/Intellectual Style
• The leader is quite knowledgeable, experienced,
  professional, and expert. Subordinates respect him
  for his valuable advice and ready to listen to him.
  He neither disturbs his followers nor liked to be
  disturbed unnecessarily.
  This style is successful
• when management is interested in R & D activities
  and has faith on the leader.
• subordinates are qualified and matured.
             Situational Style
• Depending on the situation, market scenario,
  followers’ mentality and maturity level; a leader
  adopts that style which is most suitable in a
  particular situation. The same leader can be an
  autocrat or democrat depending condition of the
  environment within which he operate. He can be
  the taskmaster or totally employee oriented
  depending on the situations. There are Four
  situational Styles as – Directive, Supportive,
  Participative, Achievement Oriented. Depending
  upon the situation leader decides.
Characteristics of Subordinates &
• Locus of Control-Internal & External

• Willingness to accept influence

• Self-Perceived Task Ability
             Locus of Control
• Followers having internal locus of control believe
  their success or failure is dependent on their own
  action. They are more self-reliant and believe they
  are the masters of their own fate. The People
  having external locus of control believe more on
  chance, luck factor. They feel achievement or
  failure is the result of external forces.
• Followers with an internal locus -Participative
  style and with an           external locus of control
  Directive style will be more effective.
 Willingness to Accept Influence
• For followers who are ready to accept
  influence, Directive style is useful, whereas
  followers not interested to accept the
  influence of the leader participative style
  is to be followed.
     Self-Perceived Task Ability
• If the followers confidence level is high,
  if they perceive they can do the job, they are
  having the required potential, they prefer
  supportive style.
               Work Environment
    When task is unstructured, non-routine, the leader should
    follow an instrumental approach.
•   In directive style, the leader asks the followers what needs to
    be done, and how to do it. He does planning, organizing,
    directing,      controlling, motivating in order to attain the
•   In supportive style, the leader is interested in creating an
    amiable, congenial atmosphere in the organization. He is
    approachable and is concerned for the well being followers.
•   In participative style, the leader takes the followers
    suggestions, involves them in the decision-making process.
•   In achievement-oriented style, leader sets challenging tasks
    for the followers. He has high level of confidence in their
    capability and expects outstanding performance from them.
 Hersey and Blanchard Situational

• A leader follows different styles in different
  situations and which style he will follow
  depends on the follower’ maturity level.
Types of Maturity-
• Job Maturity (Knowledge, Skill &Ability)
• Psychological( willingness to do a job, self-
  motivated to perform)
   Styles Depending on the Situation

• Telling Style- No job maturity and no
  psychological maturity( unable & unwilling
• Selling Style- No job maturity but having
  psychological maturity( unable but interested
• Participative Style- Having job maturity and no
  psychological maturity( able & not interested
• Delegating Style- Having both job maturity and
  psychological maturity( able & willing followers)
                              Task Style

Relationship Style

                     Very High High Low Very Low

           Maturity level of followers (need for achievement,
               willingness to accept responsibility and
 Current Issues in Leadership
• Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
• A good leader needs to possess the basic
  intelligence and skills to manage people,
  understand their feelings….
• EQ Component- Self Awareness, Self
  Management, Self Motivation, Empathy ,
  Social Skills.
 Current Issues in Leadership
Woman Leaders
• Kiran Mazumdar (CMD, Biocon India)
• Sulajja Firidia Motwani ( Kinetic
  Engineering )
• Ekta Kapoor ( Creative Director, Balaji
                   Managerial Grid

                                          9,9 Team
              1,9 Country Club

Concern                     5,5 Middle
for People                    Road

             1,1 Impoverished            9,1 Task

             Low                             High

                    Concern for Production
The End

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