BRAND - DOC by sanghaviharshil

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A) General Sense

A brand is a collection of experiences and associations connected with a
service, a person or any other entity.

Brands have become increasingly important components of culture and the
economy, now being described as "cultural accessories and personal

Some people distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the
experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points
of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience.

The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a
symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the
information and expectations associated with a product or service.

Careful brand management, supported by a cleverly crafted advertising
campaign, can be highly successful in convincing consumers to pay
remarkably high prices for products which are inherently extremely cheap to

This concept, known as creating value, essentially consists of manipulating
the projected image of the product so that the consumer sees the product as
being worth the amount that the advertiser wants him/her to see, rather than

a more logical valuation that comprises an aggregate of the cost of raw
materials, plus the cost of manufacture, plus the cost of distribution.

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand

When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical
mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved
brand franchise.

One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the
name of the company present.

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of
products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality
or characteristic (see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand
owners, branded products or services also command higher prices.

Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no
associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may
often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality
of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the
name of the company present.

For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular
script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it
used in the logo for

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of
products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality
or characteristic (see also brand promise).

From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also
command higher prices.

Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no
associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may
often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality
of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

B) Marketing Sense

The American Marketing Association defines a brand as ―A name, term,
sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the
goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those
for competitors‖.

A brand is thus a product or service that‘s adds a dimension that
differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to
satisfy the same need.

These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product
performance of the brand

                      BRAND MANAGEMENT

Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a
specific product, product line, or brand. It seeks to increase the product's
perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and
brand equity.

It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The
value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the

It will be helpful in increased sales and price or to reduced COGS (cost of
goods sold), and reduced or more efficient marketing investment.

Brand Managers often carry line-management accountability for a brand's
P&L profitability in contrast to marketing staff manager roles which are
allocated budgets. Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a
broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone.

While forming a brand company has to go through certain procedures:-
             Establishing a set of Brand policies
             Identifying Brand promise
             Implement measurement of Brand equity
Brand management has undergone a lot of development in recent times. For
example, HLL and Proctor and Gamble these companies concentrate on
particular set of brands.

When a firm position a brand by giving it someone cultural, actual, and
historical relevance people start looking at the brand with curiosity, ensuring
that the brand never loses its shine.

Brand never bored the audience and will keep its freshness for years

Brand management is necessary in all aspects of the brand
that is:-

-- Developing the Brand

-- Maintaining and Extending the Brand

-- Protecting the Brand

Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people
have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the
same product.

In this regard, Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a
broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone.


The purpose of brand management is to create a powerful and lasting
emotional connection with customers and other audiences.

A brand is a set of elements or ―brand assets‖ that in combination create a
unique, memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an
organization and its customers.

The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to
represent the business plan and intentions of an organization.

Brand management is the voice and image that represents your business
plan to the outside world. What your company, products and services stand
for should all be captured in your branding strategy, and represented
consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing

The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many
manageable elements of branding system, including both visual image assets
and language assets.

The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only
in ―big change situation‖ where the brand redefinition is required, but also in
the management of routine marketing variables and tactics.

This does not have to be a ―ground-up‖ situation where there are wholesale
changes to the business.

Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the
business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and
designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and
resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing


        Brand Equity:-

It is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the

The brand equity concept stresses the importance of the brand in marketing

It is the combination of assets and liabilities associated with a brand that
enhances or depreciates the value of the brand.

The brand equity has five major determinates are awareness, quality
perception, loyalty, patents, trademark.

For example, Parle-G, the biscuits major which caters to the mass market, is
hoping the brand equity of biscuits in wheat flour (atta) market. Parle is
selling atta under the same brand name as its biscuits.

Parle-G has launched the atta under the same name to gain advantage from
the brand equity of biscuits.

Brand equity refers to the marketing effects or outcomes that accrue to a
product with its brand name compared with those that would accrue if the
same product did not have the brand name.

And, at the root of these marketing effects is consumers' knowledge. In
other words, consumers' knowledge about a brand makes consumers respond
differently to the marketing of the brand.

There are many ways to measure a brand. Some measurements approaches
are at the firm level, some at the product level and still others are at the
consumer level.


a) Lux Soaps:-
This brand has maintained its unique features as ―beauty soap bar of the
film‘s stars‖.

This brand is making good contribution in the marketing due to its
popularity among consumers which is a result of various factors such as
attractive packages, quality, price, easy availability.

b) Godrej Storewel:-
The company is popular among consumer even when many identical
cupboards and competitors in the market.

Brand equity is the incremental value of business over and above physical
assets resulted from bringing together various elements such as brand name,
packaging, advertisement, pricing and so on.


Brand development

Effective brand development is merely impossible to execute in-house
because it is difficult to be dispassionate and objective when evaluating the
state of your business.

As a result companies often make a the mistake of confusing the business of
their business with the business of their brand.

Strategically speaking , the business of your business is what you make and /
or sell.
All to often we describe are brand by what we do and these obscures are
marketing opposition and brand strategies.

This is the reasoning behind the many companies with a marketing osition
and / or brand identity that is merely a reflection category benefits, showing
almost no differentiation.

This brand marketing simply defines the offering or presents a banal clain
that is neither important nor believable in the eyes of the target audience.

Your responsibility

There a few important responsibilities in defining the business of your
business, and this are vastly different from the brand strategies that arise
from the business of your brand.
Your product must perform according to the standards set by the markets.

For example, if you are selling soap powder, you product needs to clean
clothing, has a pleasant fragrance, and be competitively priced.

If needs to be constant in quality and value [consistency], and it needs to
perform a function [efficacy].

You are also selling your brand identity and must preserve that brand
identity with great care, consistently delivering the value your corporate
identity promises.

Here, many companies [brand development companies as well] get

Your logo, mark, theme line, and ‗look and feel‘ are part of your corporate
identity, not your brand identity.

Marks and equities are all about the recognition of you and your company.
They are how the customer remembers you.

These values are about processes, operations and ingenuity.

What your customers buy?

If you were able to take a dispassionate look at your customers and see them
not as you imagine them or idealize them, but rather as they are, you would
see the beginnings of brand strategies.

Purchasing decisions are all about positioning, meaning and integrity.

How customers choose?

How then does the consumers decide they want ( preference ) and what price
they are willing to pay for that brand ( margins)?

Considering that almost all products sell commodity benefits , what could
possibily be left?

What is left is brand.

Brand identity strategy begins with a clear understanding of your target
audience and this does not stop at a simple usage and attitudinal study.


1. Establish and Maintain the Brand

    As a threshold issue, it will be extremely important to establish and
       maintain the brand.
      Whendoing so, the adoption of a holistic approach, or an ―overall
       brand strategy‖ is recommended.
      Suchoverall brand strategy should be implemented with full
       recognition that the brand may traversenumerous different product
       lines and geographic regions.
      Adopting an overall brand strategy alsorequires recognition that
       brands are significant to both the traditional retail and the online
    Accomplishing an overall brand strategy requires close coordination
       between the licensor andlicensees in different markets.
    There must be a consistent program for protecting brands and
       monitoringthe usage of brands.
      Focus should also be placed upon prospective uses of brands.
    This may includeidentifying brands that might be used in the future
       and identifying new products and services withwhich existing brands
       might be used.

2. Ensure Consistency Between the Brand Licensing Strategy and Overall
Business Goals

    Effective brand management strategies also necessitate emphasis on
       ensuring consistency between the brand licensing strategy and the
       enterprise‘s overall business goals.
    Efforts should beundertaken to ensure that the brand reflects
       positively on the company, does not detract from otherproduct lines
       and remains profitable with other parts of company.

3. Select Profitable and Innovative License Partners

    The importance of consistency should also be reflected in the
       selection of license partners.
      Focus should surely be placed upon license partners that enjoy
       healthy businesses and that offer innovative products.
    At the same time, however, emphasis should also be placed upon
       licensee partners with similar cultures and business goals since doing
       so may help to reduce the amount of time that is expended on
       reaching the basis business terms.
    Companies should develop a profile of the ideal license partner but
       recognize that while many licensors and licensees may enjoy long-
       term relationships, few of such relationships will be permanent.

4. Focus on Maximizing Leverage of the Brand

    Successful brand management will involve focus on the maximizing
       the leverage of the brand.
    Of course, this may mean different things in different context.
       However, in all circumstances, a considered judgment regarding brand
       placement will be crucial.

5. License Agreements: Exclusive or Non-Exclusive?

   The exclusivity of the license agreement will be a key factor in brand
     Whether the license agreement will be exclusive or non–exclusive
      will have important implications for all of the business.
   When considering the exclusivity of a license grant, it must be
      recalled that the license can only be granted once as an exclusive
   Accordingly, particular scrutiny must be directed towards the
      strategies and business goals of potential exclusive licensees.
   In addition to understanding the current interests and strategies of the
      prospective exclusive licensee, it is advisable to construct the license
      in such a way so as to maintain the licensee‘s commitment licensee to
      the brand.
     Clearly, it will be in the interest of the licensor to ensure that the
      licensee‘s interest in the brand is and will stay as high as possible.
   This can be done in a number of ways including, for example, by
      requiring additional payments or some other form of compensation
      during the license term in order to maintain the exclusivity of the
   While exclusive licensing arrangements will be extremely important,
      it must be recalled that non-exclusive licenses can also play a role in
      the business.
   Accordingly, proper attention and resources should also be devoted to
      constructing such non-exclusive arrangements and ensuring that they
      are profitable.

6. License agreements Must Include Effective Means For Enforcing Key

    All license agreements should include effective means of
    Most license agreements will address extremely important issues
       including quality control standards and reporting standards.
      However, such standards and requirements will not be of much use
       without effective enforcement mechanisms to back them up.
    The precise enforcement mechanisms that should be used will depend
       on the particulars of the licensing arrangement.
    As an example, however, in an exclusive licensing arrangement, the
       termination of exclusivity may be an effective remedy for the breach
       of certain contractual requirements.

7. Be Pro-Active on Products & Services

    Licensors should be not adopt a ―hands off‖ approach when dealing
       with the licensee‘s products and services. Rather, efforts should be
       undertaken to ensure that the licensee‘s products are desirable and up-
    Clearly, it will be in the licensor‘s interest to ensure that its brand will
       be affixed to the most popular products and services.
    Of course, consumer interest can change over time so it will be
       essential to periodically monitor changes in demand for the licensee‘s
       product and services.

8. Allocate Ownership & Control of IP Assets Equitably

    When undertaking a brand licensing relationship, it will also be
       important to allocate equitably ownership and control of the IP assets.
    While this will be an important issue in all relationships, it will be
       particularly important when a long-term relationship is contemplated.
    In all instances, the licensor will have the stronger interest in the
       brand and will likely desire to retain the maximum amount of control.
       However, particular business issues may impact the ultimate
    Such allocation should include consideration of each party‘s business
       plans and innovations that impact power of the brand.
      The allocation should also be conducted with recognition of the fact
       that the association of the name with particular products or services
       will be key

9. Successful Brand Licensing Strategy Requires Dedicated Staff

    The enterprise‘s staff will play an extremely important role in the
       company‘s overall brand licensing initiatives. Selection of licensing
       staff should be undertaken with the recognition that such staff
       members will be required to organize control and coordinate all the
       activities of the licensees.
      In addition to focusing on the key licensing staff, other relevant staff
       members should be trained and encouraged to take an active role in
       the efforts overall brand licensing efforts.

10. Actively Integrate the Brand Licensing Strategy into Product
Development and Launch Activities

 Companies should be active – and not static – when undertaking
   efforts to integrate the brand strategy into product development and
   launch activities.
 A clear and proactive strategy is likely to generate the most reward.


A good brand name should:

     be protected (or at least protectable) under Trademark law.

     be easy to pronounce.

     be easy to remember.

     be easy to recognize.

     be easy to translate into all languages in the markets where the brand

      will be used.

     attract attention.

     suggest product benefits or suggest usage (note the tradeoff with

      strong trademark protection.)

     suggest the company or product image.

     distinguish the product's positioning relative to the competition.

     be attractive.

     stand out among a group of other brands.


    Companies are embracing brand reputation management as a strategic
       imperative and are increasingly turning to online monitoring in their
       efforts to prevent their public image from becoming tarnished.
      Online brand reputation protection can mean monitoring for the
       misappropriation of a brand trademark by fraudsters intent on
       confusing consumers for monetary gain.
    It can also mean monitoring for less malicious, although perhaps
       equally damaging, infractions, such as the unauthorized use of a brand
       logo or even for negative brand information (and misinformation)
       from online consumers that appears in online communities and other
       social media platforms.
      The red flag can be something as benign as a blog rant about a bad
       hotel experience or an electronic gadget that functions below

                   Online Brand Management Strategies

This site is devoted to helping branding managers with their online branding
management efforts. Here is a breakdown of what you‘ll learn about . . .

    How to Monitor Your Brand Online
       There are many free ways to monitor what people are saying about
       your brand online.

  And there are plenty of free web analytic tools available to help you
  analyze the data.

  Learn how to track what people are saying about your brand and/or
  products online with these online brand monitoring strategies.

 How to Protect Your Brand Online
  Online Brand Managers need to know how to protect their brand
  within search results.

  And they need to know when and how to respond appropriately.

  Find out everything you should know about online brand protection
  strategies and best practices for online reputation management.

 Social Media Management Strategies
  As you know, a vast majority of web users in the United States
  receive advice and information about various brands and products by
  tapping into their online social networks.

  Learn how companies are using social networking to improve their
  brand‘s image — and find out about best practices for social media

 Search Engine Optimization Tips for Brand Managers
  Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is an important strategy used by
  professional online brand managers.

The more optimized branded content online, the less chance that other
websites will show up for the keyword phrases that are important to
you. Learn the nuts and bolts of search engine optimization.

The simple way to find out what people are saying about your brand is
to simply create a Google Alert so that you‘ll get an email anytime
your brand name is mentioned.

However, Google Alerts are limited – and aren‘t designed to be an
online brand management tool. That‘s why you need to use a variety
of online tools to find out what people are saying.


Professor David Jobber identifies seven main factors in building successful
brands, as illustrated in the diagram below:


   Quality is a vital ingredient of a good brand. Remember the ―core
      benefits‖ – the things consumers expect.
   These must be delivered well, consistently. The branded washing
      machine that leaks, or the training shoe that often falls apart when wet
      will never develop brand equity.
   Research confirms that, statistically, higher quality brands achieve a
      higher market share and higher profitability that their inferior


   Positioning is about the position a brand occupies in a market in the
      minds of consumers.
   Strong brands have a clear, often unique position in the target market.
   Positioning can be achieved through several means, including brand
      name, image, service standards, product guarantees, packaging and
      the way in which it is delivered.
   In fact, successful positioning usually requires a combination of these


   Repositioning occurs when a brand tries to change its market position
      to reflect a change in consumer‘s tastes.
     This is often required when a brand has become tired, perhaps
      because its original market has matured or has gone into decline.

   The repositioning of the Lucozade brand from a sweet drink for
      children to a leading sports drink is one example.
   Another would be the changing styles of entertainers with above-
      average longevity such as Kylie Minogue and Cliff Richard.


   Communications also play a key role in building a successful brand.
   We suggested that brand positioning is essentially about customer
      perceptions – with the objective to build a clearly defined position in
      the minds of the target audience.
   All elements of the promotional mix need to be used to develop and
      sustain customer perceptions.
     Initially, the challenge is to build awareness, then to develop the
      brand personality and reinforce the perception.

First-mover advantage

   Business strategists often talk about first-mover advantage.
   In terms of brand development, by ―first-mover‖ they mean that it is
      possible for the first successful brand in a market to create a clear
      positioning in the minds of target customers before the competition
      enters the market.
   There is plenty of evidence to support this.
   Think of some leading consumer product brands like Gillette, Coca
      Cola and Sellotape that, in many ways, defined the markets they
      operate in and continue to lead.

     However, being first into a market does not necessarily guarantee
      long-term success.
   Competitors – drawn to the high growth and profit potential
      demonstrated by the ―market-mover‖ – will enter the market and copy
      the best elements of the leader‘s brand (a good example is the way
      that Body Shop developed the ―ethical‖ personal care market but were
      soon facing stiff competition from the major high street cosmetics

Long-term perspective

   This leads onto another important factor in brand-building: the need to
      invest in the brand over the long-term.
     Building customer awareness, communicating the brand‘s message
      and creating customer loyalty takes time.
   This means that management must ―invest‖ in a brand, perhaps at the
      expense of short-term profitability.

Internal marketing

   Finally, management should ensure that the brand is marketed
      ―internally‖ as well as externally.
   By this we mean that the whole business should understand the brand
      values and positioning.
   This is particularly important in service businesses where a critical
      part of the brand value is the type and quality of service that a
      customer receives.

 Think of the brands that you value in the restaurant, hotel and retail
   It is likely that your favourite brands invest heavily in staff training
    so that the face-to-face contact that you have with the brand helps
    secure your loyalty.


 Due to the way the Internet is fast evolving, especially through the
    social web and social media, there is now a plethora of digital
    channels which can be used to hold a dialogue between a Brand and a
    Consumer, or groups of consumers.
 Digital brand engagement is brand engagement with a key focus on
    communication via the web. The Clue train Manifesto written by four
    visionaries in 1999 (which is now a very long time ago) predicted the
    Internet would evolve to a point where the consumer holds the
    "power" and no longer could the corporate world continue to
    communicate to their markets (the people they wish to interact with)
    in a push marketing or broadcast manner. How right they were.
   The Internet has evolved and people/consumers can now be very
    selective about which brands they choose to interact with; and have
    the ability to communicate their thoughts and feelings globally.
 Such mediums on the social web including blogs, micro-blogs,
    forums, social networks, groups within social networks, bookmarking
    sites, imagery and video sites can all be utilized by consumers; and
    they are doing just this in their thousands.
 Brands can take notice of what is being said about them, their product
    or service by monitoring conversations taking place outside of their
    own website, through "buzz monitoring" tools and there are a number
    of tools to chose from.

       The value of the information provided is proportional to the time and
       expertise dedicated to configuring and analyzing the data provided.
    This value can be increased further when the buzz monitoring data is
       correlated with onsite web analytics data. It's important to listen and
       observe the buzz, and analyze its impact prior to engaging.

The key elements to consider when listening and observing, before
formulating a digital engagement strategy, are:

                                     What are      What
                                                                  How do they
People/Consumer Who are they? their                motivates
                                     values?       them?

                                     Are they                     Or are they
                    Where are                      Are they a
Location                             just an                      Active
                    they?                          Participant?
                                     Observer?                    Contributor?

                                                                  Sentiment -
                                     Authority     Volume and
                    Reach of                                      (positive,
Influence                            of dialogue amount of
                    conversation?                                 negative,
                                     and site?     buzz?

                    Are they         Are they
                                                   Are they       Are they
Brand               inquisitive and about to
                                                   loyal brand    brand
Association         looking for      commit to
                                                   advocates?     opponents?
                    info?            the Brand?

 Once you have an overview of what the current brand/consumer
   situation is online, you are far better informed to create an
   engagement strategy.
 The information above will provide a "Factual" position as it is based
   upon what people are actually doing and saying.
 There is another level of research that can be carried out which adds a
   "Predictive" element. I.e. undertake some consumer testing prior to
   implementing and engagement approach.
 Typically, and traditionally this is carried out in a conscious level
   manner of research, such as focus groups, surveys and interviews.
 However, it is becoming recognised that conscious level research on
   its own can be flawed, as it is based upon the assumption that people
   are prepared to and are able to articulate what they are think on all
 Therefore a combination of research at the conscious and unconscious
   level is recommended.
 Having obtained meaningful and valuable information from all the
   research and analysis, the time should now be right to start
   formulating the digital engagement strategy.
 In order to put some structure and process around this, the following
   approach is recommended, although there may be other methods
   which can be used.

                                  Understand Outline what           content
People/Consume                    why they      aspects of the      that has a
r                                 need your     brand appeal to     value to
                 e consumer
                                  brand         them                each

                 Be present                                         Engage
                                  Be visible
                 and available                  Provide a           with them
                                  and offer
Location         in the                         platform/mechanis observing
                 relevant                       m for interaction   the right
                 online areas                                       etiquette

                 Prioritise the                 Provide status and negative
Influence        key                            recognition for     comments
                 influences                     influencers         by

                 Maximise                                           Reduce
                                  consumer      Reward your
                 your                                               brand
Brand                             dialogue to advocates and
                 advocacy                                           opponenc
Association                       minimise      people loyal to
                 into creating                                      y where
                                  risk of       your brand
                 interest                                           possible

 The other key area to consider is full integration with "offline" brand
   engagement/marketing strategy.
 To maximise the returns, these need to be full synchronised and
 Typically, offline marketing can be used to drive online interaction.
 Encouraging people to communicate with the brand



  Samsika's challenge was to extend
  the brand and reposition it in India.
  Its advice was to focus mainly on
  cakes and go for an aggressive
  growth strategy. Samsika chose the franchising route and evolved a
  comprehensive marketing strategy including the launch, pricing, ad
  agency selection and sales & distribution. Monginis was given a
  customer orientation and positive perception management. A strong
  campaign was supported by periodic promotions. Internally too,
  Samsika advocated a complete overhaul, dividing operations into
  distinct strategic business units and independent profit centres. The
  results led to a national brand presence - over 70% growth in the
  number of cake shops to 184 and an increase of manufacturing
  franchisees from 1 to 7.



      Exploring new markets for new products was the
      challenge before Samsika as far as Navneet
      Publications was concerned. Children's books and
      stationery were two entirely new SBUs initiated by Samsika. Samsika
      showed it was possible to post spectacular growth rates - stationery
      (SBU 3) sales increased by 96% and children's books (SBU 2) sales
      went up by 30%. Samsika initiated the Navneet Redemption Centres
      (NRCs) which today boasts of a healthy 162 members. A new SBU 4
      with a newspaper for kids was positioned with the help of a
      memorable ad campaign under Samsika's guidance.


Charting the route for a finance product, targeting the middle class and
developing a retail and channel partner network calls for finely tuned
strategy and careful market planning. Samsika strategised the branding,
positioning and pricing for K-value to capture the market. Membership of

Kotak Mahindra K-value has grown at a steady 334% per month. K-value is
in a position to finance a range of top brands and has a wide dealer network.


      When Pidilite Industries approached Samsika Marketing Consultants,
      it was to breathe fresh life into their sales and distribution systems.
      Their premier product, Fevicol, was an unchallenged market
      champion. The idea was to consolidate.
      Samsika stepped in, cautiously gathering
      intelligence and mapping the market with the
      Samsika Retail Barometer. Two needs were
      immediately identified: one, to get closer to
      the customer and win over greater share of
      emotional equity; two, to strengthen the mother brand. Samsika
      suggested that Pidilite capitalise on its brand property of 'bonding' by
      extending it from the tangible benefit associated with Fevicol(R) to an
      intangible level where there would be a 'bonding' between the brand
      and the trade, the brand and the customer. The Samsika Relationship
      Marketing Exercise was prescribed. The Samsika Retail Barometer
      was implemented. Segmentation and positioning of the Fevicol(R)
      related products had to be precise so as to open up the exact niches

  that Samsika had identified. The Samsika Saleskit Module
  empowered the sales and distribution efforts. A cost-effective
  advertising and media strategy was developed and an overall
  marketing strategy was evolved to help launch new brands. As a result
  of Samsika's efforts, the Fevicol(R) brand and all its satellite products
  have gone into a higher, more positive orbit.


  In a segment fraught with brand
  wars, Samsika suggested that
  Kamani Oil Industries focus
  primarily on its range of oils with
  one umbrella brand covering the entire range. The problem was that
  Kamani's products were commodities. Samsika's objective was to
  elevate each of them to a brand. "Kamani Parivar, Sehat Ka Sansar"
  was the brand positioning statement. The result was that the brand
  grew by 68% and increased its distribution. Kamani has made its
  presence felt significantly in the branded oil market and is poised for
  greater heights.


A textile and export company came to Samsika with a dream - to
develop a consumer brand in India. Samsika made that dream a reality
by making Onjus the second largest brand in the fruit drink/juice
category. Onjus today has a healthy 19% market share within a short
span of just 16 months. Samsika's involvement was complete, from
helping create the entire sales & distribution network to selecting the
ad agency, advising on branding & pricing and helping institute the
marketing & sales systems in 302 towns.

                      AAKER’S FRAMEWORK

• Brand identity as defined by aaker is the sum of the brand expressed as a
product, organization, person and symbol.

                   KAPFERER’S FRAMEWORK

• KAPFERER represents brand identity diagrammatically as a six sided
prism as shown below.

Physique according to him is the basis of the brand.

• E.G. the physique of Philips is ―technology and reliability‖ while for the
brand Tata it is “trust”

• Personality is same as Aaker, it answers the question ―what happens to this
brand when it becomes a person?‖

• Culture symbolizes the organization, its country-of-origin and the values it
stands for.

• E.G. traditional brands like balsara, dabur and zandu.

Relationship is the handshake between consumer and the organization. E.G.
the relationship with ―safola” is safety.

• Reflection is the consumer‘s perception for what the brands stands for.
E.G. coke’s image more attract youth.

• Self-image is what the consumer thinks of himself.

• E.G. Benz Car owner think that since he has bought the car he is

Treating himself to one of the best car in the world.

                         SEVEN C’S OF BRAND

1. Clarity:

Take the time to discover what makes you different. Do this with a
professional who can assist you in new ways of looking at your business and
yourself. Male a list of five to ten.

When you know what makes you special you are able to move forward and
build a platform for success based on these you-nique factors. You will stand
out from the crowd and increase your attraction quotient. Niche markets will
be                     easier                   to                      identify.

2. Communication:

Once your you-nique qualities are discovered, it is much easier to speak to
your audience clearly and in a way that they can hear you.

Your communications will become less stressful and more likely to hit your
intended target. A clear path will begin to unfold.

Create a tagline or ‗personal mantra‘ to easily state your you-unique
qualities and benefits. Practice with a mentor until you find the best one,

3. Consistency:

With steps 1 & 2 complete you are now able to be consistent in your
continuing campaigns to educate future prospects.

Apply your new tag language to every piece of your promotional and/or
collateral material.

Formulate tangible business practices; review and plan your vision for
developing business, so clients can rest assured that you will deliver in a
reliable fashion.

All visual communications should clearly link together as well.

4. Credibility:

Consistency in product, delivery and communications will lead to credibility
in the marketplace.

This cornerstone to success stands firmly on the shoulders of the previous
steps you have taken.

Internal and external experiences of your business should align. Measure
your effectiveness through client feedback.

Gather client testimonials to integrate into materials for promotion.


Another important element is your creativity in fulfilling and building a
brand. It is a challenge to present your business in innovative ways that will
continue to attract more potential clients.

Utilizing the steps above, staying creative is much more likely to occur.
Have fun and think out of the box.

Enjoy this exercise and you will play the game to win! How can you
stimulate your creativity?

6. Compassion:

Always remember what it is like to be a consumer of your goods.

Put yourself in your clients‘ shoes at every juncture to test the viability of
your choices. Will it serve the client in a way that they will appreciate?

If not, how can you steer the ship in that direction? We do not operate in a
void. Our audience must relate to us as we grow and develop. Client
retention depends on it.

7. Competencies:

In order to remain competent at our endeavors we must continue to grow and

To give our clients what they deserve we must evolve and educate ourselves
to be on the cutting edge of innovation in our industries.

Love to learn and think in new ways and your knowledge will keep you
ahead of the crowd. Always look forward while measuring the past, and
learn wherever you can.

Join organizations, hire the best, find mentors and advisors to assist. Share
these experiences with staff and colleagues to stay engaged and energized.

Utilizing and reviewing these principles on a continuous basis can yield the
results you desire.

This information can also be an excellent method to review with your
marketing professionals to insure correct application while building
additional strategies for your business development.

Finally, Strength in Branding is indeed a pivotal element for success.


Brands have always been commercial agents and brand managers take pride
in their ability to meet the needs of their target market.

However, these two desires are in conflict with the recent trend towards
positioning brands as ―authentic,‖ emphasising the timeless values desired
by consumers while downplaying apparent commercial motives.

The dual problem for the firm is in creating images of authenticity while
dealing with the challenge that authenticity presents for brand management.

An initial realisation must be that brand managers are not the sole creators of
brand meaning.

In this sense, there also exists a need for it to have moral legitimacy by
pursuing prosocial actions.

For example, the early support offered to the gay community by the Levi‘s
clothing company ensures that the brand continues to have relevant meaning
to gays.

Brands that tried to exploit this segment when homosexuality became more
generally accepted struggled because they were late to the party and were
viewed as exploiting a community without paying the necessary dues.

Connection with time and place is also important for consumers because it
affirms tradition.

In retail, Australian stores such as The Depot affirm older traditions by
on 1950s American style to convey a sense of authenticity and nostalgia.

At the other end of the spectrum, authenticity serves consumers as a form of
self-expression for brands that represent a genuine expression of an inner
personal truth or an expression of identity through community membership
such as the ownership of a Harley Davidson motorcycle.

Marketing practice must continually craft together these disparate sources to
create rich brand meanings for target consumers rather than seeing them as
competing sources of authenticity.

The important thing is that consumers perceive the aspects of authenticity as
real, whether those aspects are really authentic or not.

Managers must spend more time with their consumers listening to their
needs and interests and how their brand can meet those needs.

So while consumers may identify with certain attributes of authenticity –
links to past, hand-crafted methods, respect for traditions, or cultural links,
all of which downplay commercial motives – when they select brands, the
makeup of these attributes will depend on the shared histories of a
community of consumers.

This means that instead of attempting to play up the authentic origins of a
brand directly, marketing efforts must take an indirect route, for example by
becoming a member of a community.

For example, Dunlop in Australia sponsor local sporting events rather than
high profile sports, sponsoring newspaper columns and radio spots on local
sports results.

This gives Dunlop a significant advantage over larger international rivals.

Merely making an assertion that a brand is ―authentic‖ probably will not be
successful because of differing views on what such claims would mean – for
some it could indicate a real (vs counterfeit) brand, while for others it could
mean something much deeper.

Marketers will need to indicate authenticity by drawing on attributes that
can be real, though efforts also include some claims that are contrived.

             THE TOP 10 GLOBAL BRANDS

Image                        Share of
        Brand                           Esteem
Power                        Mind

1       Google               1          6

2       Microsoft            4          1

3       Coca-Cola            12         2

4       IBM                  5          9

5       McDonalds            8          5

6       Apple                7          14

7       China Mobile         6          23

8       GE                   2          85

9       Vodafone             20         4

10      Marlboro             3          92

 Brand positioning:-
It is the act of designing companies the company‘s offer so that it occupies a
distinct and valued place in the minds of customer.

Brand positioning is a part of brand identity and value proposition that is to
be actively communicated to the target audience and demonstrate an
advantage over competing brands.


1. Positioning by price and quality: -
Good quality costs little more. The consumer selects the product at different
level of price, offering different quality and decided which is more suitable.

For example, this strategy commonly used in construction industry.

2. Positioning by user category:-
The product is associated with the specific user class of people. Famous
personalities are used to influences the consumers.

3. Positioning by Product class:
Some advertisers use class associations which are seen substitute to satisfy
needs of the customer. For example, Cadbury dairy milk came with the
chocolate box as a gift.

4. Positioning by benefit:
Position on the basis of special benefit.

For example, Maggi two minute noodles position itself with ―Two minute
positioning‖, ―Fast to cook good to eat‖.
 Brand Sponsorship:-

It is form of publicity, which is done by supporting and linking the
organization name with a particular event most commonly, sporting events
or an activity that involves a large public gathering.

Sponsorship of major events it‘s a great opportunity for companies to gain

The company should be cleared about the benefit it is trying to derive out of
sponsoring a particular event.

First, creating awareness of the brand during the event and developing
association and relationship with the brand.

Second, from the option available the firm should choose the event that will
help to achieve its sponsoring objective.

Third, brand easily gets associated with the event.

Fourth, it is better to have long term relationship with the event rather the
sponsor a new event every time.

For examples, 'Coca-Cola' is one of the top global sponsors of sport. The
rationale for sponsoring international and local sporting events is that it is "a
natural fit".

By matching the brand with world standard events 'Coca-Cola' benefits from
the exposure and the associations made between it and the event being
Equally by ensuring that local events are sponsored the brand is exposed
exclusively to a local market and will thus be seen as a local brand.
'Coca-Cola' meets its sponsorship objectives:-

    To connect with teens in an interesting and fun way.
    To create unforgettable teen moments linked to 'Coca-
    To communicate the dynamic and leading attributes of
       the brand.
    To be seen as a national sponsor at a local level and global sponsor on
       an international level.

 Brand Leverage:-

When marketers leverage on brand equity by using the existing brand name
for new products, it can be termed as Brand leverage.

Marketers resort to this method so that consumers will perceive the new
brand as having some of the characteristics of the existing brand.

For example, Lux used its brand name to move into the liquid soap and
shampoo market. Godrej Fairglow soap brand was extended to its fairness

For example, the manufacturer of Mr. Coffee, coffee makers used its brand
name strength to launch Mr. Coffee brand coffee.

While coffee machines and coffee beans are in different product categories,
there is a strong enough correlation between the two items that the brand
name has a powerful impact on consumers of both categories.

Brand leveraging communicates valuable product information to consumers
about new products.

Consumers enter retail outlets equipped with pre-existing knowledge of a
brand‘s level of quality and consistently relate this knowledge to new
products carrying the familiar brand.

Generally, consumers maintain a consistent brand perception until
disappointed – creating a risky advantage for established brands.

Additional advantages of brand leveraging include:

      More products mean greater shelf space for the brand and more
       opportunities to make a sale.
      The cost of introducing a brand leveraged product is less than
       introducing an independently new product due to a much smaller

       investment in brand development and advertising designed to gain
       brand recognition.
      A full line permits coordination of product offerings, such as bagels
       and cream cheese, potato chips and ranch dip, peanut butter and jelly,
      A greater number of products increase efficiency of manufacturing
       facilities and raw materials.

A brand leveraging strategy will not work in every situation.

A brand leveraging strategy can be extremely successful and profitable if it
is correctly implemented and provides new products with the right image.

There are important questions that should be considered in order to make the
best decision for your brand:

      Does the new product fit into the established product family?
      Does the brand have attributes or features that easily and effectively
       carry into new categories?
      Is the brand name strengthened or diluted by representing two (or
       more) differentiated products?
      Does your company have facilities necessary to manufacture and
       distribute a new and differentiated product?
      Will sales of the new product cover the cost of product development
       and marketing?

 Brand Personality:-

Two elements thus affect an individual's relationship with a brand.

First, there is the relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer,
which is analogous to the relationship between two people.

Second, there is the brand personality--that is, the type of person the brand

The brand personality provides depth, feelings and liking to the relationship.

Of course, a brand-customer relationship can also be based on a functional
benefit, just as two people can have a strictly business relationship.

It is the description of a brand in the terms human characteristics.

Effective personality of a brand to its prospective customers in an idealized
sense. It tends to create an identity of a brand with the person.

It plays the role of a differentiator. It create link between brand and

It is also called AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) it is a strategic
weapon in a cluttered marketplace. Advantages of brand personality:-

 It creates favorable brand image of a product.

 It helps the advertiser to face brand wars and market competition
 It acts as positive selling points.
 It facilitates psychological satisfaction in specific segment.
 It facilitates selection of an appropriate advertising media.

For example,

               Apple       : - Intelligent, Creative,

               IBM : - Confident, Expert, Advisor

               Disney      : - family fun entertainment

               Google       : - simplicity

Some famous Brand personalities

 Pepsi- Brand Personality:-

Pepsi built youth, spontaneity and irreverence as key elements of the brand
personality. Sachin was shown smashing a windscreen and Azhar swiping a
Pepsi. Coke has still a define a personality for itself.

 MRF Tyres:-

Up market, sporty, powerful.

Cellular Phone Personality:-

 Nokia:-
The charming European. A widely travelled global citizen, with a sense of
humor. Practical technology. Likes to interact with the people, and explore
what they expect, and fulfill those expectations.

 Motorola:-
The live-wire America executives. Powerful as well as resourceful. He
believes in hard sell. Command over technology.

 Brand Identity:-

Brand Identity is the unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist
aspires to create or maintain.

These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise
to customers for the organization members.

It is much more comprehensive than brand positioning which communicate
to the consumer relevant value to the brand to distinguish from competitor‘s

Brand Identity For Close Up Tooth Paste

Core Identity               : - Oral freshness which allows young people to
come closer to each other

Extended Identity : - quality products from Lever

Value Proposition : - It is a sweet gel, having bright colors. It is only
                    cleanness      but freshness the mouth

Brand Identity For Nycil

Core Identity               : - A powder which takes care of prickly heat in

Extended Identity : - It is a sweat fighter. It is life style products.

Value Proposition : - Relief from prickly heat in tropical climate and
                    summer. Make life comfortable.

                               BRAND IDENTITY

Perspective             Dimension                  Remarks
Brand as product              Quality             Quality price relationship is kept in
                              Users               Johnson and Johnson are for babies.

Organization            Organization attributes    Tata Stands for quality. Such an
                                                   association is more enduring than
                                                   one based on product attributes
Symbol                        visuals imagery     Coca cola‘s classic bottle
                              Metaphor            Kodak and Yellow pages
                              Heritage            The journey in palace on wheels,
                                                   the coaches of which are the saloons
                                                   of former Maharajas.

     Brand Loyalty:-

    It can be considered as conscious or unconscious decision of consumers that
    is reflected in his expressed intent or behavior to purchase and repurchase it
    on a continuous basis.

     Consumer loyalty towards a brand can be attributed to his perception about
    the brand that it provides the right mix of features and quality.

Behavioral scientists argue that brand loyalty occurs because of

Cognitive scientist states that brand loyalty is a problem solving behavior. It
is aspects of marketers.

Brand loyalty has been proclaimed by some to be the ultimate goal of
marketing. In marketing, brand loyalty consists of a consumer's commitment
to repurchase the brand and can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a
product or service or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth

True brand loyalty implies that the consumer is willing, at least on occasion,
to put aside their own desires in the interest of the brand.

Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however. Customers may
repurchase a brand due to situational constraints, a lack of viable
alternatives, or out of convenience.

Such loyalty is referred to as "spurious loyalty".

True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high relative attitude
toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior.

This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm: customers are willing to
pay higher prices, they may cost less to serve, and can bring new customers
to the firm.

For example, if Joe has brand loyalty to Company A he will purchase
Company A's products even if Company B's are cheaper and/or of a higher
quality. Philip Kotler, again, defines four patterns of behavior:

Hard Core Loyal - who buy the brand all the time.

Soft Core Loyal - loyal to two or three brands.

Shifting Loyal - moving from one brand to another.

Switchers - with no loyalty they are switching their
brand constantly.


A unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what a
brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes.

The sum of all tangible & intangible traits. It represents all internal &
external characteristics.

It's anything & everything that influences how brand or a company is
perceived by its target constituencies.

It is the best, single marketable investment a company can make. Ideas,
beliefs, values, culture, name, symbol, packaging, advertising, sales

For example, when you listen to the song of U and I and when you see the
red color you remember the brand Vodafone. That‘s the brand image created
by Vodafone on their customer.

Brand image = the image of a good or service which is formed in the
customer‘s mind

Company image = the valued customers, potential customers, lost
customers and other groups of people connect with the organization

The Importance Of Image:-

         1. Image communicates expectations

         2. Image is a filter influencing perceptions of the performance of
         the firm

         3.   Image is a function of expectations and experiences
         4.   Image has an internal impact on employees

Research on image built through endorsement of celebrities show that there
are three aspects that influence a consumer‘s attitude of a brand.

These are:

   Attractiveness

   Trustworthiness

   Expertise


 I. Contents of Advertisement:-
    The quality of contents i.e. headlines, the color combination, words can give
    indented image to the brand. For example, if cheap humor is used in the ad,
    the brand may get cheap image.

II. Media used:-
   The quality of media or programmes aponsors also affects the brand image.
   For example, Reid and Taylor advertised in business.

III. Price:-
   The price factor can generate image for the brands. For example, the
   premium pricing for        Toyota has developed a rich image not only for
   company but for brand.

IV. Packaging:-
   The package must be properly designed in order to give a rich image to the
   brand as package is the face of the product.

V. Distribution:-

   The type of distribution by a company may affect the image of the brand.
   For example, companies enjoy goodwill in the market can generate
   favorable image for their brands.

                     BRAND TYPES

                            TYPES OF

Premium        Manufacturing           Generic             Economic

 Premium:- Cost more than other product in the category

 Economic:- Targeted to high price elasticity market segment.

 Manufacturing:- It is directly manufactured by manufacturers who
have invested heavily on building them. For example, Surf, Rin, Lux,

 Generic brand:- It is consumer products (often supermarket goods)
are distinguished by the absence of a brand name. Generics brands are

    usually priced below those products sold by supermarkets under their
    own brand (frequently referred to as "store brands" or "own brands").

Generally they imitate these more expensive brands, competing on price.
For example, Rice, wheat, Doormats, paper napkins.

A number of different types of brands are recognized.

A "premium brand" typically costs more than other products in the same
category. These are sometimes referred to as 'top-shelf' products.

An "economy brand" is a brand targeted to a high price elasticity market
segment. They generally position themselves as offering all the same
benefits as a premium product, for an 'economic' price.

A "fighting brand" is a brand created specifically to counter a competitive

When a company's name is used as a product brand name, this is referred to
as corporate branding. When one brand name is used for several related
products, this is referred to as family branding.

When all a company's products are given different brand names, this is
referred to as individual branding. When a company uses the brand equity
associated with an existing brand name to introduce a new product or
product line, this is referred to as "brand extension."

      When large retailers buy products in bulk from manufacturers and put
their own brand name on them, this is called private branding, store brand,
white labelling, private label or own brand (UK).

Private brands can be differentiated from "manufacturers' brands" (also
referred to as "national brands").

When different brands work together to market their products, this is
referred to as "co-branding".

When a company sells the rights to use a brand name to another company
for use on a non-competing product or in another geographical area, this is
referred to as "brand licensing." An "employment brand" is created when a
company wants to build awareness with potential candidates.

In many cases, such as Google, this brand is an integrated extension of their

                        BRAND STRATEGY

Branding in essence is effective brand strategy.

It's the application of sound research into brand communications, analytical
techniques, and the development of an improved strategy for your brand.

Strategy is all about brand positioning. It identifies the key elements of
product brand and develops a branding action plan to implement it.

                                      Line                  the brand
                                      brand                 extension
          BRAND                                           Reaching out
         STRATEGY                    Brand
                                                            to a new
         DECISION                                           category


                                   New brand


In this strategy company introduces additional item in the same product
category in the same brand name.

This item may be different in size, packaging, color and so on. It is available
through different specific mix of trade channels e.g. lower end products are
available at general stores and higher end products.

It offers a variety of products to the customer.
Line extensions can be innovative. It also allows company to command
more shelf-space at the retail level. Line extensions work only if the sales
are taken away from the competitors.

For example, Coke in India means 300 ml. bottles it extended to 500 ml.
and 1 ltr. Then can have introduced.

Godrej had face cream with the name Fair glow fairness cream and came out
with the fair glow toilet soap to cater the people who wished to use soap bar
rather than cream.


Extending brand name is extended to a product being launched in a new
product category.

If new product is not satisfactory in performance, it might affect the
reputation of the company‘s other products.

Most of the times, brand name may not be appropriate for the new product
category. Brand extension advisable to see how the associations of the
parent brand are consistent with the extended brand.

For example, Bajaj is a brand name in the field of Scooters. The company
used the same brand name for Electronics appliances, Motor cycles,

    1. Extending the brand:- Colgate is available in both toothpaste and
    toothpowder. Similarly Vim bar extended to the powder.

    2. Product line extension: - additional product is added under same
    brand name. For example, HLL extended its Flora brand of Sunflower
    oil to the gingelly oil segment of the edible oil category.

    3. Reaching out to the new category: - when the brand has potential of
    providing benefit in another category either through chosen brand name
    or through its wide acceptance in a category, this form of extension is


It is the process of launching the brand after certain time gap. Companies try
to acquire a brand from other companies and relaunch it with necessary

For example, Glaxosmithline acquired Viva a Maltova from Jagatjit
industries in 2000, but could not secure the expected benefit.

HLL acquired Kwality ice cream in the mid- nineties it as Kwality Walls.


This kind of strategy is employed to saturate the market. Additional brands
are introduced to cater to the different segment.

Multibrands strategy may not allow company to focus on company‘s
resources. Because of this profitability get affected.

Competitors brand get affected by the product and sometime own brand also
get affected. For example, P&G‘s tide is for solied clothes and dreft is for
gentle clothes. P&G products nine different brands of detergent.

Coco- Cola came with Thumps Up, Gold spot, Limca brands.


To make brand name more appropriate, a company puts a new brand name
when it enters a new product category.

A new brand again has to be built up, and this is quite expensive. It should
be considered whether the sales and profit estimated from the new brand.

For example, Manikchand entered the mineral water segment with the
brand name Oxyrich.

Using same brand hamper the sale of mineral water. When Manikchand atta
were launched, it did not succeed in the market.


 Brand Awareness:-

  Brand awareness is the starting point in the development of brand equity. It
  represents the consumer's ability to recall a brand name when given a
  product category (Aaker, 1991).

  For example, when a person is asked to name a brand of basketball shoes,
  they are more likely to mention Nike, Reebok, Converse or Adidas than they
  are to name LA Gear or Spalding.

  According to Keller (1998), brand awareness is important to brand strategy
  for two reasons.

  First, awareness of the brand ensures the brand enters the consumer's
  consideration set when looking to make a purchase.

  Second, brand awareness can affect choices within the consideration set. If
  one brand has a larger presence through advertising, it may be considered
  more favorably.

  Third, awareness can impact the development and salience of associations
  with the brand.

For example, when anyone says, about Computer Company you remember
about IBM. When anyone says, about detergent u remember
popular brand like Tide, Surf, Airel and so on.

 Perceiver Quality:-

Perceived quality represents a consumer's judgments of a product's overall
excellence relative to its intended purpose.

For example, given its rich heritage with the sport of football Adidas is
commonly perceived to produce a high-quality football shoes.

Because it has been shown to drive financial performance (return-on-
investment), perceived quality is often the focal point of corporate strategy.
Besides the actual make-up of the product, pricing strategies may impact a
consumer's perception of quality.

Therefore, in athletic footwear, as in many other industries, higher price may
connote higher quality.

 Slogan:-

For example, Maggi noodles, it positioned their products as healthy fast
food with the slogan 2 minute noodles.

Slogan based on 2 minutes it help mother with promise of ‗food to cook and
great to eat’.

This slogan specifies u can prepare food within 2 minute and it will not harm
to your health.

 Brand association:-

It is associate brand with certain tangible and intangible attributes, a
celebrity endorser or a visual symbol.

Most of this association are derived from brand identity
and brand image.

Each organization has to carve a brand identity and
develop it further to build strong brands.

 Logo and symbol:-

Along with the brand name, companies also use a logo for visual
A logo is pictorial symbol indented to communicate with the consumers.
Flags, pictures, graphical designs and alphabets are all used as logos.

It is the piece of creativity. Logo is a relatively permanent entity for a

For example, logo of the Aditya Birla group of companies in India
is a Rising Sun. according to the company, the logo represent the
company‘s outlook, which is positive thinking and also a stress on
values such as interity, quality, and performances.

 Characters:-

Brand characters typically are introduced through advertising and can play a
central role in these and subsequent ad campaigns.

Brand characters come in many different forms. Some brand characters are
animated where as others are live-action figures.

Consequently brand characters can be quite useful for creating brand

Characters often must be updated over time so that their image and
personality remains relevant to the target market.

For example, An Asian paint is another that has created a wining logo.
When you look for Asian paints, you catch sight of Gattu- the impish little
boy with a paintbrush in one hand a dripping can of paints in the other.

In many towns of North India, buyer asks for Asian Paints, by asking for the
―bacha chaap paint‖.

                                CASE STUDY

Company Name: - Proctor and Gamble
"Our brand is our bond with consumers.

When we succeed, we convert a trademark into a trust mark, and another
P&G brand becomes a valued and trusted member of the household."

John Lafley, President & CEO, P&G.

Background Note:-
Proctor and Gamble was established in 1937. William Proctor and James
Gambled started a small business and set up their business in Cincinnati.

A pioneer in introducing a formalized brand management system way back
in the 1930s, P&G constantly modified its brand management strategies as
and when the company expanded its product & brand portfolio and its
business operations globally.

Based in Cincinnati, US, Procter & Gamble (P&G) was one of the largest
manufacturers of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in the world.

In 2003, the company was ranked 31st among the Fortune 500 companies.
P&G had operations in 80 countries globally, with an employee-strength of
around 1, 10,000 worldwide.

The company introduced the category management model in the 1980s,
focused on the 'glocal' branding strategy in the early 1990s and made
changes in its brand management system under the Organization 2005
restructuring exercise in the late 1990s.

In 2000, P&G introduced the 'cohort management strategy' for managing
brands. The strategy involved grouping of brands to appeal to similar
consumer groups.

P&G encouraged the promotion of rival brands within the company to
against one another.

They comprised full color print ads in national magazines.

P&G’s Competitive Advantage in Branding:-

P&G‘s core strength is its ability to build big leadership brands. The
company‘s goal is to continue to doing that better and more consistency that
any other company in the world. There are three factors on which P&G‘S
success based upon these are:-

     a. Understanding consumer needs: - P&G talks more than 5.5
     million consumers worldwide everywhere.

     The companies use a variety of approach, from in-home visits to
     concepts and product testing via the internet. In this way they discover
     new customer needs.

     b. Inventing new product technology: - P&G call ―connecting what‘s
     needed with what‘s possible‖.

     The company has more than 27,000 patented technologies and they can
     simply find the more number of innovative way to turn its best ideas
     into improved products that meet consumer needs better.

     c. Commercializing and expanding new products globally: - P&G
     marketing and distributing partnership, the company can introduce big,
     new ideas faster than ever before.

      These capabilities have helped it win consumers around the world.

The global branding strategy:-

P&G was known as the ―one page memo company‖.

The brand manager of P&G were asked to offer their ideas, suggestion,
business plan in just one page.

The plan was communicated to respective functional unit heads and the top
management, who reviewed the document and returned it back for necessary

This process continued until the memo was finally accepted.
By the end of 1990, P&G had established global strategic planning groups
(GSPG) that constituted of 3 to 20 individuals, for each of its product
categories. Each GSPG was assigned several tasks.

They develop global manufacturing & sourcing strategic and gathered data
about the country specific marketing strategies.

The GSPG were also responsible to developing global and local brand policy
that involved decision making on the element of brand strategy that had to
be standardized across the world.

GSPG were responsible for developing brand strategies, the implementation
of these strategies was carried out by a global category team (GCT) each of
the product of P&G was handled by GCT which was headed by an executive
vice president.

The GCT constituted the top management executive handling different line
of   responsibilities   like   production,   marketing,   and   research   and
development. The country specific brand management implemented the
branding strategy in local market.

P&G encouraged branding team at the country level to develop their own
brand building program. When branding program was highly successful in
the country, it was tested in the other market also.


The 'glass and a half', corporate purple and flowing script has become
synonymous with Cadbury.

Cadburys use a line extension brand strategy. Line extension is a strategy in
which companies is introducing their new products in the same product

Cadbury came with the many chocolate like Dairy milk, 5star, gems, Perk,
Temptation and one of the snacks is Bytes.

In the early 90's, chocolates were seen as 'meant for kids', usually a reward
or a bribe for children. In the Mid 90's the category was re-defined by the
very popular `Real Taste of Life' campaign, shifting the focus from `just for
kids' to the `kid in all of us'. It appealed to the child in every adult.

And Cadbury Dairy Milk became the perfect expression of 'spontaneity' and
'shared good feelings'.

In the late 90's, to further expand the category, the focus shifted towards
widening chocolate consumption amongst the masses, through the
'Khanewalon Ko Khane Ka Bahana Chahiye' campaign.

This campaign built social acceptance for chocolate consumption amongst
adults, by showcasing collective and shared moments.

More recently, the 'Kuch Meetha Ho Jaaye' campaign associated Cadbury
Dairy Milk with celebratory occasions and the phrase "Pappu Pass Ho
Gaya" became part of street language.

It has been adopted by consumers and today is used extensively to express
joy in a moment of achievement / success.

The interactive campaign for "Pappu Pass Ho Gaya" bagged a Bronze Lion
at the prestigious Cannes Advertising Festival 2006 for 'Best use of internet
and new media'.

The idea involved a tie-up with Reliance India Mobile service and allowed
students to check their exam results using their mobile service and
encouraged those who passed their examinations to celebrate with Cadbury
Dairy Milk.

The 'Pappu Pass Ho Gaya' campaign also went on to win Silver for The
Best Integrated Marketing Campaign and Gold in the Consumer Products
category at the EFFIES 2006 (global benchmark for effective advertising
campaigns) awards.

Every time they are coming with the some new advertisement and in every
advertisement are giving new reason to buy dairy milk.

About their cost strategy, from so many years their price has not changed
only they are launching new products under the same brand name Cadbury.

Cadbury Dairy Milk

Cadbury dominates the chocolate market in India with a 70% share of the

Cadbury Dairy Milk is its largest chocolate brand
which accounts for a third of every chocolate bar

The Task:

In 2005 the task before Cadbury Dairy Milk was to increase its consumer

The Strategy:

      The task was to get the youth audience to adopt Cadbury Dairy Milk
       in the sweet eating or " muh meetha karna" moments
      The campaign of " Jab Pappu Pass Ho jaye, Kuch Meetha Ho jaye"
       captured the thought of celebrating a moment of delight with Dairy
      A campaign was built around the idea of
       how "pappu" celebrated passing his exams
       with Dairy Milk.

The Media:

      A multi-media campaign was launched on TV, Internet, Radio and
      The key was how do own the moment of " pappu passing his exams"
       in the media space.

The Results:
The activity contacted 20 MN students across
the country and was awarded a Bronze Lion at
the Cannes Media awards in 2005.

Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy

Market Background:

Cadbury is the market leader in the chocolates category, with Cadbury 5 Star
being its second largest brand.

Cadbury 5 Star which is unique bar of nougat and caramel enrobed in
Cadbury Dairy Milk Chocolate provides one of the most distinctive and
involving chocolate eat experiences.

However in recent years the Cadbury 5 Star franchise was in decline.

The brand was under threat from other more offerings in the market.

The Brand
Cadbury 5 Star needed to introduce an element of surprise in its eat
experience to gain share among lapsed consumers.

To do this the variant Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy was launched- which still had
the richness of caramel, cheeriness of nougat but also contained rice crispies.

The Strategy
The campaign was built around the proposition of an
―unexpected surprise" which had a surprise in every
bit. This was creatively expressed as ―Naya Five Star
Crunchy... Ab har bite main Arrey!"

The campaign targeted at youth was executed in a lighthearted vein built
around a boy-girl relationship.

In order to engage youth the campaign was executed across TV, radio,
internet, outdoor and print media.


Private branding has become a successful marketing strategy in the retail

The main advantages of a private branding strategy are enhanced loyalty to
retail outlets, increased chain profitability, better control over shelf-space,
and improved bargaining power over manufacturers.

Although some of these advantages are potentially relevant to businesses in
the service sector, private branding has not yet become a recognized
component of service quality.

The aim of the present study is to analyze the potential contribution of
private branding to the service sector by:

    examining the capabilities of private branding as a strategic device;
    describing the role of private branding in improving service quality;
    integrating a private branding strategy into the SERVQUAL model.

For example:-

Role of private branding in improving healthcare service quality

Improving service quality in the healthcare sector in accordance with the
five dimensions of SERVQUAL involves attention to the following matters:

(1) Reliability dimension: patient scheduling; accuracy of diagnoses by

(2) Responsiveness dimension: accessibility to medical staff, nurses, and
secretaries; waiting times; attentiveness by medical staff and managers to
clients problems and requests.

(3) Assurance dimension: professional knowledge, skills, and reputations of
medical staff and managers.

(4) Empathy dimension: willingness to listen to customers‘ needs; patience.

(5) Tangibles dimension: aesthetic qualities of waiting rooms; general
―atmosphere‖; medical equipment and instrumentation; auxiliary items (such
as information leaflets).

                   PRIMARY DATA

1. What factors one must consider before branding?
    Geographic, socigraphic, demographic, psychographic, and
      specific customer factors by segmentation can be used.

2. What are strength and weaknesses related to brands?
    See , it depends on the brand ,the name, the logo, companies
      name, goodwill, etc.

    If the brand is true to what it stands for, I think that strength
      and vice-versa is the weaknesses.

3. From your point of view what is an ideal brand?
    Something which emotionally connects to consumer.

4. What is brand positioning?
    A brand which is distant and valued in the minds of the

    To customize as per needs and wants of the customers such
      it fits into their mind.

5. What role branding plays in today‘s scenario?

      Due to globalization there are numerous players in today‘
        scenario and so I think branding plays a vital role with
        respect to making brand distant from those of competitors.

      Also it tangibalises the intangibleness of the product.
  6.What is your core branding strategy?

      I am extremely sorry due to official reasons I will not be
        able to disclose it.

      But I can say in general that we focus on customers.

  7.What are the essential inputs in brand management?
      The most important input for branding is the product itself.

      You cannot use a specific branding strategy or any standard
        strategy for all products.

      Thus it is the product that matters a lot.

8. Finally why brand management is vital in today‘s world?

      As I told you why branding is vital in today‘s scenario I
        think in the same way brand management plays a significant
        role in today‘s scenario.

 It plays a strategic role in today‘s scenario and not just
 Finally, proper brand management will lead to brand loyalty.


 Brand management play vital role for any company weather it is services
or product industry. It differ one company‘s product to other and it create
value for the customer.

 Cadbury Dairy Milk emerged as the No. 1 most trusted brand in Mumbai
for the 2005 edition of Brand Equity's Most Trusted Brands survey.

 Quality is the dominating aspect which influences consumer to purchase
the product. In the 90‘s Cadbury face many problems but they cope with the
problem and now they are the leaders in the market. Cadbury is having
maximum market share compare to other brand.

 The Cadbury brand has proven itself to be a leader in a highly volatile and
competitive market because it has successfully established, nurtured and
developed its brand and growing portfolio of products.







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