Objectives

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					     Objective Structured Practical
             Examination
                (OSPE)

Sandeep Kaushal
Associate Professor,
Department of Pharmacology,

Dayanand Medical College & Hospital,
Ludhiana, Punjab.
Objectives

At the end of the session, the participants must
  be able to understand the
 Purpose
 Criteria
 Steps for preparing question check list
    Content

   Introduction

   Components of OSPE

   Formulation of OSPE

 Group task
OSPE

Instrument to assess skills in laboratory

    (practical) exercises.
 OSPE

Adaptation of OSCE

(Objective Structured Clinical Examination)

  •    Experiment performed

  •    Controlled manner

  •    No interaction with examiner
Criteria


  Uniform for all candidates

  Assessment of all objectives


  Score  importance
 Formulating OSPE exercise-1


Considerations before conducting sessions
     Objective
     Language
     Standardization
      - Steps to be evaluated (number & content)
      - Time required to answer
Formulating OSPE exercise-2

 Assessment of
  • Theoretical concept
  • Psychomotor skill
  • Observation
  • Interpretation
Formulating OSPE exercise-3

 Supplementation of question with
      Graph             Diagram

      Chart             Table

      Specimen         Animal

      Normal subject    Patient
Formulating OSPE exercise-4

 Predetermined checklist
     • Material required
     • Instructions to technical staff
     • Key containing
         - model answers
         - marks distribution
     • Steps to be evaluated
     Check list

1.    Steps in sequence
2.    Break into small steps
3.    Outcome INDEPENDENT of previous steps
4.    Marks  importance
5.    Validation by test runs
      (PG residents/Junior teachers/Self)
6.    Open to suggestions
     Steps: Practice Session

1.   Brief the students/ evaluators.
2.   Distribute sheet containing OSPE to
     - Students: Roll no, Time, Max. score
     - Evaluators: Check list, Max. score, Roll no
3.   No. of evaluators per station = 2.
4.   No. of students per station = 1.
5.   Move in one direction (ring of bell)
     Instructions for students

1.    Display Roll no prominently.
2.    Number of stations = n
3.    Proceed in one direction
4.    Time allotted = „t‟ min (each station)
5.    Start & end of time (ring of bell)
6.    Clear instructions given at each station
7.    No interaction with examiners
8.    No negative marking
Examples

   Spotting
   Rabbit eye
   Rothera‟s test
   Guinea pig ileum
   RBC count
   PBF examination
   Urine for sugar
  Spotting-1

Objective :
 To test theoretical concept about
  1. Iatrogenic problem with use of Drug A
  2. Emergency use of Drug B
  3. Site of action of Drug C
  4. Major contraindication to the use of Drug D
  5. Transport of substance affected by Drug E
  Spotting-2

Question :
  1. Name one MAJOR iatrogenic problem
      produced by the use of this drug [Drug A]
  2. Name the MOST IMPORTANT emergency
      use of this specific PREPARATION [Drug B]
  3. Name one MAJOR enzyme inhibited by this
      drug [Drug C]
  4. Name one MAJOR contraindication for the
      use of this drug [Drug D]
  5. The transport of which substance is affected
      by this drug [Drug E]
 Spotting-3

Requirements :
  Question
    Well phrased, validated, unambiguous
     Clearly typed, Font 40+, Laminated/ Fresh
  Drug
    A. Halothane                D. Primaquin
    B. Diazepam                 E. Lansoprazole
    C. Acarbose
  Stop watch
  Bell
  Numbered answer sheet
 Spotting-4

Steps :
  1.   Instructions to laboratory staff
  2.   Arrange questions in a sequence
  3.   One spot per seat
  4.   Supplement with suitable sample
  5.   Appoint a time keeper
  6.   Instructions to students
  7.   Key for the examiner
 Spotting-5

Instructions to students:
  1.   Prominently display roll no.
  2.   Number of stations = 5
  3.   Proceed in clockwise manner
  4.   Time allotted = „1‟ min (each station)
  5.   Start & end of time (ring of bell)
  6.   Clear instructions at each station
  7.   Write answers on the sheet provided
  8.   No negative marking
  Spotting-6

Instructions to laboratory staff/assistant:
  1.   Check stop-watch, bell
  2.   Number of stations = 5
  3.   Place questions with spots as per list
  4.   Students to proceed clockwise
  5.   Time allotted = „1‟ min exactly (each station)
  6.   Start & end of time (ring of bell)
  7.   No talking/ gestures allowed
 Spotting-7

Key for Examiner:
Total spots = 5     Max. Marks = 5 (1 per spot)
Spot              Answer
   1.   Malignant hyperthermia
   2.   Status epilepticus
   3.   -glucosidase
   4.   G-6-P deficiency
   5.   Protons
     Spotting-8

Evaluation sheet for Examiner:
Total spots = 5 Max. Marks = 5 (1 per spot) Roll No
Spot Answer                             1 2 3 4
1.  Malignant hyperthermia             Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N
2.  Status epilepticus                 Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N
3.  -glucosidase                      Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N
4.  G-6-P deficiency                   Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N
5.  Protons                            Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N
                       TOTAL MARKS
    Spotting-9

                 Answer sheet
Roll No:…………   Max. Marks:5 (1 per spot)   Time:5min
Spot Answer
1

2

3

4

5
    Calculation-1

Objective :
To test calculation skill of the candidate

Question:
Calculate the amount of potassium permanganate
   required to prepare 50 ml of 2% potassium
   permanganate.
 Calculation-2

Calculation:
2% means 20 mg/ ml solution
[1 %  10 mg/ ml]
 Hence 50 ml of 2 % solution requires solute=
                               50 ml *20 mg/ ml
                                       =1000 mg
Calculation-3


Answer:



 1000 mg of potassium permanganate
  Inference-1

Objective :
To test inferential skill of the candidate based on
 experimental data
     Inference-2

  Question:
  Comment on the nature of ocular preparation based on the
    following observational data obtained by its use in the
    right eye of rabbit.
Time     Pupil     Light reflex conjunctival    corneal
[Min] size [mm]                  blood vessel reflex
0        5            +         No change      +
5        6            +         No change      +
10       7            +         No change      +
20       9            -         No change      +
 Inference-3



Answer:
          Mydriatic with cycloplegia

           [Anti-muscarinic drug]
     OSPE - Advantages

1.   Minimum bias
2.   Uniform level of assessment
3.   Large number of skills can be assessed objectively
4.   Wider sampling-most topics can be covered
4.   Reliable method of testing
5.   Tailor made assessment of skills as per importance
6.   Minimum subjectivity
7.   Recall bias minimised
     OSPE - Disadvantages


1.   Standard time duration for all- can‟t be /
2.   Requires planning
3.   Requires validation
4.   Requires team work
OSPE


       Examinee




       Examiner
OSPE



       “End result is not important
          but methodology is.”
Thanks