Smart cars

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					SMART CARS
            Introduction
Digital cars like smart cars use a vision
 system to detect other vehicles,
 respond to traffic signals, and avoid
 pedestrians and obstacles. This also includes
 information on road and weather conditions, route
directions, vehicle diagnostics,
anti-collision warnings, the
 driver's physiological status, etc.
 What are the features of digital cars ?
They can see, hear, feel, smell, talk and act.
They can eliminate most car accidents.
They can alert the police and
 provide precise location if stolen.
They can monitor one’s driving
and the driving condition nearby.
They can alert the driver who
feels drowsy.
They can locate your car precisely
and warn of traffic jams.
Technologies related to Digital cars
     Technologies related to Digital cars and modern
    technologies to improve safety. These technologies
    are broken down into four broad, distinct
    classifications of devices:-

   Pre-collision System for Safety
   Adaptive cruise control
   Imaging
   Navigational aids
Pre-Collision System for Safety




Various systems combines an eye tracker, which
checks where the driver is looking, and
differential global positioning system, which
is designed to allow the system to keep track
of its location both on the planet and in
relation to other similarly equipped vehicles.
   Pre-Collision System for Safety
Knowing what you're about to collide with before you even see
 it is definitely digital.

  Pre-Collision Systems detect rapidly approaching
  objects ahead, such as deer or stopped cars, via
  cameras, lasers or infrared sensors. Warning lights
  and alarms alert you to an impending collision. The
  car's onboard computer adjusts the brakes to provide
  intense stopping power with just a little pressure
  applied by your foot. Seatbelts may automatically
  tighten, headrests move forward to protect against
  whiplash and seats adjust to an upright position.
        Adaptive Cruise Control



Adaptive cruise control is a new concept that is being
explored by many automakers and researchers for the
Intelligent Vehicles Initiative. These systems seek to allow
a car to not only maintain its speed, like traditional
cruise control, but also its distance from cars in front of
it. A perfect example is the system being developed for the
Jaguar line of cars. To use it, the driver simply enters a
speed and a distance (in seconds) to keep between themselves
and the car in front of them.
A competing adaptive cruise control concept, called the
Platoon system, is also being developed by the University
of California. Two kinds of sensors were responsible for
keeping the vehicles bearings- 9 sensors monitored speed
and engine performance, while actuators controlled the
throttle and brakes. An antenna mounted on each car allowed
it to communicate with the front few vehicles.
           Imaging Technology


Another area of study is how to enhance the vision of humans
in situations where they may not be able to see very clearly.
Few companies are testing a concept similar to that used in
Night Vision Goggles, where sensors process differences
between roadside temperatures and those of objects ahead. The
sensors send this information to a central computer, which
converts the information and uses it to put together images of
the surrounding roadside that are updated several times a
second; this processed composite image then shows up on a
screen built into the dashboard.
      Imaging Technology
 A high-tech feature, auto valet, uses
satellite images to guide you into parking
spaces -- even tight parallel spots. Once you
enable the electric power steering, just sit
back: The car uses sensors to detect objects
around it and powers the car to pull smoothly
into your chosen space. No hands, literally
         Navigational Aids


It will be integrated within a communicating navigation unit
that automatically tracks the actual location of the car and
can reveal it if necessary. So far, such systems have been used
to track stolen cars and calculate traffic flows. The latter
option is still rather unpopular. From the driver's point of
view, a communicating navigation system is convenient because
it dynamically chooses the best route by tracking the actual
location of the car.
In other words, instead of theoretically suggesting the best
way from point A to point B, the system constantly gets
information about road conditions and traffic jams and uses it
to suggest the most practical way from the car's current
position to its destination. With the help of Internet-based
services, the navigation system can also tell the driver about
free parking lots or the cheapest nearby gas station. And for
safety reasons, such systems will announce this information
through speakers instead of showing it on a display
Other Features Involved In “DIGITAL”
Cars
    SMART VISION:-




Digital cars use a vision system to detect other vehicles, respond
to traffic signals, and avoid pedestrians and obstacles.
Researchers at DaimlerChrysler Research (Ulm, Germany) have built a
smart-vehicle-theory demonstrator called the Urban Traffic
Assistant (UTA). The DaimlerChrysler research team has
demonstrated that by using a multitude of algorithms it can
maintain separation from the vehicle ahead, see and respond to
traffic signals, and avoid pedestrians and obstacles while moving
through urban traffic situations at normal driving speeds under the
supervision of a human driver.
  New Safety Features


While this is a concept that has yet to be developed, special scanners
in a car can already locate the position of passengers and their heads
(using rather rough biometric patterns) and optimize the use of
airbags. The lifesavers go off only if it is really necessary, because
the new mechanism recognizes when passengers are at risk of a
collision. Unnecessary, expensive airbag activation is avoided without
reducing passenger safety. Other sensors check tire pressure or the
distance to the next car and warn the driver or react with a slight
automatic reduction of speed. Such intelligent safety features can
reduce the number of accidents and injuries.
 Multifunctional Smart Card Car Keys

The idea that a personal smart card
could replace your car keys is not
futuristic. Mercedes CL owners can
already open their car with a contact
less smart card developed by Siemens.
The motor starts after pushing a little
ignition button, but only if the card is
inside the vehicle. Without it, no hairpin or fake key can
help a thief start the car. The system also prevents
drivers from locking the car with the card inside, making
it impossible to lock oneself out.
       What does the card do!
The card you punched carries
your SSN , so it acts as
your

      Access Card
      DL
      Car customizer
      Insurance
      Cell Phone divert
      Personalized ATM
Hands Off Communication
 Hardware Architecture:-



A pair of video cameras serves as the eyes for the
vehicle. The cameras are mounted on a horizontal bar near
the rear-view mirror. The horizontal scan lines of both
cameras must be tightly aligned and strictly parallel to
the line joining their optical axes.
The UTA uses an Imaging Technology Inc. IMPCI frame
grabber and a commercial monitor with 1024 x 786-pixel
Information from a car may be provided through data
servers, which are in turn connected to a centralized
computer which gets all the information about the vehicle.
By using this kind of loop, any urgent information or
direction can be provided to the vehicle using wireless,
and a tragedy can be avoided
 Volvo’s “SCC”:
One of the more interesting concept cars to appear lately is
Volvos Safety Concept Car (SCC). The hallmark of the SCC is
“superior vision” – that is, improving the sightlines for
the driver and providing more visual information.
Active rear view mirrors:-
Sensors in rear of the car alert the
driver when a car is in driver’s
“blindspot”.
Rearward-facing cameras:-
To enhance rear visibility
further the Volvo SSC has several
rear facing cameras mounted in
the back the car. Images are
displayed on a video monitor in
the instrument panel.
Adaptive headlights:-
The headlights monitor the
 car’s road speed and steering
 wheel movements and adjust
 accordingly

Night vision:-
Volvo proposes using infrared
 night vision in the SSC

Collision warning sensors:-
If the distance to the car in
front is too short, or the gap
is closing too fast, the SSC’s
driver is alerted via a red
warning light
               Challenges
• Stimulative policy is the most powerful
  promotion.

• So many people don’t convert their
  conceptions to accept digital cars.

• The traffic problems may became more and more
  serious, such as occupation of lanes.
               Challenges

• It may cause park shortage.

• In-vehicle systems throw people back on high-
  tech.

• Because of the challenges of combining
  intelligent highways with the existing highway
  system, fully automated vehicle operation is
  still some years away
Future Evolution Of Digital
Cars
   Capabilities of Individual In-Vehicle
     Systems Will Improve

   Driver-Vehicle Interface Will Become
     Increasingly Sophisticated

   Intelligent Vehicles Will Communicate With
     Other Vehicles and With a Smart Infrastructure
           Artificial Intelligence
Digital car is a kind of artificial intelligence.
Nowadays, it has applied in every aspect.

Human beings work with assistance of robot to save
time.

We can also make use of artificial intelligence to
provide entertainment and allow the car's occupants to
conduct business and monitor activities at home and in
the office.
What do I drive?
Thank U